• A BAC library of the SP80-3280 sugarcane variety (saccharum sp.) and its inferred microsynteny with the sorghum genome

      Figueira, Thais Rezende; Okura, Vagner; Rodrigues, da Silva; Jose, da Silva; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty; Talag, Jayson; Wing, Rod; Arruda, Paulo; Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-875, Brazil; et al. (BioMed Central, 2012)
      BACKGROUND:Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed in the last 30 years, but achieving additional yield gains has been difficult because of the constraints imposed by the complex ploidy of this crop. Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum. S. officinarum is an octoploid with 2n=80 chromosomes while S. spontaneum has 2n=40 to 128 chromosomes and ploidy varying from 5 to 16. The hybrid genome is composed of 70-80%S. officinaram and 5-20%S. spontaneum chromosomes and a small proportion of recombinants. Sequencing the genome of this complex crop may help identify useful genes, either per se or through comparative genomics using closely related grasses. The construction and sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an elite commercial variety of sugarcane could help assembly the sugarcane genome.RESULTS:A BAC library designated SS_SBa was constructed with DNA isolated from the commercial sugarcane variety SP80-3280. The library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 125 Kb, 88% of which has inserts larger than 90 Kb. Based on the estimated genome size of 760-930 Mb, the library exhibits 5-6 times coverage the monoploid sugarcane genome. Bidirectional BAC end sequencing (BESs) from a random sample of 192 BAC clones sampled genes and repetitive elements of the sugarcane genome. Forty-five per cent of the total BES nucleotides represents repetitive elements, 83% of which belonging to LTR retrotransposons. Alignment of BESs corresponding to 42 BACs to the genome sequence of the 10 sorghum chromosomes revealed regions of microsynteny, with expansions and contractions of sorghum genome regions relative to the sugarcane BAC clones. In general, the sampled sorghum genome regions presented an average 29% expansion in relation to the sugarcane syntenic BACs.CONCLUSION:The SS_SBa BAC library represents a new resource for sugarcane genome sequencing. An analysis of insert size, genome coverage and orthologous alignment with the sorghum genome revealed that the library presents whole genome coverage. The comparison of syntenic regions of the sorghum genome to 42 SS_SBa BES pairs revealed that the sorghum genome is expanded in relation to the sugarcane genome.
    • A BAC pooling strategy combined with PCR-based screenings in a large, highly repetitive genome enables integration of the maize genetic and physical maps

      Yim, Young-Sun; Moak, Patricia; Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Musket, Theresa; Close, Pamela; Klein, Patricia; Mullet, John; McMullen, Michael; Fang, Zheiwei; Schaeffer, Mary; et al. (BioMed Central, 2007)
      BACKGROUND:Molecular markers serve three important functions in physical map assembly. First, they provide anchor points to genetic maps facilitating functional genomic studies. Second, they reduce the overlap required for BAC contig assembly from 80 to 50 percent. Finally, they validate assemblies based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy in combination with a high-throughput PCR-based screening method to anchor the maize genetic and physical maps.RESULTS:A total of 110,592 maize BAC clones (~ 6x haploid genome equivalents) were pooled into six different matrices, each containing 48 pools of BAC DNA. The quality of the BAC DNA pools and their utility for identifying BACs containing target genomic sequences was tested using 254 PCR-based STS markers. Five types of PCR-based STS markers were screened to assess potential uses for the BAC pools. An average of 4.68 BAC clones were identified per marker analyzed. These results were integrated with BAC fingerprint data generated by the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI) and the Arizona Genomics Computational Laboratory (AGCoL) to assemble the BAC contigs using the FingerPrinted Contigs (FPC) software and contribute to the construction and anchoring of the physical map. A total of 234 markers (92.5%) anchored BAC contigs to their genetic map positions. The results can be viewed on the integrated map of maize 1,2].CONCLUSION:This BAC pooling strategy is a rapid, cost effective method for genome assembly and anchoring. The requirement for six replicate positive amplifications makes this a robust method for use in large genomes with high amounts of repetitive DNA such as maize. This strategy can be used to physically map duplicate loci, provide order information for loci in a small genetic interval or with no genetic recombination, and loci with conflicting hybridization-based information.
    • A BAC-based physical map of Brachypodium distachyon and its comparative analysis with rice and wheat

