• The achievement ideology of Reading Wonders: a critical content analysis of success and failure in a core reading programme

      Jaeger, Elizabeth L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Teaching Learning & Sociocultural Studies (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-01-02)
      In the early 1960s, researchers began to conduct content analyses of core reading programmes/basal readers. Although these researchers often adopted a critical perspective, and examined the ideological underpinnings of the texts, they failed to make an explicit connection between ideologies and reader access to the text. The study described here is a critical content analysis of texts contained within the core reading programme Reading Wonders. It addresses these research questions: What vision of success and failure is exemplified by selections in the fourth-grade Reading Wonders textbook?-and-To what extent are selections in this programme accessible to readers? Mobilizing MacLeod's notion of achievement ideology, the study explores the contrast between the programme's emphasis on individual success and the inaccessibility of the selections included in it. The analysis demonstrates that the achievement ideology is the foundation for most of the selections. It also shows that the complexity and unengaging quality of the basal reader interferes with the reader's ability to access the included texts. I argue the Reading Wonders textbook serves to convince readers that personal and professional success is the norm in contemporary society, while failing to allow them to construct more than a surface-level meaning of the included selections.
    • Acquisitions or Mergers? International Students’ Satisfaction with Work Availability

      Li, Xiaojie; Lee, Jenny; Univ Arizona
      This study sought to examine international students' satisfaction with work availability while enrolled and the factors that influenced this satisfaction through the acquisitions and mergers framework. The findings indicated that a notable portion of international students might be treated as acquisitions, based on their self-reports of low work availability satisfaction. These students were primarily self-funded, humanities and arts majors, dissatisfied with the affordability of education and living, and felt less equally treated compared to locals.
    • Adults Fail to Learn a Type of Linguistic Pattern that is Readily Learned by Infants

      Gerken, LouAnn; Quam, Carolyn; Goffman, Lisa; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-05-22)
      Beginning with the classic work of Shepard, Hovland, & Jenkins (1961), Type II visual patterns (e.g., exemplars are large white squares OR small black triangles) have held a special place in investigations of human learning. Recent research on Type II linguistic patterns has shown that they are relatively frequent across languages and more frequent than Type IV family resemblance patterns (e.g., exemplars have 2 out of 3 defining features). Research has also shown that human infants are adept at learning Type II patterns from very few exemplars, but adult learning appears to be more mixed. Because no study had directly compared adults and infants, Experiment 1 tested both groups on the same input and test stimuli. Adults at best showed weak learning of one of two Type II patterns, but infants showed robust learning of both patterns. Experiment 2 contrasted adults' ability to learn a Type II pattern with a Type IV pattern. Adults only showed learning of the latter, replicating previous research with different stimuli and testing procedures. Thus, adults are unable to learn a frequent linguistic pattern, one readily learned by infants. Implications for possible language learning differences between infants and adults are discussed.
    • Affection Deprivation Is Associated With Physical Pain and Poor Sleep Quality

      Floyd, Kory; University of Arizona (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-07-27)
      Social bonds are necessary for human survival and affectionate communication is paramount for their formation and maintenance. Consequently, affection deprivation -the condition of receiving less affectionate communication than desired-is associated with social pain, and contemporary research indicates that social pain has substantial neurological overlap with physical pain. Thus, it was proposed that affection deprivation would be associated with the sensation of physical pain as well as with poor-quality sleep. Three studies involving a total of 1,368 adults from nearly all U.S. states and several foreign countries revealed significant associations between affection deprivation, physical pain, and multiple facets of disturbed sleep.
    • Affectionate communication and health: A meta-analysis

