• 21 years of research for the twenty-first century: revisiting the journal of environmental policy and planning

      Ellis, Geraint; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.; Metze, Tamara; Wu, Xun; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-10)
    • Accumulation of toxic elements in soil and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) through fertilizer application

      Sulaiman, Mohsin; Purayil, Fayas Thayale; Krishankumar, Sonu; Kurup, Shyam S.; Pessarakli, Mohammad; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-05)
      Dates are the staple food for Arabs as well as the major export crop in the Middle East. In this work, we analyzed the concentration of toxic elements in commonly used fertilizers and evaluated metal accumulation in soil and date palm. Different types of fertilizers randomly selected from fertilizer dealers in the UAE were investigated for their toxic metals. Soil and plant samples collected from continuously fertilized date plantations were analyzed. Sandy loam soil (0–30 cm) samples were collected from date palm plantations continuously fertilized for more than 10 years (11 samples) and unfertilized date palm plantations (11 samples). A significant increase in chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) was observed in the leaves of the fertilized date palms, whereas, in date palm fruits, the concentration of copper (Cu) was higher. A distinct correlation was observed between the total and the available metal concentrations in the soil for Cd and Cu. The average concentrations of toxic metals, however, remained within the limits of those used worldwide. It is important to encourage manufacturers to indicate the concentrations of toxic elements on the fertilizer labels due to environmental and health implications. © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
    • Acorn Processing and Pottery Use in the Upper Great Lakes: An Experimental Comparison of Stone Boiling and Ceramic Technology

      Hanson, Kelsey E.; Bryant, Paula L.; Painter, Autumn M.; Skibo, James M.; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (Informa UK Limited, 2019-07-27)
      The adoption of pottery in the Upper Great Lakes region occurs quite late compared to the greater Eastern Woodlands. Recent organic residue analyses suggest that the earliest pottery in the Upper Great Lakes region was likely used to process acorns. Through experimental means using temperature as a proxy, this paper evaluates the efficacy of leaching tannins from acorns by comparing two regionally available cooking technologies: stone boiling versus simmering in a ceramic vessel. Our results indicate that tannins can be more effectively leached at simmering temperatures like those provided by ceramic vessels. At boiling temperatures, tannins are irreversibly bound to the acorn starches, rendering the nutmeat inedible in further processing. While there are a number of reasons to adopt and use pottery, it appears that processing acorns may be another important addition to this growing list.
    • Addressing A Mental Health Intervention Gap in Juvenile Detention: A Pilot Study

      Duchschere, Jennifer E.; Reznik, Samantha J.; Shanholtz, Caroline E.; O’Hara, Karey L.; Gerson, Nadav; Beck, Connie J.; Lawrence, Erika; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-04-20)
      Research suggests that 60–70% of adolescents detained in the juvenile justice system meet criteria for a mental health disorder compared to 20% of the general adolescent population; however, the vast majority do not receive services. Unfortunately, mental health symptoms often worsen during detainment, and detainment is linked to lower levels of educational attainment and increased risk of adult recidivism. Thus, not only are these adolescents unlikely to receive needed mental health care but also the lack of interventions in detention may exacerbate inequities of contact with the criminal justice system in adulthood. In addition to these youth being an underserved population broadly, youth of color are also disproportionately incarcerated compared to their white counterparts. The current paper describes results of a pilot study of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-based behavioral skills intervention, aimed at providing evidence-based mental health treatment for anadolescent population at risk of long-term adverse mental health outcomes. The study included 128 males aged 14–17 who resided in juvenile detention. Results demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable to participants, feasible to provide in detention, and could be implemented with fidelity and competency. Intervention participants demonstrated declines in symptoms of mental health, and ACT-specific constructs of experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and perceived barriers to moving toward their values. These results have important implications for the possibility of an effective intervention that could disrupt systemic inequity in youth mental health, and thus support further testing of this intervention in a randomized controlled trial.
    • Agave palmeri restoration: salvage and transplantation of population structure

