• A 15-year-old with chest pain: An unexpected etiology

      Loza, S.; Tallman, B.; Hanson, K.; Rainey, S.; The University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2022)
      A 15-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with 1 day of substernal and pleuritic chest pain, chills, cough, and hematuria. She also had swelling of the face and ankles that resolved by presentation. She was found to have elevated troponin and brain natriuretic peptide during initial workup. Electrocardiogram was normal, but there were significant pleural effusions on chest x-ray. She was strep positive and had blood pressure up to 150/90, prompting admission for cardiac monitoring and cardiology consultation. Blood pressure decreased down to 125/72 without intervention. She was afebrile with unlabored breathing and normal saturations. She was clear to auscultation bilaterally, with no abdominal distension or hepatosplenomegaly, and edema was not evident on exam. There was mild erythema to the bilateral tonsillar pillars. Initial considerations included viral myocarditis, pericarditis, and atypical nephritic syndrome. Workup revealed elevated antistreptolysin antibodies, low C3 complement, negative antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and negative flu testing. Renal sonography was unremarkable. Cardiology recommended echocardiography, which confirmed pleural effusions but revealed no cardiac abnormalities. Urinalysis revealed hematuria and mild proteinuria. Diagnosis was found to be post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis complicated by fluid overload and left ventricular strain secondary to hypertensive emergency. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is the most common cause of acute glomerulonephritis in children. The mechanism of disease is a proliferation and inflammation of the renal glomeruli secondary to immunologic injury, with deposition of immune complexes, neutrophils, macrophages, and C3 after complement activation. This leads to hematuria, proteinuria, and fluid overload. Edema is present in 65%–90% of patients, progressing to pulmonary involvement in severe cases. Cardiac dysfunction secondary to fluid overload is a potentially fatal outcome in the acute setting. Physicians should consider post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis for patients presenting with hypertension, cardiac/pulmonary pathology, or symptoms of acute heart failure in the context of strep infection. © The Author(s) 2022.
    • A 1720-nm ring-cavity Tm-doped fiber laser with optimized output coupling

      Zhang, L.; Zhang, J.; Sheng, Q.; Sun, S.; Shi, C.; Fu, S.; Bai, X.; Shi, W.; Yao, J.; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (SPIE, 2021)
      We have demonstrated an efficient 1720-nm all-fiber laser with ring-cavity configuration based on commercial Tmdoped silica fiber and 1570-nm in-band pump source. The rate equation model was built up to analyze the laser performance of Tm-doped fiber, which exhibits strong absorption in 1.7-µm region. The results show that efficient laser operation can be achieved through the optimization of output coupling and the length of Tm-doped fiber. By using homemade couplers, we experimentally achieved 2.36-W laser output power under 6-W launched pump power. The slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power and optical efficiency were 50.2% and 39.3%, respectively. Due to the employment of ring resonator, a narrow laser linewidth of ~4 GHz at maximum output power was observed. © 2021 SPIE.
    • A 4-Benzene-Indol Derivative Alleviates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury Through Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome

      Li, J.; Bai, Y.; Tang, Y.; Wang, X.; Cavagnaro, M.J.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Shi, J.; College of Medicine-Phoenix, University of Arizona (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of critical illness that could frequently lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and other serious clinical consequences. Sepsis is one of the major and most common inducements among all causes of ALI. Due to its high incidence and mortality rate and also the complexity in treatment, sepsis-related ALI has become an urgent clinical problem waiting to be solved effectively. At present, only the protective ventilation strategy, restrictive fluid management, and antibiotics application are measures that can improve the prognosis with evidence-based medical proof. No pharmacological treatment is currently available to protect or significantly reverse the prognosis. Seeking for effective interventions measures for sepsis-related ALI is one of the most necessitous research directions. In this research, a conspicuous discovery of treatment-related translational use for a 4-benzene-indol derivative was elaborated by screening a large number of chemical compounds. The results showed that 4-benzene-indol derivative could not only suppress the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome both in vitro and alleviate LPS-induced ALI in vivo but also suppress the NLRP3 inflammasome in human myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells (THP-1) cell lines. Mechanistically, 1,2-diol blocks the NLRP3 inflammasome activation by disrupting NLRP3–NEK7 interaction and the subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. To summarize, this research indicated that the newly-discovered 4-benzene-indol derivative targets NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, which consequently alleviates sepsis-related ALI. Collectively, the 4-benzene-indol derivative may serve as a potential therapeutic drug and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling would be a novel pharmaceutical target for clinical treatment of sepsis-related ALI. Copyright © 2022 Li, Bai, Tang, Wang, Cavagnaro, Li, Li, Zhang and Shi.
    • A band model of cambium development: Opportunities and prospects