      Gu, Yong; Ma, Yaqin; Huo, Naxin; Vogel, John; You, Frank; Lazo, Gerard; Nelson, William; Soderlund, Carol; Dvorak, Jan; Anderson, Olin; et al. (BioMed Central, 2009)
      BACKGROUND:Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been recognized as a new model species for comparative and functional genomics of cereal and bioenergy crops because it possesses many biological attributes desirable in a model, such as a small genome size, short stature, self-pollinating habit, and short generation cycle. To maximize the utility of Brachypodium as a model for basic and applied research it is necessary to develop genomic resources for it. A BAC-based physical map is one of them. A physical map will facilitate analysis of genome structure, comparative genomics, and assembly of the entire genome sequence.RESULTS:A total of 67,151 Brachypodium BAC clones were fingerprinted with the SNaPshot HICF fingerprinting method and a genome-wide physical map of the Brachypodium genome was constructed. The map consisted of 671 contigs and 2,161 clones remained as singletons. The contigs and singletons spanned 414 Mb. A total of 13,970 gene-related sequences were detected in the BAC end sequences (BES). These gene tags aligned 345 contigs with 336 Mb of rice genome sequence, showing that Brachypodium and rice genomes are generally highly colinear. Divergent regions were mainly in the rice centromeric regions. A dot-plot of Brachypodium contigs against the rice genome sequences revealed remnants of the whole-genome duplication caused by paleotetraploidy, which were previously found in rice and sorghum. Brachypodium contigs were anchored to the wheat deletion bin maps with the BES gene-tags, opening the door to Brachypodium-Triticeae comparative genomics.CONCLUSION:The construction of the Brachypodium physical map, and its comparison with the rice genome sequence demonstrated the utility of the SNaPshot-HICF method in the construction of BAC-based physical maps. The map represents an important genomic resource for the completion of Brachypodium genome sequence and grass comparative genomics. A draft of the physical map and its comparisons with rice and wheat are available at http://phymap.ucdavis.edu/brachypodium/ webcite.
    • Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

      Simonson, Tatum; Okinaka, Richard; Wang, Bingxiang; Easterday, W. R.; Huynh, Lynn; U'Ren, Jana; Dukerich, Meghan; Zanecki, Shaylan; Kenefic, Leo; Beaudry, Jodi; et al. (BioMed Central, 2009)
      BACKGROUND:The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages) have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates.RESULTS:The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia
    • Back to the basics: how feelings of anger affect cooperation

      Motro, Daphna; Kugler, Tamar; Connolly, Terry; Department of Management and Organizations, University of Arizona (EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-10)
      Purpose - The authors propose that angry individuals are much more likely to consider the emotional state of their partner than are neutral individuals. They then apply a lay theory dictating that anger decreases cooperation and react accordingly by lowering their own level of cooperation. Design/methodology/approach - The authors report four experiments involving different samples, manipulations, payment schemes and interfaces. The methodological approach was to capitalize on the positives of experimental research (e.g. establishing causality) while also trying to conceptually replicate the findings in different settings. Findings - The authors found evidence for a lay theory (i.e. expectation) that anger decreases cooperation, but that actual cooperation was lowest when angry individuals were paired with other angry individuals, supporting the hypotheses. Research limitations/implications - Anger can spill over from unrelated contexts to affect cooperation, and incidental anger by itself is not enough to decrease cooperation. However, the findings are limited to anger and cannot necessarily be used to understand the effects of other emotions. Practical implications - Before entering into a context that requires cooperation, such as a negotiation, be wary of the emotional state of both yourself and of your partner. This paper suggests that only if both parties are angry, then the likelihood of cooperation is low. Originality/value - To the best of the authors' knowledge, they are the first researchers to address the question of how incidental anger affects single-round cooperation. By going back to the basics, the authors believe that the findings fill a gap in existing research and offer a building block for future research on anger and cooperation.
    • Back to the Future: What Learning Communities Offer to Medical Education

      Osterberg, Lars; Hatem, David; Moynahan, Kevin; Shochet, Rob; Goldstein, Erika; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Med (LIBERTAS ACAD, 2016-05)
      Learning communities (LCs) have increasingly been incorporated into undergraduate medical education at a number of medical schools in the United States over the past decade. In an Association of Medical Colleges survey of 140 medical schools, 102 schools indicated that they had LC (described as colleges or mentorship groups; https://www.aamc.org/initiatives/cir/425510/19a.html). LCs share an overarching principle of establishing longitudinal relationships with students and faculty, but differ in the emphasis on specific components that may include curriculum delivery, advising/mentoring, student wellness, and community. The creation of LCs requires institutional commitment to reorganize educational processes to become more student centered. LCs are beginning to show positive outcomes for students including benefits related to clinical skills development, advising, and student wellness, in addition to positive outcomes for LC faculty.
    • The Backbone: Construction of a Regional Electricity Grid in the Arabian Peninsula