      Hesse, Colin; Floyd, Kory; Rains, Stephen A.; Mikkelson, Alan C.; Pauley, Perry M.; Woo, Nathan T.; Custer, Benjamin E.; Duncan, Kaylin L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-08-12)
      A robust literature documents the health benefits of affectionate communication. The present study offers a meta-analysis of this literature to estimate general effects of affectionate communication on several areas of health, including cardiovascular, stress hormonal, stress reactivity, and mental health. We also examined potential moderators, including the type of affectionate communication and sex, while predicting that the benefits of expressed affection outweigh the benefits of received affection. We found a weighted mean effect ofr= .23 for the relationship between affectionate communication and health, with differences based on type of health outcome but none for type of affection or sex. The effect of expressed affection exceeded the effect of received affection. The paper discusses the implications of these results.
    • Ai Weiwei’s Fairytale : a unique social engagement

      Zhou, Yanhua; The Department of East Asian Studies, University of Arizona (U.S.); The Contemporary Visual Art Research Center, Sichuan Fine Arts Institute, Chongqing, China (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017-02-22)
      Art as a social engagement in the West can be dated back to the history of avant-garde art starting from the end of nineteenth century. Rooted in his own cultural background, Chinese artist Ai Weiwei's socially engaged art project "Fairytale is more complex than the avant-garde strategy. The work Fairytale established a structure - "1=1,001". That means on the one hand, the participants can be easily regarded everywhere in Kassel as 1,001 mobile works of art. All of them contribute to an entire work. In other words, the 1,001 people consist of one work. On the other hand, everyone is dealing with their personal issues independent of art. In this sense, the entire work can be divided into 1,001 personal experiences. This structure is based on three principles of Chinese philosophy Taoism - the duality between Yin and Yang, the dynamism between Yin and Yang, and the concept of uselessness. Positioning Fairytale within both Western theoretical as well as Chinese philosophical contexts, this essay is to analyze how Chinese philosophy shaped Ai's strategy of social engagement and his cultural identity - Chineseness.
    • Ambulatory Clinic Exam Room Design with respect to Computing Devices: A Laboratory Simulation Study

      Weiler, Dustin T; Satterly, Tyler; Rehman, Shakaib U; Nussbaum, Maury A; Chumbler, Neale R; Fischer, Gary M; Saleem, Jason J; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018-01-01)
      OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS When comparing a typical exam room layout to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA's) new exam room design, with respect to the exam room computing, primary care providers experienced significantly less mental workload and greater situation awareness when using the new exam room design. Further, providers rated the new exam room layout significantly higher in terms of being integrated with their clinical workflow and spent significantly more time in screen sharing activities with the patient. A more thoughtful design of the exam room layout with respect to the placement and physical design of the computing set-up may reduce provider cognitive effort and enhance aspects of patient centeredness by viewing the computer and electronic health record (EHR) it displays as an important mediator between provider and patient. This was achieved by using an all-in-one computer attached to a wall mount that moves the monitor along three axes, allowing for optimal screen positioning and adjustable depending upon the scenario. TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background: Challenges persist regarding how to integrate computing effectively into the exam room, while maintaining patient-centered care. Purpose: Our objective was to evaluate a new exam room design with respect to the computing layout, which included a wall-mounted monitor for ease of (re)-positioning. Methods: In a lab-based experiment, 28 providers used prototypes of the new and older "legacy" outpatient exam room layouts in a within-subject comparison using simulated patient encounters. We measured efficiency, errors, workload, patient-centeredness (proportion of time the provider was focused on the patient), amount of screen sharing with the patient, workflow integration, and provider situation awareness. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the exam room layouts for efficiency, errors, or time spent focused on the patient. However, when using the new layout providers spent 75% more time in screen sharing activities with the patient, had 31% lower workload, and gave higher ratings for situation awareness (14%) and workflow integration (17%). Conclusions: Providers seemed to be unwilling to compromise their focus on the patient when the computer was in a fixed position in the corner of the room and, as a result, experienced greater workload, lower situation awareness, and poorer workflow integration when using the old "legacy" layout. A thoughtful design of the exam room with respect to the computing may positively impact providers' workload, situation awareness, time spent in screen sharing activities, and workflow integration.
    • Associations Between Shared Musical Engagement and Parent–Child Relational Quality: The Mediating Roles of Interpersonal Coordination and Empathy