      Shishov, V.V.; Tychkov, I.I.; Anchukaitis, K.J.; Zelenov, G.K.; Vaganov, E.A.; Laboratory of Tree‐Ring Research, University of Arizona; School of Geography, Development, and Environment, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2021)
      More than 60% of tree phytomass is concentrated in stem wood, which is the result of periodic activity of the cambium. Nevertheless, there are few attempts to quantitatively describe cambium dynamics. In this study, we develop a state‐of‐the‐art band model of cambium development, based on the kinetic heterogeneity of the cambial zone and the connectivity of the cell structure. The model describes seasonal cambium development based on an exponential function under climate forcing which can be effectively used to estimate the seasonal cell production for individual trees. It was shown that the model is able to simulate different cell production for fast‐, middle‐ and slow‐growing trees under the same climate forcing. Based on actual measurements of cell production for two contrasted trees, the model effectively reconstructed long‐term cell production variability (up to 75% of explained variance) of both tree‐ring characteristics over the period 1937−2012. The new model significantly simplifies the assessment of seasonal cell production for individual trees of a studied forest stand and allows the entire range of individual absolute variability in the ring formation of any tree in the stand to be quantified, which can lead to a better understanding of the anatomy of xylem formation, a key component of the carbon cycle. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • A BERT-based One-Pass Multi-Task Model for Clinical Temporal Relation Extraction

      Lin, Chen; Miller, Timothy; Dligach, Dmitriy; Sadeque, Farig; Bethard, Steven; Savova, Guergana; Univ Arizona (ASSOC COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS-ACL, 2020-07)
      Recently BERT has achieved a state-of-the-art performance in temporal relation extraction from clinical Electronic Medical Records text. However, the current approach is inefficient as it requires multiple passes through each input sequence. We extend a recently-proposed one-pass model for relation classification to a one-pass model for relation extraction. We augment this framework by introducing global embeddings to help with long-distance relation inference, and by multi-task learning to increase model performance and generalizability. Our proposed model produces results on par with the state-of-the-art in temporal relation extraction on the THYME corpus and is much "greener" in computational cost.
    • A Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of the Top-Cited Publications in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

      Shi, J.; Du, X.; Cavagnaro, M.J.; Li, N.; College of Medicine, University of Arizona (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
      Background: For measuring their impact in scientific research, the citation count of the publications is used in the bibliometric analysis, though still in the bibliometric analysis, there is no comprehensive summary of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research. This article intends to provide the physicians and the neuroscientists with a reference guide to assess the most influential publications written on this subject through a macroscopic view of the research activities on mTBI. Methods: The database of the Web of Science was used to compile the 100 top-ranking publications on mTBI. The selected publications were evaluated on the basis of the several categorizations including the type of the publications, number of citations, country of origin, and year of publication. Results: Between 1946 and 2020, the 13,040 publications that were published were included in the database. The least cited publications received 274 citations, while the most cited received 1,748. Altogether, 71 publications were from the USA while 29 were from other countries. Among all the institutions, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center led the list with six publications. Around 100 papers, mostly on the clinical studies in the categories of neurology and neurosciences, were published in 54 different journals. Conclusions: This study provides both a transverse section summary and historical retrospect for the clinical advances of mTBI, and the publications of important observations that contributed a significant impact on the treatment and prevention of mTBI had been identified. © Copyright © 2021 Shi, Du, Cavagnaro and Li.
    • A bioinformatic analysis of the inhibin-betaglycan-endoglin/CD105 network reveals prognostic value in multiple solid tumors