      Pavliscak, Laura L.; Fehmi, Jeffrey S.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-23)
      Agave palmeri (Palmer's agave) is a long-lived, monocarpic, perennial succulent which provides a critical flower nectar food source for the threatened species, Leptonycteris curasoae (lesser long-nosed bat) among other animals. Agave palmeri flower only once after approximately 25 years. To support the demography needed to have some plants flowering every year, wild populations of A. palmeri must be conserved and mining, construction, and recreational impacts must be mitigated. Collecting, storing, and transplanting wild plants was tested as a potential method for restoring and maintaining A. palmeri populations. In January 2009, 387 wild plants were collected, roughly half the plants were potted in field soil, and the remainder were placed in pots without soil (bare-root) and covered with burlap cloth. During 6-months storage, 1% of plants potted in field soil died while 31% of bare-root plants died. In July 2009, a denuded and scarified field plot was planted with the surviving 277 A. palmeri individuals. Plants received one of three water treatments: a 90-day slow-release gel irrigation supplement, 8 L (2 gal) of water, or no water or gel. Three years after transplanting, survivorship was assessed. The watering treatments had no significant effect on survivorship. The number of green leaves at the time of collection was the most important factor in predicting if the plants lived, died, or survived to flower before dying . Mortality is concentrated in the smallest and largest plants. Transplanting appears to be a viable method of returning diverse size classes of A. palmerito disturbed sites.
    • Anti-human Trafficking Service Professionals in India: Challenges and Barriers to Service Provision

      Helpingstine, Claire E.; Stephens, Dionne P.; Madhivanan, Purnima; Health Promotion Sciences Department, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-05-10)
      Sex trafficking (ST) interventions in India typically follow the “three R’s”–rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration. Anti-human trafficking service organizations (AHTSOs) play an essential role in implementing the “three Rs,” influencing India’s anti-trafficking policy and aid for trafficking survivors. However, few investigations have explored AHTSOs professionals’ perceptions of their roles and the multilevel factors that influence their ability to address the needs of ST survivors in India. Thirteen Indian professionals participated in this study. Through the use of in-depth individual interviews, professionals discussed the challenges and barriers to their work. The findings of the study reflect that number of challenges and barriers faced by professionals when working with ST survivors included societal level factors such as ST stigma, apathy toward learning about ST, issues within the government and justice systems as well as distrust of AHTSOs and mistreatment of ST survivors. The results point to important areas of intervention to prevent the trafficking of girls and women in India, and further highlight the need for additional support for Indian professionals working with these survivors.
    • Archives as Spaces of Radical Hospitality

      Lee, Jamie A.; School of Information, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-19)
      Deploying feminist notions of embodied, relational archival practices, this article critically defines and creatively unites both ‘radical’ and ‘hospitality’ as a tool for enacting generosity in archives. Drawing on the complexities of Derrida’s Of Hospitality (Cultural Memory in the Present) alongside feminist scholarship and, what Cherríe Moraga calls ‘theories of the flesh’, it elucidates the urgent work of imagining archives as spaces of radical hospitality. The article uses embodied knowledges and storytelling as an archival methodology to propose a set of elements of radical hospitality and what it means and does in and for the community archives. It attends to the creative possibilities that acknowledging the relational complexities of the archives, its collections, and its records as integral to establishing socially just and generative spaces for its records creators and its visitors. Radical hospitality becomes not only a possibility but also the lively, animated, and joyous archival body and all of its parts.
    • Childhood and Identity Acquisition in the Late Prehispanic Ónavas Valley, Sonora, Mexico

      García-Moreno, Cristina; Hernández Espinoza, Patricia Olga; Watson, James T.; Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-03)
      Identity acquisition is a lifelong process that begins prior to birth (passive), becomes more active with self-awareness, and continues throughout the enculturation process. We argue that in childhood, as a liminal period of the life course, individuals are subject to a combination of active and passive forces of identity acquisition, largely determined first by family/parental decisions, then by community decisions as part of the enculturation process. We test this idea by reconstructing episodes of identity acquisition across social age categories in a late prehispanic (AD 900–1300) skeletal sample from the site of El Cementerio from north-west Mexico, which represents the central community of a settlement system in the valley of Ónavas, Sonora, Mexico. Artificial cranial modification, dental modification, and the placement of funerary objects reflect intersecting identities and provide clues to social age and identity acquisition within the community.
    • Chronotype and social support among student athletes: impact on depressive symptoms