      Wallace, Sandi D.; Harwood, Jake; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)
      Parent-child musical engagement in childhood and adolescence was assessed as a predictor of relational quality in emerging adulthood. From a perspective grounded in the communicative dynamics of musical engagement, this effect was hypothesized to be mediated by perceptions of interpersonal coordination and empathy between parent and child. Support was found for such mediated effects, particularly with coordination as a mediator. Results persisted when controlling for other forms of positive parent-child activity, thus illustrating the specific relational power of musical engagement, and more generally the importance of attending to what parents and children are doing when they interact.
    • The Backbone: Construction of a Regional Electricity Grid in the Arabian Peninsula

      Günel, Gökçe; Univ Arizona, Sch Middle Eastern & North African Studies (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)
      This article studies the production of a power grid across six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, known as 'the backbone,' which has been conceptualized as an answer to power outages. First it analyzes how experts working with and around the GCC Interconnection Authority (GCCIA) advance claims to a regional territorial imagination. Second, it shows that the construction of the grid not only indicates a shift in the material arrangement of wires and sub-stations, but also necessitates new understandings of transparency and a new formula for the electricity price, facilitating the cutting of government subsidies along with additional price increases. Third, it interrogates how electricity is consumed in the region. Policy-makers expected that electricity price increases would lead to lower rates of consumption. Yet after price hikes were instituted, analysts reported how they had no impact. Users behaved in ways that the grid's engineers did not anticipate. Overall the article shows how various actors conduct 'boundary work,' that is, how they set limits between the political, the financial and the technical while producing the backbone. The article explores how this boundary work helps stabilize a particular sociotechnical imaginary of energy security in the GCC, masking anxieties associated with a future beyond oil.
    • Balancing Institutional Demands with Effective Practice: A Lesson in Curricular and Professional Development

      Rodrigo, Rochelle; Ramírez, Cristina D.; Univ Arizona, Dept English; Univ Arizona, Rhetor Composit & Teaching English (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017)
      Online writing courses have developed in importance to meet student learning and institutional expectations; over time, a controversy about training online instructors and building sustainable programs has emerged. This article relates training demands within the University of Arizona's Writing Program and development of an online professional & technical writing certificate. The article proposes training instructors with master courses and building a sustained program through a participatory design to create a professional and integrated environment.
    • Baseline quality of life is associated with survival among people with advanced lung cancer

      Trejo, Mario J; Bell, Melanie L; Dhillon, Haryana M; Vardy, Janette L; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-05-15)
      Introduction: Lung cancer patients presenting with advanced cancer face low survival rates and a high symptom burden. There have been mixed findings for the association between survival and various patient reported outcomes (PROs). Methods: We used prospective data from 111 lung cancer patients with advanced stage III/IV disease to investigate the association of survival with PROs (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core-30 and Lung Module). Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the individual association between several PRO measures and survival. Results: Pain in chest and global quality of life (QoL) were found to have the strongest association with survival with a 20% increased hazard of death per 10% increase in pain in chest and 14% decrease in hazard of death per 10% increase in global QoL. Conclusion: Our results provide more evidence for the value of PRO data to inform clinical and patient decision-making.
    • Being funny is not enough: the influence of perceived humor and negative emotional reactions on brand attitudes

      Warren, Caleb; Carter, Erin Percival; McGraw, A. Peter; Univ Arizona, Mkt Dept (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-06-12)
      Humor is a common goal of marketing communications, yet humorous advertisements do not always improve consumer attitudes towards the advertised brand. By investigating a potential downside of attempting to be humorous, our inquiry helps explain why humorous ads can fail to improve and potentially even hurt, brand attitudes. We show that advertisements intended to be humorous also risk causing negative emotions independent of humor appreciation. We investigate the link between humor appreciation, negative emotional reactions and brand attitudes using four samples of advertisements. We find that attitudes towards an advertised brand depend less on the degree to which the ad seems funny and more on the degree to which the ad triggers negative emotional reactions. Consequently, whether an advertisement helps or hurts brand attitudes depends on whether the ad decreases or increases consumers' negative feelings independent of perceived humor.
    • Bella Here and There: Forming and Re-Forming Identities Across School Contexts

