• Frictions in an Experimental Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Economy

      Noussair, Charles N.; Pfajfar, Damjan; Zsiros, Janos; Department of Economics, University of Arizona (Wiley Blackwell, 2021-02-24)
      We construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with different institutional features that have a structure and incentives similar to a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model. An experimental economy with monopolistic competition and no menu costs generates empirical patterns that are closer to the U.S. economy than simulations or the other experimental environments. We observe greater welfare and output in a setting where goods are perfect substitutes compared to treatments with monopolistic competition. Discretionary human central bankers produce lower output and welfare compared to an automated instrumental rule. Menu costs reduce inflation volatility. © 2021 The Ohio State University
    • Gender Differences in International Cardiology Guideline Authorship: A Comparison of the US, Canadian, and European Cardiology Guidelines From 2006 to 2020

      Rai, D.; Kumar, A.; Waheed, S.H.; Pandey, R.; Guerriero, M.; Kapoor, A.; Tahir, M.W.; Zahid, S.; Hajra, A.; Balmer-Swain, M.; et al. (Wiley Blackwell, 2022)
      Background Women continue to be underrepresented in cardiology and even more so in leadership positions. We evaluated the trends and gender differences in the guideline writing groups of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines from 2006 to 2020. Methods and Results We extracted all guidelines authors from 2006 to 2020, assessed their gender from publicly available profiles, and compared differences based on subspecialties and specific societies. Stratified and trend analyses were performed using χ2 and average annual percentage change/average 5 year percentage change. A total of 80 ACC/AHA (1288 authors [28% women]), 64 CCS (988 authors [26% women]), and 59 ESC (1157 authors [16% women]) guidelines were analyzed. A significant increase in inclusion of women was seen in ACC/AHA (12.6% [2006] to 42.6% [2020]; average annual percentage change, 6.6% [2.3% to 11.1%]; P=0.005) and ESC (7.1% [2006] to 25.8% [2020]; average annual percentage change, 6.6% [0.2% to 13.5%]; P=0.04), but the trend remained similar in CCS (20.6% [2006] to 36.3% [2020]; average annual percentage change, -0.1% (-3.7% to 3.5%); P=0.94), guideline authors. More women were coauthors in the ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines when women were chairs of guidelines. There was a persistent disparity of women among guideline authors for general cardiology and all subspecialties, except for pediatric cardiology and heart failure guidelines. The appointment of women authors as a chair was significantly low in all societies (22.4% [ACC/AHA], 16.9% [CCS], and 7.2% [ESC]; P=0.008). Conclusions There is a significant disparity in the inclusion of women on all national guideline committees, in addition to serving as a chair of cardiology guidelines. Further advocacy is required to promote equity, diversity, and inclusion in our cardiology guidelines globally.
    • Pulmonary infection secondary to Blastobotrys raffinosifermentans in a cystic fibrosis patient: Review of the literature

      Al-Obaidi, Mohanad; Badali, Hamid; Cañete-Gibas, Connie; Patterson, Hoja P; Wiederhold, Nathan P; University of Arizona (Wiley Blackwell, 2021-02-08)
      Background: The genus Blastobotrys consists of at least 20 species. Disease in humans has been reported with B adeninivorans, B raffinosifermentans, B proliferans and B serpentis, mostly in immunocompromised patients and those with cystic fibrosis. Objective: We report a lung infection secondary to B raffinosifermentans in a cystic fibrosis patient successfully treated with isavuconazole and review the literature of invasive infections caused this genus. We also evaluated clinical isolates in our laboratory for species identification and antifungal susceptibility. Methods: Phylogenetic analysis was performed on a collection of 22 Blastobotrys isolates in our reference laboratory, and antifungal susceptibility patterns were determined for nine clinically available antifungals against 19 of these isolates. Results: By phylogenetic analysis, 21 of the 22 isolates in our collection were identified as B raffinosifermentans and only 1 as B adeninivorans. Most were cultured from the respiratory tract, although others were recovered from other sources, including CSF and blood. Isavuconazole, caspofungin and micafungin demonstrated the most potent in vitro activity, followed by amphotericin B. In contrast, fluconazole demonstrated poor activity. The patient in this case responded to isavuconazole treatment for breakthrough infection due to B raffinosifermentans that was cultured from pleural fluid while on posaconazole prophylaxis post–bilateral lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis. Conclusions: Blastobotrys species are rare causes of infections in humans and primarily occur in immunocompromised hosts. In our collection, the majority of isolates were identified as B raffinosifermentans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of such an infection with isavuconazole. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH
    • Social Isolation and Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Older Women: Women's Health Initiative Study Findings

      Cené, C.W.; Leng, X.I.; Faraz, K.; Allison, M.; Breathett, K.; Bird, C.; Coday, M.; Corbie-Smith, G.; Foraker, R.; Ijioma, N.N.; et al. (Wiley Blackwell, 2022)
      Background The association of social isolation or lack of social network ties in older adults is unknown. This knowledge gap is important since the risk of heart failure (HF) and social isolation increase with age. The study examines whether social isolation is associated with incident HF in older women, and examines depressive symptoms as a potential mediator and age and race and ethnicity as effect modifiers. Methods and Results This study included 44 174 postmenopausal women of diverse race and ethnicity from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) study who underwent annual assessment for HF adjudication from baseline enrollment (1993-1998) through 2018. We conducted a mediation analysis to examine depressive symptoms as a potential mediator and further examined effect modification by age and race and ethnicity. Incident HF requiring hospitalization was the main outcome. Social isolation was a composite variable based on marital/partner status, religious ties, and community ties. Depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D (Center for Epidemiology Studies-Depression). Over a median follow-up of 15.0 years, we analyzed data from 36 457 women, and 2364 (6.5%) incident HF cases occurred; 2510 (6.9%) participants were socially isolated. In multivariable analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and general health/functioning; socially isolated women had a higher risk of incident HF than nonisolated women (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41). Adding depressive symptoms in the model did not change this association (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.40). Neither race and ethnicity nor age moderated the association between social isolation and incident HF. Conclusions Socially isolated older women are at increased risk for developing HF, independent of traditional HF risk factors. Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00000611.