      Wills, Chloe; Ghani, Sadia; Tubbs, Andrew; Fernandez, Fabian-Xosé; Athey, Amy; Turner, Robert; Robbins, Rebecca; Patterson, Freda; Warlick, Chloe; Alfonso-Miller, Pamela; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-26)
      Previous studies have shown individuals with evening chronotype to have a greater likelihood for depression (self-reported and clinical ratings), especially in young adults. However, the mechanisms for this relationship remain unknown. Low levels of social support may be a plausible mechanism: young adults with evening chronotypes are awake when others are sleeping, which may lead to feelings of isolation or low support. This study examined links between chronotype, depression, and social support in relationship subtypes within a group of university student athletes. Data were obtained from 189 NCAA Division-I student athletes across all sports. Chronotype was assessed with the Circadian Energy Scale and ranged from −2 (definitely morning type) to +2 (definitely evening type). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Social support was assessed with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, which included subscales for Family, Friends, and Significant Other. A subscale for Team was created using the items from the Friends subscale (changing the word “friends” to “teammates”). Regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and minority status. More evening chronotype was associated with higher reported depressive symptoms (p = .018), lower overall perceived social support (p = .001), and lower perceived social support specifically provided by family (p < .0001), friends (p < .0001), and teammates (p = .014). However, more evening chronotype was associated with higher depressive symptoms for higher, but not lower perceived social support from significant other. Moreover, chronotype-by-support interactions on depressive symptoms were observed; the statistical relationship between chronotype and depression was evident only in those with low (but not high) social support from friends and teammates. These data suggest that having a more evening chronotype may be associated with social isolation, and decreased opportunities for interactions with friends and teammates. This may contribute to the long-standing circadian association seen with depression in college student-athletes. Interventions aimed at increasing university support networks may reduce the impact of depression in students self-identifying with later chronotypes and sleep schedules. © 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
    • Community Ecology: Museum Education and the Digital Divide During and After COVID-19

      Zollinger, Rachel; DiCindio, Carissa; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-02)
      This article considers the inequities of digital museum programming during the COVID-19 pandemic and their alignment with audiences historically excluded from access to STEAM learning opportunities, primarily communities with low incomes and people of color. We employ an ecosystem framework to assert the critical role museums can play within communities to address these issues during and after pandemic circumstances. We describe a case study from a STEAM-oriented children’s museum where staff provided out-of-school-time learning through reciprocal and collaborative community partnerships.
    • Conflict Forecasting with Event Data and Spatio-Temporal Graph Convolutional Networks