      Jaeger, Elizabeth L.; Univ Arizona (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)
      The study described here is a case analysis of an emergent bilingual and her English literacy development. Mobilizing identity theory, the study explores ways in which the young girl's language and literacy identities played out across the large group, small group, and tutorial settings for instruction. The study took place over one school year. Analysis of observation and interview data produced two key findings. First, Bella's identities, and the extent to which she focused on her expressed goal of becoming a better reader, differed across the school contexts of which she was a member. Second, Bella's affective response to all three environments ranged from calm certainty to anxious uncertainty, although the ways these responses played out differed from context to context. I argue here that, if educators are to meet the needs of all readers, it is necessary to conduct detailed analyses of the contexts they populate.
    • Beyond episodic remembering: elaborative retrieval of lifetime periods in young and older adults

      Acevedo-Molina, Mónica C; Matijevic, Stephanie; Grilli, Matthew D; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurol; Univ Arizona, McKnight Brain Inst (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-01-02)
      Relative to young adults, cognitively normal older adults commonly generate more semantic details and fewer episodic details in their descriptions of unique life events. It remains unclear whether this reflects a specific change to episodic memory or a broader alteration to autobiographical narration. To explore age differences across different types of autobiographical narration, we created a lifetime period narrative task that involves describing extended events. For comparison, participants also described unique life events. All autobiographical narratives were scored for episodic, semantic, and other detail generation. Relative to young adults, older adults generated more detailed narratives for remote and recent lifetime periods, which was driven by their increased retrieval of personal and general semantic details. Older adults also generated more semantic details for unique life event narratives, along with reduced episodic detail. More broadly, in both groups lifetime period narratives were largely based on semantic details, whereas episodic details were more prominent in the descriptions of unique life events. These findings indicate that the elevated generation of semantic details associated with normal cognitive aging is reflected in multiple types of autobiographical narration. We suggest that lifetime period narration is a spared aspect of autobiographical memory among older adults.
    • The Bounded and Pragmatic Consultant: Fiscal Impact Analysts as Rational Actors

      Read, Dustin C.; Sanderford, Andrew R.; Skuzinski, Thomas; Univ Arizona, Sch Landscape Architecture & Planning (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-06-03)
      This article examines how fiscal impact analysts retained by municipal governments across the United States approach their work. Consistent with theories of rationality found in the extant literature, the results suggest these third-party consultants do not view themselves solely as technicians responsible for generating the most accurate studies possible. Rather, they rely on heuristics to enhance the defensibility, interpretability, and tractability of the reports they produce, while recognizing political dynamics and the need to build consensus. These reflections add the voice of the fiscal impact consultant to the planning research - a voice surprisingly absent to date.
    • The Brier Rule Is not a Good Measure of Epistemic Utility (and Other Useful Facts about Epistemic Betterness)

      Fallis, Don; Lewis, Peter J.; Univ Arizona (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015-12-14)
      Measures of epistemic utility are used by formal epistemologists to make determinations of epistemic betterness among cognitive states. The Brier rule is the most popular choice (by far) among formal epistemologists for such a measure. In this paper, however, we show that the Brier rule is sometimes seriously wrong about whether one cognitive state is epistemically better than another. In particular, there are cases where an agent gets evidence that definitively eliminates a false hypothesis (and the probabilities assigned to the other hypotheses stay in the same ratios), but where the Brier rule says that things have become epistemically worse. Along the way to this 'elimination experiment' counter-example to the Brier rule as a measure of epistemic utility, we identify several useful monotonicity principles for epistemic betterness. We also reply to several potential objections to this counter-example.
    • CALL Beliefs in Context: a Study of US High School Foreign Language Learners