      Günel, Gökçe; Univ Arizona, Sch Middle Eastern & North African Studies (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)
      This article studies the production of a power grid across six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, known as 'the backbone,' which has been conceptualized as an answer to power outages. First it analyzes how experts working with and around the GCC Interconnection Authority (GCCIA) advance claims to a regional territorial imagination. Second, it shows that the construction of the grid not only indicates a shift in the material arrangement of wires and sub-stations, but also necessitates new understandings of transparency and a new formula for the electricity price, facilitating the cutting of government subsidies along with additional price increases. Third, it interrogates how electricity is consumed in the region. Policy-makers expected that electricity price increases would lead to lower rates of consumption. Yet after price hikes were instituted, analysts reported how they had no impact. Users behaved in ways that the grid's engineers did not anticipate. Overall the article shows how various actors conduct 'boundary work,' that is, how they set limits between the political, the financial and the technical while producing the backbone. The article explores how this boundary work helps stabilize a particular sociotechnical imaginary of energy security in the GCC, masking anxieties associated with a future beyond oil.
    • A Backwards Approach to Bariatric Surgery: The Perioperative Approach Used in a Woman with Situs Inversus Totalis Undergoing a Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

      Villalvazo, Yadira; Jensen, Candice M; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (CUREUS INC, 2018-10-18)
      Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital condition where organs are mirrored across the sagittal plane of the body. In the absence of associated comorbidities, most people have normal health and lifespan. Challenges with mirrored image anatomy arise when needing an operative procedure involving the intraabdominal organs. There are few reported cases in the literature of laparoscopic surgery in patients with situs inversus, with even fewer in the field of bariatric surgery. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities continue to increase in our society, and bariatric surgery is a treatment option for weight loss. We report the perioperative approach used in a 59-year-old obese woman with confirmed situs inversus totalis undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
    • Bacterial Associates of a Gregarious Riparian Beetle With Explosive Defensive Chemistry

      McManus, Reilly; Ravenscraft, Alison; Moore, Wendy; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol, Ctr Insect Sci (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-10-05)
      Bombardier beetles (Carabidae: Brachininae) are well known for their unique explosive defensive chemistry. These beetles are found in riparian corridors throughout the American Southwest, where they commonly form large diurnal multispecies aggregations in moist areas under rocks, in crevices, and in leaf litter. Using high throughput 16S amplicon sequencing, we provide the first microbiome survey of a bombardier beetle, Brachinus elongatulus, collected from two sites in Arizona. Two bacterial taxa were present in all individuals sampled: Enterococcus and Dysgonomonas. Enterococcus has been implicated in the production of fecal aggregation pheromone components, which have been shown to regulate aggregation in the German cockroach; it is possible that Enterococcus plays a similar role in Brachinus. Dysgonomonas was found in all the secretory cells of the defensive system and gut samples. Additional studies are needed to determine if these microbes play a role in these beetles' unique chemical defense. Results also show that the majority of B. elongatulus individuals collected from both sites were infected with Spiroplasma. Many Spiroplasma are intracellular, vertically transmitted insect symbionts that may manipulate host reproduction (e.g., cause male-killing) or provide resistance to nematodes and/or parasitoid wasps. Defensive protection could be especially beneficial to B. elongatulus, which are frequently parasitized by horsehair worms (Nematomorpha). In sum, findings suggest several testable hypotheses on the effects bacteria may have on bombardier beetle behavior and physiology.
    • Bacterial biogeography of adult airways in atopic asthma