      Brandt, Patrick T.; D’Orazio, Vito; Khan, Latifur; Li, Yi-Fan; Osorio, Javier; Sianan, Marcus; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-03-14)
      This paper explores three different model components to improve predictive performance over the ViEWS benchmark: a class of neural networks that account for spatial and temporal dependencies; the use of CAMEO-coded event data; and the continuous rank probability score (CRPS), which is a proper scoring metric. We forecast changes in state based violence across Africa at the grid-month level. The results show that spatio-temporal graph convolutional neural network models offer consistent improvements over the benchmark. The CAMEO-coded event data sometimes improve performance, but sometimes decrease performance. Finally, the choice of performance metric, whether it be the mean squared error or a proper metric such as the CRPS, has an impact on model selection. Each of these components–algorithms, measures, and metrics–can improve our forecasts and understanding of violence. En este artículo se exploran tres componentes diferentes del modelo para mejorar el rendimiento predictivo con respecto a la referencia ViEWS: una clase de redes neuronales que tienen en cuenta las dependencias espaciales y temporales, el uso de datos de eventos codificados por CAMEO, y la puntuación de probabilidad de rango continuo (CRPS), que es una métrica de puntuación adecuada. Predecimos los cambios en la violencia estatal en toda África a nivel mensual. Los resultados muestran que los modelos de redes neuronales convolucionales de gráficos espacio-temporales ofrecen mejoras consistentes sobre el punto de referencia. Los datos de eventos codificados por CAMEO a veces mejoran el rendimiento, pero otras veces lo empeoran. Por último, la elección de la métrica de rendimiento, ya sea el error cuadrático medio o una métrica propia como la CRPS, influye en la selección del modelo. Cada uno de estos componentes (algoritmos, medidas y métricas) puede mejorar nuestras previsiones y nuestra comprensión de la violencia. Cet article explore trois composantes de modèles différentes pour améliorer les performances prédictives par rapport à la référence de ViEWS (Violence early-warning system, système d’alerte précoce sur la violence) : une classe de réseaux de neurones qui prennent en compte les dépendances spatiales et temporelles ; l’utilisation de données d’événements codées par CAMEO (Conflict and Mediation Events Observations, Observation des événements de médiation et de conflit) ; et le CRPS (Continuous Rank Probability Score, Score de probabilité de catégories ordonnées de variables continues), qui est une métrique de score propre. Nous effectuons des prédictions des évolutions de la violence étatique en Afrique au niveau grille/mois. Les résultats montrent que les modèles à réseaux convolutifs de neurones graphiques spatiotemporels offrent des améliorations constantes par rapport à la référence. Les données d’événements codées par CAMEO améliorent parfois les performances mais peuvent aussi parfois les réduire. Enfin, le choix de la métrique de performances, qu’il s’agisse de l’erreur quadratique moyenne ou d’une métrique de score propre telle que le CRPS, a un impact sur la sélection du modèle. Chacune de ces composantes - algorithmes, mesures et métriques - peut améliorer nos prévisions et notre compréhension de la violence.
    • Correlates of Compassion for Suffering Social Groups

      Floyd, Kory; Ray, Colter D.; James, Rebecca; Anderson, A. J.; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-06-09)
      This study investigates whether multiple factors correlate positively or inversely with compassion felt toward suffering social groups. Data were collected from 367 participants during April 2020 to investigate hypotheses in the context of three suffering social groups in the United States during that time: the Black American community, the LGBTQ community, and those directly affected by COVID-19. Results showed that compassion toward suffering groups covaries inversely with one’s own ingroup preference. Compassion toward suffering social groups also covaried positively with the extent to which a person identifies with a suffering social group or knows people in a suffering social group. Additionally, loneliness was inversely correlated with compassion for suffering groups. These results suggest that although compassion is an important emotional motivator for engagement in prosocial behaviors that are vital to maintaining relationships, multiple factors can enhance or inhibit it.
    • Cultivating circular economies in the gaps of governance: lessons from Lebanon’s ecosystem of CE micro projects

      Rosenbaum, Rachel Ann; Kehdy, Joslin Faith; School of Anthropology, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-02-25)
      This article explores micro circular economies (CEs) in Lebanon. The researchers asked, “What do CEs that center human health, equity, and well-being into their design look like in practice? What lessons can macro-CE projects and policy learn from such approaches?” Employing a political ecology framework, the authors assess the socio-political conditions through which these CEs emerged to understand the possibilities for mobilising CEs as solutions for conditions of systemic violence and inequality. Analysing common discourses and practices across disparate CE micro projects, this article theorises the main differences between such projects and institutionalised or corporate CEs. This study traces CEs which emerged during the garbage crisis of 2015 and coalesced during the thawra (the 2019–2020 uprisings in Lebanon). The authors analyse the challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned in navigating multifaceted CE projects within these challenging conditions. Through examining circular economy solutions “from below”, we argue that CE projects that are designed to respond to histories of power and inequality have greater potential to advance socio-ecological equality by creating innovative models for resource (re)use and distribution.
    • Cultivating Crisis: Coffee, Smallholder Vulnerability, and the Uneven Sociomaterial Consequences of the Leaf Rust Epidemic in Jamaica