      Listik, E.; Horst, B.; Choi, A.S.; Lee, N.Y.; Győrffy, B.; Mythreye, K.; Division of Pharmacology, Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Arizona (Public Library of Science, 2021)
      Inhibins and activins are dimeric ligands belonging to the TGFβ superfamily with emergent roles in cancer. Inhibins contain an α-subunit (INHA) and a β-subunit (either INHBA or INHBB), while activins are mainly homodimers of either βA (INHBA) or βB (INHBB) subunits. Inhibins are biomarkers in a subset of cancers and utilize the coreceptors betaglycan (TGFBR3) and endoglin (ENG) for physiological or pathological outcomes. Given the array of prior reports on inhibin, activin and the coreceptors in cancer, this study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis, assessing their functional prognostic potential in cancer using a bioinformatics approach. We identify cancer cell lines and cancer types most dependent and impacted, which included p53 mutated breast and ovarian cancers and lung adenocarcinomas. Moreover, INHA itself was dependent on TGFBR3 and ENG/CD105 in multiple cancer types. INHA, INHBA, TGFBR3, and ENG also predicted patients’ response to anthracycline and taxane therapy in luminal A breast cancers. We also obtained a gene signature model that could accurately classify 96.7% of the cases based on outcomes. Lastly, we cross-compared gene correlations revealing INHA dependency to TGFBR3 or ENG influencing different pathways themselves. These results suggest that inhibins are particularly important in a subset of cancers depending on the coreceptor TGFBR3 and ENG and are of substantial prognostic value, thereby warranting further investigation. © 2021 Listik et al.
    • A Brief Online Implicit Bias Intervention for School Mental Health Clinicians

      Liu, F.F.; Coifman, J.; McRee, E.; Stone, J.; Law, A.; Gaias, L.; Reyes, R.; Lai, C.K.; Blair, I.V.; Yu, C.-L.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      Clinician bias has been identified as a potential contributor to persistent healthcare disparities across many medical specialties and service settings. Few studies have examined strategies to reduce clinician bias, especially in mental healthcare, despite decades of research evidencing service and outcome disparities in adult and pediatric populations. This manuscript describes an intervention development study and a pilot feasibility trial of the Virtual Implicit Bias Reduction and Neutralization Training (VIBRANT) for mental health clinicians in schools—where most youth in the U.S. access mental healthcare. Clinicians (N = 12) in the feasibility study—a non-randomized open trial—rated VIBRANT as highly usable, appropriate, acceptable, and feasible for their school-based practice. Preliminarily, clinicians appeared to demonstrate improvements in implicit bias knowledge, use of bias-management strategies, and implicit biases (as measured by the Implicit Association Test [IAT]) post-training. Moreover, putative mediators (e.g., clinicians’ VIBRANT strategies use, IAT D scores) and outcome variables (e.g., clinician-rated quality of rapport) generally demonstrated correlations in the expected directions. These pilot results suggest that brief and highly scalable online interventions such as VIBRANT are feasible and promising for addressing implicit bias among healthcare providers (e.g., mental health clinicians) and can have potential downstream impacts on minoritized youth’s care experience. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • A Bright Ultraviolet Excess in the Transitional 02es-like Type Ia Supernova 2019yvq

      Burke, J.; Howell, D.A.; Sarbadhicary, S.K.; Sand, D.J.; Amaro, R.C.; Hiramatsu, D.; McCully, C.; Pellegrino, C.; Andrews, J.E.; Brown, P.J.; et al. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021)
      We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2019yvq, from its discovery ∼1 day after explosion to ∼100 days after its peak brightness. This SN exhibits several unusual features, most notably an extremely bright UV excess seen within ∼5 days of its explosion. As seen in Swift UV data, this early excess outshines its "peak"brightness, making this object more extreme than other supernovae (SNe) with early UV/blue excesses (e.g., iPTF14atg and SN 2017cbv). In addition, it was underluminous M B = -18.4, relatively quickly declining (Δm 15(B) = 1.37), and shows red colors past its early blue bump. Unusual (although not unprecedented) spectral features include extremely broad-lined and high-velocity Si absorption. Despite obvious differences in peak spectra, we classify SN 2019yvq as a transitional member of the 02es-like subclass due to its similarities in several respects (e.g., color, peak luminosity, peak Ti, and nebular [Ca ii]). We model this data set with a variety of published models, including SN ejecta-companion shock interaction and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf (WD) double-detonation models. Radio constraints from the VLA place an upper limit of (4.5-20) 10-8 M o˙ yr-1 on the mass-loss rate from a symbiotic progenitor, which does not exclude a red giant or main-sequence companion. Ultimately, we find that no one model can accurately replicate all aspects of the data set, and further we find that the ubiquity of early excesses in 02es-like SNe Ia requires a progenitor system that is capable of producing isotropic UV flux, ruling out some models for this class of objects. © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
    • A Brighter Future: The Effect of Social Class on Responses to Future Debt