      Hellmich, Emily A.; Univ Arizona, Dept French & Italian (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-07-26)
      Recent calls from applied linguistics and from CALL have emphasized the importance of situating the understanding and use of digital tools for language learning within layered contexts. An important component of these layered contexts is societal discourses of technology, which are multiple and far from neutral. In response to these calls, this study examines how students at one San Francisco Bay Area high school understand technology in foreign language learning and how these beliefs relate to regional discourses of technology. The study assumed an ecological theoretical frame and deployed a multi-pronged research design: a survey study (n = 283), a case study (n = 3), and a discourse analysis of a regional newspaper corpus (n = 372). Findings indicate that students held largely utilitarian beliefs about CALL that both aligned with and diverged from regional discourses. Instances of alignment suggest the potential influence of larger societal discourses on student beliefs about CALL while instances of divergence underscore the need to address the larger role of technology in society when considering CALL beliefs and practices.
    • Challenges of mainstreaming green infrastructure in built environment professions

      Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Staddon, Chad; de Vito, Laura; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Ward, Sarah; Schoeman, Yolandi; Hart, Aimee; Booth, Giles; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy; Univ Arizona, Sch Landscape Architecture & Planning; et al. (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-06-12)
      Green infrastructure (GI) has been identified as a promising approach to help cities adapt to climate change through the provision of multiple ecosystem services. However, GI contributions to urban resilience will not be realized until it is more fully mainstreamed in the built environment and design professions. Here, we interrogate five key challenges for the effective implementation of GI: (1) design standards; (2) regulatory pathways; (3) socio-economic considerations; (4) financeability; and (5) innovation. Methods include a literature review, case studies, and interviews with resilience managers. We propose a people-centred and context-dependent approach to advance effective implementation of GI in urban planning. We highlight two underlying currents that run across all of the challenges - (1) the role of political will as a pre-condition for tackling all challenges holistically; and (2) the role of stakeholder engagement in achieving public support, harnessing funding, and maintaining and monitoring GI in the long term.
    • Conceptual profile of chemistry: a framework for enriching thinking and action in chemistry education

      Freire, Melquesedeque; Talanquer, Vicente; Amaral, Edenia; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-03-24)
      Understanding the nature of chemical thinking and action, as well as their application and impact on our world should be central goals of chemistry education at all educational levels. However, traditional school chemistry is still mostly focused on having students learn the body of declarative knowledge built over the years in the discipline. Achieving changes in curriculum and teaching practices in this context remains a challenging task. Studies in the history and philosophy of the discipline suggest that chemistry has unique characteristics that need to be recognised and considered in chemistry education. Many of these studies point to a pluralism in the discipline, and in the understanding of and about chemistry, that should be characterised and incorporated into our educational models. In this essay, we have attempted to build such a characterisation using conceptual profiles theory to propose a framework that can be used to enrich and support the thinking and action of chemistry teachers at all educational levels.
    • Conflict Kitchen and Enemy Kitchen: Socially Engaged Food Pedagogy

      Shin, Ryan; Bae, Jaehan; Univ Arizona (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-08-19)
      In this article, we examine food-engaged art practice and its artistic and pedagogical possibilities. First, we describe the precedents of socially engaged food art practices and provide a detailed account of Conflict Kitchen and Enemy Kitchen, from which we envision new pedagogical possibilities to embrace food and cooking as socially engaged art. In the second part of the study, we discuss the two kitchens through Deleuzian concepts such as nomadism, agencement, and becoming-others, to explore and encourage a shift from the pedagogy of being to the pedagogy of becoming. We argue that art educators pay attention to the becoming pedagogy as a rhizomatic, transforming, and unresting status of socially engaged learning, challenging the being pedagogy of the structured, goals-oriented, and standard-based learning.