      Rhiney, Kevon; Knudson, Chris; Guido, Zack; Univ Arizona, Arizona Inst Resilience; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-14)
      Since September 2012, the Jamaican coffee industry has been grappling with the coffee leaf rust (CLR) epidemic caused by the fungal pathogen Hemileia vastatrix. The first widespread outbreak affected more than one third of coffee plants across the island, resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenues for the sector. The emergence and spread of the disease have been linked to a confluence of factors ranging from changing climatic conditions to impacts from extreme weather events, improper farm management practices, and institutional and market constraints that restrict control measures. In this article, we use the case of the CLR epidemic to illustrate how its emergence and continued presence in the Jamaican Blue Mountains is inextricably tied to the wider political-economic and ecological conditions under which coffee production takes place and how H. vastatrix's complex pathogenesis makes the disease difficult to control. Drawing on an empirical study comprising household surveys, focus groups, archival research, and interviews, we demonstrate how smallholder farmers' ability to manage rust impacts was severely compromised by ecological pressures, resource constraints, bounded knowledge systems, and market and regulatory limitations.
    • Current Understanding of the Earliest Human Occupations in the Americas: Evaluation of Becerra-Valdivia and Higham (2020)

      Potter, Ben A.; Chatters, James C.; Prentiss, Anna Marie; Fiedel, Stuart J.; Haynes, Gary; Kelly, Robert L.; Kilby, J. David; Lanoë, François; Holland-Lulewicz, Jacob; Miller, D. Shane; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-23)
      Various chronologies of the earliest Native American occupations have been proposed with varying levels of empirical support and conceptual rigor, yet none is widely accepted. A recent survey of pre-Clovis dated sites (Becerra-Valdivia and Higham 2020) concludes a pre-Last Glacial Maximum (>26,500–19,000 cal yr BP) entry of humans in the Americas, in part based on recent work at Chiquihuite Cave, Mexico. We evaluate the evidence used to develop this inference. To provide clarity, we present three explicit dispersal models for the earliest human dispersals to the Americas: Strict Clovis-First (13,050 cal yr BP), Paleoindian (<16,000 cal yr BP), and Pre-Paleoindian (>16,000 cal yr BP, encompassing pre-LGM, preferred by Becerra-Valdivia and Higham (2020)), and we summarize the current genetic and archaeological evidence bearing on each. We regard all purported Pre-Paleoindian sites as equivocal and the Strict Clovis-First model to be equally unsupported at present. We conclude that current data strongly support the Paleoindian Dispersal model, with Native American ancestors expanding into the Americas sometime after 16,000 cal yr BP (and perhaps after 14,800 cal yr BP), consistent with well-dated archaeological sites and with genetic data throughout the western hemisphere. Models of the Americas’ peopling that incorporate Chiquihuite or other claimed Pre-Paleoindian sites remain unsubstantiated.
    • Dear Solomon, dear Prudence: Using student written advice responses to demonstrate and teach theory application

      Brunner, Steven R.; Ruiz, Jeanette B.; Curran, Melissa A.; Family Studies and Human Development, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-06)
      People often seek advice and social support. One approach for seeking advice is by submitting one’s problems/concerns to an advice columnist. More contemporary forms of advice seeking are seen on discussion boards (e.g. Reddit) where individuals ask questions (often anonymously) and gather responses from others. This activity makes use of advice-seeking scenarios so that students better understand and apply interpersonal and health communication theories. Students are guided in the process of providing advice while using course-specific relevant communication theory to craft their responses. In this article, we explain the activity, provide examples of two requests for advice, and include recommendations for assessment. Courses: Interpersonal Communication/Health Communication. Objectives: The goal of this activity is to help students retain and apply communication theories/models by using relatable hypothetical advice-seeking requests. © 2021 National Communication Association.
    • Defining the Relationship: An Examination of Sexual Behaviors and Relational Contexts across Tween, Teen, and Young Adult U.S. Television

      Dajches, Leah; Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-25)
      Although content analytic research has examined casual sexual scripts in television programming, less is known about how the relational context of sexual behaviors is depicted by age. Using a sample of U.S. tween, teen, and young-adult television programs from 2016, we analyzed how relational status varies by type of sexual behavior and presumed age of the target audience. Results show sexual intercourse behaviors are most frequently depicted within the context of a hookup or casual sex interaction, whereas precursory sexual behaviors (flirting, kissing, and touching) are more commonly portrayed in committed relationships. Findings further suggest tween shows exclusively depicted sexual behaviors in the context of committed relationships, hookups are just as frequent in teen shows as they are in young-adult shows, and casual sex relationships are more likely to occur in young-adult shows than in teen shows.
    • Effects of boron on nutrient partitioning, Ca movement, and fruit quality of tomatoes