      Schmitt, Harrison J.; Keefer, Lucas A.; Sullivan, Daniel; Stewart, Sheridan; Young, Isaac F.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (PSYCHOPEN, 2020-07)
      The present study serves as an exploratory investigation of the role of social class in responses to the threat of future debt. Previous work has shown that individuals of high and low subjective social class differ in the ways that they respond to a broad range of threats and uncertainties about the future. Across three studies, we found that lower social class individuals expect more future debt and suffer greater attendant stress than higher class individuals (Study 1). We found that experimental manipulations of debt salience increased stress for lower class and not for higher class individuals (Studies 2-3). Likewise, we found that higher class individuals experienced higher affect balance and perceptions of personal control when the possibility of future debt was made salient, specifically as a function of decreased fatalism about future debt (Study 3). These three studies reveal yet another situation in which individuals of lower and higher social class respond differently to threat, and serve as an important step toward understanding the psychological ramifications of rising debt in the United States.
    • A Broad Grid of 2D Kilonova Emission Models

      Wollaeger, R.T.; Fryer, C.L.; Chase, E.A.; Fontes, C.J.; Ristic, M.; Hungerford, A.L.; Korobkin, O.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Herring, A.M.; The University of Arizona (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021)
      Depending upon the properties of their compact remnants and the physics included in the models, simulations of neutron star mergers can produce a broad range of ejecta properties. The characteristics of this ejecta, in turn, define the kilonova emission. To explore the effect of ejecta properties, we present a grid of two-component 2D axisymmetric kilonova simulations that vary mass, velocity, morphology, and composition. The masses and velocities of each component vary, respectively, from 0.001 to 0.1 M o˙ and 0.05 to 0.3 c, covering much of the range of results from the neutron star merger literature. The set of 900 models is constrained to have a toroidal low electron fraction (Y e ) ejecta with a robust r-process composition and either a spherical or lobed high-Y e ejecta with two possible compositions. We simulate these models with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SuperNu using a full suite of lanthanide and fourth-row element opacities. We examine the trends of these models with parameter variation, show how they can be used with statistical tools, and compare the model light curves and spectra to those of AT2017gfo, the electromagnetic counterpart of GW170817. © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    • A candidate kiloparsec-scale quasar pair at z=5.66

      Yue, M.; Fan, X.; Yang, J.; Wang, F.; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (American Astronomical Society, 2021)
      We report the discovery of a close quasar pair candidate at z = 5.66, J2037-4537. J2037-4537 is resolved into two quasar images at the same redshift in ground-based observations. Follow-up spectroscopy shows significant differences in both the continuum slopes and emission line properties of the two images. The two quasar images have a projected separation of 1 24 (7.3 kpc at z = 5.66) and a redshift difference of Δz ≤ 0.01. High-resolution images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope do not detect the foreground lensing galaxy. The observational features of J2037-4537 strongly disfavor the lensing hypothesis. If J2037-4537 is a physical quasar pair, it indicates a quasar clustering signal of ~105 at a separation of ~10 proper kpc (pkpc), and gives the first observational constraint on the pair fraction of z > 5 quasars, fpair(r < 30 pkpc) > 0.3%. The properties of J2037-4537 are consistent with those of merger-triggered quasar pairs in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers. © 2021. The Author(s).
    • A Cascade Model of Sociodevelopmental Events Leading to Men's Perpetration of Violence Against Female Romantic Partners

      Kaighobadi, F.; Figueredo, A.J.; Shackelford, T.K.; Bjorklund, D.F.; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (SAGE Publications Inc., 2021)
      Conceptually driven by life history theory, the current study investigated a hypothesized hierarchy of behaviors leading to men's perpetration of violence in intimate relationships. Using a series of hierarchical regressions, we tested a causal cascade model on data provided by 114 men in a committed romantic relationship. The results supported the hypothesized hierarchy of sociodevelopmental events: (1) men's childhood experiences with their parents’ parental effort predicted men's life history strategies; (2) men's life history strategies predicted men's behavioral self-regulation; (3) men's self-regulation predicted men's perceptions of partner infidelity risk; (4) perceptions of infidelity risk predicted men's frequency of engagement in nonviolent mate retention behaviors; (5) men's mate retention behaviors predicted men's frequency of partner-directed violence. The overall cascade model explained 36% of variance in men's partner-directed violence. © The Author(s) 2021.
    • A case of leiomyosarcoma of the common femoral artery

