• First remains of the enormous alligatoroid deinosuchus from the upper cretaceous menefee formation, New Mexico

      Mohler, B.F.; McDonald, A.T.; Wolfe, D.G.; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (PeerJ Inc., 2021)
      The neosuchian Deinosuchus is known from numerous localities throughout the Campanian of North America, from New Jersey to Montana (USA) and as far south as Coahuila (Mexico). Here we describe six osteoderms, two vertebrae, and a partial tooth discovered in the Menefee Formation of New Mexico and assign them to Deinosuchus sp., representing one of the earliest occurrences of this genus on the Laramidian subcontinent, and among the earliest known occurrences of this large alligatoroid in all of North America. The osteoderms are morphologically distinct in their inflated construction, with deep and radially distributed pitting, which closely matches osteoderms of Deinosuchus. © Copyright 2021 Mohler et al.
    • Multiple drivers behind mislabeling of fish from artisanal fisheries in La Paz, Mexico

      Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Hudson Weaver, Amy; Domínguez-Contreras, José F.; Peckham, Hoyt; Conservation Genetics Laboratory and Desert Laboratory on Tumamoc Hill, University of Arizona (PeerJ Inc., 2021-01-29)
      Seafood mislabeling has the potential to mask changes in the supply of species due to overfishing, while also preventing consumers from making informed choices about the origin, quality and sustainability of their food. Thus, there is a need to understand mislabeling and analyze the potential causes behind it to propose solutions. We conducted a COI DNA barcoding study in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, with 74 samples from fish markets and 50 samples from restaurants. We identified 38 species sold under 19 commercial names, from which at least ∼80% came from local small-scale fisheries. Overall, 49 samples, representing 40% (95% CI [31.4–48.3]) were considered mislabeled in our samples. Based on analyses where species were assigned to three price categories, economic incentives were associated with approximately half of the mislabeling events observed, suggesting that other motivating factors might simultaneously be at play. Using a network approach to describe both mislabeling (when species are mislabeled as the focal species) and substitution (when the focal species is used as substitute for others), we calculated proxies for the net availability of each species in the market. We found that local fish landings were a significant predictor of the net availability of the 10 most important commercial species at retail, but this true availability was masked to the eyes of the final consumer by both mislabeling and substitution. We hypothesize that the level of supply of each species could help explain mislabeling and substitution rates, where species in low supply and high demand could show higher mislabeling rates and rarely be used as substitutes, while species in high supply and low demand could be used as substitutes for the preferred species. Other factors affecting mislabeling include national regulations that restrict the fishing or commercialization of certain species and local and global campaigns that discourage specific patterns of consumption. We discuss how these factors might influence mislabeling and propose some solutions related to communication and education efforts to this local and global challenge. Copyright 2021 Munguia-Vega et al.