      Gholamnejad, Somayeh; Haghighi, Maryam; Etemadi, Nematollah; Pessarakli, Mohammad; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-05-09)
      This study was aimed to investigate the effects of boron on Ca movement, yield, and quality of tomatoes. A soilless culture experiment with three levels of B (0, 25, and 50 µM) and three concentrations of Ca (2, 4, and 8 mM) was carried out to grow tomatoes. The results showed that although the application of boron to the sample was more effective in the vegetative growth and the fruit induction, resulting in higher numbers of fruit, the addition of Ca could more effectively enhance the weight and quality of the fruit. With B application, Ca-symplast increased, while pectin methylesterase activity decreased, resulting in less Blossom End Rot indices and more fruit firmness. The Ca-transfer index from apoplast to symplast slightly increased with the B application. Overall, in terms of fruit quality and quantity, the best result was seen in higher Ca application as well as higher B concentrations. Although exogenous boron could help Ca absorption in the root and the shoot, it lowered the Ca transfer from xylem to apoplast and symplast, from shoot to fruit, and from the proximal to distal end of the fruit. Nevertheless, loading 4 and 8 mM of Ca seems to provide enough calcium reserves in fruits to have better quality and yield.
    • Embedding social inclusiveness and appropriateness in engineering assessment of green infrastructure to enhance urban resilience

      Ward, Sarah; Staddon, Chad; de Vito, Laura; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Schoeman, Yolandi; Hart, Aimee; Booth, Giles; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-30)
      Urban resilience emerges not only from ‘what’ is done in relation to critical infrastructure systems, but in the ‘how’ of their conception, co-creation and integration into complex socio-ecological-technical systems. For green infrastructure, where ownership and agency may be distributed amongst organisations and diverse communities, inclusiveness and appropriateness require embedding in engineering assessments of green infrastructure and resilience. Through consideration of past, present and future engineering and resilience assessments – from monetising, through greening, to humanising – this paper examines the ways in which GI may be or has already contributed to enhancing urban resilience and types of assessment and indicators that have been or could be used. We suggest that enhancing visibility of the ‘whos’ (individuals, communities) is crucial to fully diversifying assessments. We also suggest some ideas for additional indicators and assert that co-production of future indicators needs to be undertaken with appropriate professionals (e.g. social impact assessment professionals).
    • The estimand framework and its application in substance use disorder clinical trials: a case study

      Roydhouse, Jessica K.; Floden, Lysbeth; Tomko, Rachel L.; Gray, Kevin M.; Bell, Melanie L.; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-26)
      Relapse rates among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) remain high and new treatment approaches are needed, which require evaluation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Measurement and interpretation challenges for SUD RCT data are often ignored or presented only in statistical analysis plans. Since different analytic approaches may result in different estimates and thus interpretations of the treatment effect, it is important to present this clearly throughout the trial. Inconsistencies between study analyses and objectives present further challenges for interpretation and cross-study comparisons. The recent International Council for Harmonization (ICH) addendum provides standardized language and a common framework for aligning trial objectives, design, conduct, and analysis. The framework focuses on estimands, which describe the treatment effect and link the trial objective with the scientific question and the analytic approach. The use of estimands offers SUD researchers and clinicians the opportunity to explicitly address events that affect measurement and interpretation at the outset of the trial. Furthermore, the use of standard terminology can lead to clearer interpretations of SUD trials and the treatments evaluated in SUD trials. Resources for understanding and applying estimands are needed to optimize the use of this new, helpful framework. This Perspective provides this resource for SUD researchers. Specifically, it highlights the relevance of estimands for SUD trials. Furthermore, it demonstrates how estimands can be used to develop clinically relevant analyses to address challenges in SUD trials. It also shows how a standardized framework can be employed to improve the interpretation and presentation of SUD study findings.