      Durack, Juliana; Huang, Yvonne J.; Nariya, Snehal; Christian, Laura S.; Mark Ansel, K.; Beigelman, Avraham; Castro, Mario; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Israel, Elliot; Kraft, Monica; et al. (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2018-06-09)
      Background: Perturbations to the composition and function of bronchial bacterial communities appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma. Unraveling the nature and mechanisms of these complex associations will require large longitudinal studies, for which bronchoscopy is poorly suited. Studies of samples obtained by sputum induction and nasopharyngeal brushing or lavage have also reported asthma-associated microbiota characteristics. It remains unknown, however, whether the microbiota detected in these less-invasive sample types reflect the composition of bronchial microbiota in asthma. Results: Bacterial microbiota in paired protected bronchial brushings (BB; n = 45), induced sputum (IS; n = 45), oral wash (OW; n = 45), and nasal brushings (NB; n = 27) from adults with mild atopic asthma (AA), atopy without asthma (ANA), and healthy controls (HC) were profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Though microbiota composition varied with sample type (p < 0.001), compositional similarity was greatest for BB-IS, particularly in AAs and ANAs. The abundance of genera detected in BB correlated with those detected in IS and OW (r median [IQR] 0.869 [0.748-0.942] and 0.822 [0.687-0.909] respectively), but not with those in NB (r = 0.004 [-0.003-0.011]). The number of taxa shared between IS-BB and NB-BB was greater in AAs than in HCs (p < 0.05) and included taxa previously associated with asthma. Of the genera abundant in NB, only Moraxella correlated positively with abundance in BB; specific members of this genus were shared between the two compartments only in AAs. Relative abundance of Moraxella in NB of AAs correlated negatively with that of Corynebacterium but positively with markers of eosinophilic inflammation in the blood and BAL fluid. The genus, Corynebacterium, trended to dominate all NB samples of HCs but only half of AAs (p = 0.07), in whom abundance of this genus was negatively associated with markers of eosinophilic inflammation. Conclusions: Induced sputum is superior to nasal brush or oral wash for assessing bronchial microbiota composition in asthmatic adults. Although compositionally similar to the bronchial microbiota, the microbiota in induced sputum are distinct, reflecting enrichment of oral bacteria. Specific bacterial genera are shared between the nasal and the bronchial mucosa which are associated with markers of systemic and bronchial inflammation.
    • Bacterial communities on classroom surfaces vary with human contact

      Meadow, James; Altrichter, Adam; Kembel, Steven; Moriyama, Maxwell; O'Connor, Timothy; Womack, Ann; Brown, G.; Green, Jessica; Bohannan, Brendan J.; Biology and the Built Environment Center, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, 5389 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA; et al. (BioMed Central, 2014)
      BACKGROUND:Humans can spend the majority of their time indoors, but little is known about the interactions between the human and built-environment microbiomes or the forces that drive microbial community assembly in the built environment. We sampled 16S rRNA genes from four different surface types throughout a university classroom to determine whether bacterial assemblages on each surface were best predicted by routine human interactions or by proximity to other surfaces within the classroom. We then analyzed our data with publicly-available datasets representing potential source environments.RESULTS:Bacterial assemblages from the four surface types, as well as individual taxa, were indicative of different source pools related to the type of human contact each surface routinely encounters. Spatial proximity to other surfaces in the classroom did not predict community composition.CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that human-associated microbial communities can be transferred to indoor surfaces following contact, and that such transmission is possible even when contact is indirect, but that proximity to other surfaces in the classroom does not influence community composition.
    • Bacterial expression, correct membrane targeting and functional folding of the HIV-1 membrane protein Vpu using a periplasmic signal peptide

      Deb, Arpan; Johnson, William A.; Kline, Alexander P.; Scott, Boston J.; Meador, Lydia R.; Srinivas, Dustin; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Dörner, Katerina; Borges, Chad R.; Misra, Rajeev; et al. (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-02-22)
      Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type-III integral membrane protein encoded by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). It is expressed in infected host cells and plays several roles in viral progeny escape from infected cells, including down-regulation of CD4 receptors. But key structure/ function questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which the Vpu protein contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Here we describe expression of Vpu in bacteria, its purification and characterization. We report the successful expression of PelB-Vpu in Escherichia coli using the leader peptide pectate lyase B (PelB) from Erwinia carotovora. The protein was detergent extractable and could be isolated in a very pure form. We demonstrate that the PelB signal peptide successfully targets Vpu to the cell membranes and inserts it as a type I membrane protein. PelB-Vpu was biophysically characterized by circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering experiments and was shown to be an excellent candidate for elucidating structural models.
    • A bacterial filter protects and structures the gut microbiome of an insect