      Nguyen, D.; Leon, L.R.; Pacanowski, J.P.; Berman, S.S.; Pima Heart and Vascular, Section of Vascular Surgery, The University of Arizona (Society for Vascular Surgery, 2021)
      Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of smooth muscle cell origin with those originating from blood vessels accounting for <1%. We report the unusual case of a leiomyosarcoma originating in the wall of the common femoral artery, highlighting the management decisions for vascular tumors and providing a brief literature review for these unusual malignancies. © 2021 The Authors
    • A Case of Shifting Focus Friction: Extension Directors and State 4-H Program Leaders’ Perspectives on 4-H LGBTQ+ Inclusion

      Elliott-Engel, J.; Westfall-Rudd, D.; Kaufman, E.; Seibel, M.; Radhakrishna, R.; University of Arizona (Extension Journal, Inc., 2021)
      Contemporary Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ+) youth are identifying and communicating their identities earlier in childhood than generations before as a result of more awareness and more acceptance of gender identity and sexual minorities by society. A qualitative study of U.S. 4-H program leaders and Extension directors generated an emergent theme around the importance of serving LGBT youth and the resulting implementation challenges. The administrators of 4-H, the largest youth serving organization in the country, recognize the presence of LGBTQ+ youth in 4-H and believe the organization must be inclusive. But challenges remain in ensuring youth experience inclusion at all levels of the organization and to manage political and societal pressures resulting from shifting focus friction. © 2021
    • A Census of Protostellar Outflows in Nearby Molecular Clouds

      Xu, D.; Offner, S.S.R.; Gutermuth, R.; Kong, S.; Arce, H.G.; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2022)
      We adopt the deep learning method casi-3d (Convolutional Approach to Structure Identification-3D) to systemically identify protostellar outflows in 12CO and 13CO observations of the nearby molecular clouds, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion. The total outflow masses are 267 M Ȯ, 795 M Ȯ, 1305 M Ȯ, and 6332 M Ȯ for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. We show the outflow mass in each cloud is linearly proportional to the total number of young stellar objects. The estimated total 3D deprojected outflow energies are 9 × 1045 erg, 6 × 1046 erg, 1.2 × 1047 erg, and 6 × 1047 erg for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. The energy associated with outflows is sufficient to offset turbulent dissipation at the current epoch for all four clouds. All clouds also exhibit a break point in the spatial power spectrum of the outflow prediction map, which likely corresponds to the typical outflow mass and energy injection scale. © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
    • A Census of Stars and Disks in Corona Australis

      Esplin, T.L.; Luhman, K.L.; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (American Astronomical Society, 2022)
      We have performed a census of the young stellar populations near the Corona Australis molecular cloud using photometric and kinematic data from several sources, particularly Gaia EDR3, and spectroscopy of hundreds of candidate members. We have compiled a catalog of 393 members of Corona Australis, (39 at >M6), 293 (36) of which are spectroscopically classified for the first time in this work. We find that Corona Australis can be described in terms of two stellar populations, a younger one (a few megayears) that is partially embedded in the cloud (the Coronet Cluster) and an older one (∼15 Myr) that surrounds and extends beyond the cloud (Upper Corona Australis). These populations exhibit similar space velocities, and we find no evidence for distinct kinematic populations in Corona Australis, in contrast to a recent study based on Gaia DR2. The distribution of spectral types in Corona Australis reaches a maximum at M5 (∼0.15 M o˙), indicating that the initial mass function has a similar characteristic mass as other nearby star-forming regions. Finally, we have compiled mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope for the members of Corona Australis, and we have used those data to identify and classify their circumstellar disks. Excesses are detected for 122 stars, one-third of which are reported for the first time in this work. © 2022. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
    • A Census of the Bright z = 8.5-11 Universe with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes in the CANDELS Fields