      Lanan, Michele Caroline; Pos Rodrigues, Pedro Augusto; Agellon, Al; Jansma, Patricia; Wheeler, Diana Esther; Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology and Insect Science, University of Arizona; School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona; Department of Entomology, University of Arizona (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-08)
      Associations with symbionts within the gut lumen of hosts are particularly prone to disruption due to the constant influx of ingested food and non-symbiotic microbes, yet we know little about how partner fidelity is maintained. Here we describe for the first time the existence of a gut morphological filter capable of protecting an animal gut microbiome from disruption. The proventriculus, a valve located between the crop and midgut of insects, functions as a micro-pore filter in the Sonoran Desert turtle ant (Cephalotes rohweri), blocking the entry of bacteria and particles ⩾0.2 μm into the midgut and hindgut while allowing passage of dissolved nutrients. Initial establishment of symbiotic gut bacteria occurs within the first few hours after pupation via oral–rectal trophallaxis, before the proventricular filter develops. Cephalotes ants are remarkable for having maintained a consistent core gut microbiome over evolutionary time and this partner fidelity is likely enabled by the proventricular filtering mechanism. In addition, the structure and function of the cephalotine proventriculus offers a new perspective on organismal resistance to pathogenic microbes, structuring of gut microbial communities, and development and maintenance of host–microbe fidelity both during the animal life cycle and over evolutionary time.
    • Bacterial Rhizoplane Colonization Patterns of Buchloe dactyloides Growing in Metalliferous Mine Tailings Reflect Plant Status and Biogeochemical Conditions

      Honeker, Linnea K; Neilson, Julia W; Root, Robert A; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci (SPRINGER, 2017-11)
      Plant establishment during phytostabilization of legacy mine tailings in semiarid regions is challenging due to low pH, low organic carbon, low nutrients, and high toxic metal(loid) concentrations. Plant-associated bacterial communities are particularly important under these harsh conditions because of their beneficial services to plants. We hypothesize that bacterial colonization profiles on rhizoplane surfaces reflect deterministic processes that are governed by plant health and the root environment. The aim of this study was to identify associations between bacterial colonization patterns on buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) rhizoplanes and both plant status (leaf chlorophyll and plant cover) and substrate biogeochemistry (pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and rhizosphere microbial community). Buffalo grass plants from mesocosm- and field-scale phytostabilization trials conducted with tailings from the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, were analyzed. These tailings are extremely acidic and have arsenic and lead concentrations of 2-4 g kg-1 substrate. Bacterial communities on rhizoplanes and in rhizosphere-associated substrate were characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results indicated that the metabolic status of rhizoplane bacterial colonizers is significantly related to plant health. Principal component analysis revealed that root-surface Alphaproteobacteria relative abundance was associated most strongly with substrate pH and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance associated strongly with substrate pH and plant cover. These factors also affected the phylogenetic profiles of the associated rhizosphere communities. In summary, rhizoplane bacterial colonization patterns are plant specific and influenced by plant status and rhizosphere biogeochemical conditions.
    • Balanced source terms for wave generation within the Hasselmann equation

      Zakharov, Vladimir; Resio, Donald; Pushkarev, Andrei; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2017-10-09)
      The new Zakharov–Resio–Pushkarev (ZRP) wind input source term Zakharov et al.(2012) is examined for its theoretical consistency via numerical simulation of the Hasselmann equation. The results are compared to field experimental data, collected at different sites around the world, and theoretical predictions based on self-similarity analysis. Consistent results are obtained for both limited fetch and duration limited statements.
    • Balancing Institutional Demands with Effective Practice: A Lesson in Curricular and Professional Development

      Rodrigo, Rochelle; Ramírez, Cristina D.; Univ Arizona, Dept English; Univ Arizona, Rhetor Composit & Teaching English (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017)
      Online writing courses have developed in importance to meet student learning and institutional expectations; over time, a controversy about training online instructors and building sustainable programs has emerged. This article relates training demands within the University of Arizona's Writing Program and development of an online professional & technical writing certificate. The article proposes training instructors with master courses and building a sustained program through a participatory design to create a professional and integrated environment.
    • Balancing stability and flexibility in adaptive governance: an analysis of tools available in U.S. environmental law