      Finkelstein, S.L.; Bagley, M.; Song, M.; Larson, R.; Papovich, C.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, K.D.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Pirzkal, N.; Somerville, R.S.; et al. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2022)
      We present the results from a new search for candidate galaxies at z ≈ 8.5-11 discovered over the 850 arcmin2 area probed by the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). We use a photometric-redshift selection including both Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope photometry to robustly identify galaxies in this epoch at H 160 < 26.6. We use a detailed vetting procedure, including screening against persistence and stellar contamination, and the inclusion of ground-based imaging and follow-up Hubble Space Telescope imaging to build a robust sample of 11 candidate galaxies, three presented here for the first time. The inclusion of Spitzer/IRAC photometry in the selection process reduces contamination, and yields more robust redshift estimates than Hubble alone. We constrain the evolution of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function via a new method of calculating the observed number densities without choosing a prior magnitude bin size. We find that the abundance at our brightest probed luminosities (M UV = - 22.3) is consistent with predictions from simulations that assume that galaxies in this epoch have gas depletion times at least as short as those in nearby starburst galaxies. Due to large Poisson and cosmic variance uncertainties, we cannot conclusively rule out either a smooth evolution of the luminosity function continued from z = 4-8, or an accelerated decline at z > 8. We calculate that the presence of seven galaxies in a single field Extended Groth Strip is an outlier at the 2σ significance level, implying the discovery of a significant over-density. These scenarios will be imminently testable to high confidence within the first year of observations of the James Webb Space Telescope. © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
    • A Closer Look at Two of the Most Luminous Quasars in the Universe

      Schindler, J.-T.; Fan, X.; Novak, M.; Venemans, B.; Walter, F.; Wang, F.; Yang, J.; Yue, M.; Bañados, E.; Huang, Y.-H.; et al. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2020)
      Ultraluminous quasars (M 1450 ≤ -29) provide us with a rare view into the nature of the most massive and most rapidly accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Following the discovery of two of these extreme sources, J0341+1720 (M 1450 = -29.56, z = 3.71) and J2125-1719 (M 1450 = -29.39, z = 3.90), in the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) and its extension to the Pan-STARRS 1 footprint (PS-ELQS), we herein present an analysis of their rest-frame UV to optical spectroscopy. Both quasars harbor very massive SMBHs with M BH =6.73 - 0.83+0.75 × 10 9, M ⊙ and M BH = 5.45 -0.55 +0.60 × 10 9, M ⊙, respectively, showing evidence of accretion above the Eddington limit ( and ). NOEMA 3 millimeter observations of J0341+1720 reveal a highly star-forming (SFR ≈ 1500 M o˙ yr-1), ultraluminous infrared galaxy (L IR ≈ 1.0 1013 L o˙) host, which, based on an estimate of its dynamical mass, is only ∼30 times more massive than the SMBH it harbors at its center. As examples of luminous super-Eddington accretion, these two quasars provide support for theories that explain the existence of billion solar mass SMBHs ∼700 million years after the Big Bang by moderate super-Eddington growth from standard SMBH seeds. © 2020. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    • A co-registered multimodal imaging system for reflectance, multiphoton, and optical coherence microscopy

      Vega, D.; Barton, J.K.; Galvez, D.; Santaniello, S.P.; Adams, Z.; Pham, N.Y.; Kiekens, K.; Cordova, R.; Montague, J.; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona; et al. (SPIE, 2021)
      Multimodal imaging is an advantageous method to increase the accuracy of disease classification. As an example, we and others have shown that optical coherence tomography images and fluorescence spectroscopy contain complementary information that can increase the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection. A common challenge in multimodal imaging is image co-registration. The different images are often taken with separate imaging setups, making it challenging to precisely image the same tissue area or co-register the images computationally. To solve this problem, we have developed a co-registered multimodal imaging system that images the same tissue location with reflectance, multi-photon, and optical coherence microscopy. The co-registration mechanism is a dual-clad fiber that integrates with a scanning microscope or scanning endoscope, collecting all three signals using the same optical path. In the current implementation, optical coherence tomography utilizes a 1300 nm super luminescent diode, multi-photon signals are excited by a custom femtosecond 1400 nm fiber laser producing two-and three-photon signals in the 460-900 nm band, and reflectance imaging operates at 561 nm. The system separates the different signals using fiber wavelength division multiplexers, a dual-clad fiber coupler, and dichroic mirrors to deliver the different signals to the corresponding detector. This wavelength selection enables the system to work passively, meaning that there is no need for devices such as filter wheels. Using the scanning microscope configuration, we have obtained multimodal images of ex-vivo ovine ovary tissue. © 2021 SPIE.