      Craig, Robin Kundis; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Birgé, Hannah; DeCaro, Daniel A.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Gosnell, Hannah; Schlager, Edella; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt & Publ Policy (RESILIENCE ALLIANCE, 2017)
      Adaptive governance must work "on the ground," that is, it must operate through structures and procedures that the people it governs perceive to be legitimate and fair, as well as incorporating processes and substantive goals that are effective in allowing social-ecological systems (SESs) to adapt to climate change and other impacts. To address the continuing and accelerating alterations that climate change is bringing to SESs, adaptive governance generally will require more flexibility than prior governance institutions have often allowed. However, to function as good governance, adaptive governance must pay real attention to the problem of how to balance this increased need for flexibility with continuing governance stability so that it can foster adaptation to change without being perceived or experienced as perpetually destabilizing, disruptive, and unfair. Flexibility and stability serve different purposes in governance, and a variety of tools exist to strike different balances between them while still preserving the governance institution's legitimacy among the people governed. After reviewing those purposes and the implications of climate change for environmental governance, we examine psychological insights into the structuring of adaptive governance and the variety of legal tools available to incorporate those insights into adaptive governance regimes. Because the substantive goals of governance systems will differ among specific systems, we do not purport to comment on what the normative or substantive goals of law should be. Instead, we conclude that attention to process and procedure (including participation), as well as increased use of substantive standards (instead of rules), may allow an increased level of substantive flexibility to operate with legitimacy and fairness, providing the requisite levels of psychological, social, and economic stability needed for communities to adapt successfully to the Anthropocene.
    • Balancing the learning ability and memory demand of a perceptron-based dynamically trainable neural network

      Richter, Edward; Valancius, Spencer; McClanahan, Josiah; Mixter, John; Akoglu, Ali; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (SPRINGER, 2018-07)
      Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have become a popular means of solving complex problems in prediction-based applications such as image and natural language processing. Two challenges prominent in the neural network domain are the practicality of hardware implementation and dynamically training the network. In this study, we address these challenges with a development methodology that balances the hardware footprint and the quality of the ANN. We use the well-known perceptron-based branch prediction problem as a case study for demonstrating this methodology. This problem is perfect to analyze dynamic hardware implementations of ANNs because it exists in hardware and trains dynamically. Using our hierarchical configuration search space exploration, we show that we can decrease the memory footprint of a standard perceptron-based branch predictor by 2.3 with only a 0.6% decrease in prediction accuracy.
    • Band offset in (Ga, In)As/Ga(As, Sb) heterostructures

      Gies, S.; Weseloh, M. J.; Fuchs, C.; Stolz, W.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.; Heimbrodt, W.; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016-11-28)
      A series of (Ga, In)As/GaAs/Ga(As, Sb) multi-quantum well heterostructures is analyzed using temperature-and power-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Pronounced PL variations with sample temperature are observed and analyzed using microscopic many-body theory and band structure calculations based on the k.p method. This theory-experiment comparison reveals an unusual, temperature dependent variation of the band alignment between the (Ga, In) As and Ga(As, Sb) quantum wells. Published by AIP Publishing.
    • Barrier effects of roads on an endangered forest obligate: influences of traffic, road edges, and gaps

      Chen, Hsiang Ling; Koprowski, John L.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm, Environm & Nat Resources (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016-07)
      Habitat fragmentation and destruction caused by development of infrastructure such as roads threaten biodiversity. Roads act as barriers by impeding animal movements and restricting space use. Understanding factors that influence barrier effects is important to discern the impacts of habitat fragmentation and to develop appropriate mitigations. We combined telemetry and demographic data in 2008 to 2012 with remote sensing imagery to investigate barrier effects of forest roads and assess effects of traffic, road edges, and canopy gaps on space use of an endangered, endemic forest obligate, the Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis). We mapped low to high traffic roads, road edges, canopy gaps, and random lines in forests to serve as references. We determined if red squirrels included these linear features in their total and core home ranges, and used this metric as an indicator of crossing and preference for habitat adjacent to the linear features. Forest roads acted as barriers regardless of traffic volume and had long-term impacts on animal space use. Animals did not avoid entering roadside areas, and probability of crossing linear features in the forest was not affected by distance to roads. In contrast, greater canopy cover increased probability of crossing, and gaps in canopy impeded animal movements. Higher likelihood of road crossing was associated with more variable tree height and mating activity. We demonstrated that narrow forest roads with low traffic volume were barriers for forest dependent species, and suggest that gap avoidance inhibits road crossings. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.