Now showing items 4392-4411 of 12955

    • Fabrication and testing of 4.2m off-axis aspheric primary mirror of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

      Oh, Chang Jin; Lowman, Andrew E.; Smith, Greg A.; Su, Peng; Huang, Run; Su, Tianquan; Kim, Daewook; Zhao, Chunyu; Zhou, Ping; Burge, James H.; et al. (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2016-07-22)
      Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (formerly known as Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest optical solar telescope ever built to provide greatly improved image, spatial and spectral resolution and to collect sufficient light flux of Sun. To meet the requirements of the telescope the design adopted a 4m aperture off-axis parabolic primary mirror with challenging specifications of the surface quality including the surface figure, irregularity and BRDF. The mirror has been completed at the College of Optical Sciences in the University of Arizona and it meets every aspect of requirement with margin. In fact this mirror may be the smoothest large mirror ever made. This paper presents the detail fabrication process and metrology applied to the mirror from the grinding to finish, that include extremely stable hydraulic support, IR and Visible deflectometry, Interferometry and Computer Controlled fabrication process developed at the University of Arizona.
    • Fabrication of Radially Symmetric Graded Porous Silicon using a Novel Cell Design

      Zhao, Mingrui; Keswani, Manish; Univ Arizona, Mat Sci & Engn (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-04-22)
      A contactless method using a novel design of the experimental cell for formation of porous silicon with morphological gradient is reported. Fabricated porous silicon layers show a large distribution in porosity, pore size and depth along the radius of the samples. Symmetrical arrangements of morphology gradient were successfully formulated radially on porous films and the formation was attributed to decreasing current density radially inward on the silicon surface exposed to Triton (R) X-100 containing HF based etchant solution. Increasing the surfactant concentration increases the pore depth gradient but has a reverse effect on the pore size distribution. Interestingly, when dimethyl sulfoxide was used instead of Triton (R) X-100 in the etchant solution, no such morphological gradients were observed and a homogeneous porous film was formed.
    • Facemasks and ferrous metallurgy: improving gasification reactivity of low-volatile coals using waste COVID-19 facemasks for ironmaking application

      Stewart, D.J.C.; Fisher, L.V.; Warwick, M.E.A.; Thomson, D.; Barron, A.R.; University of Arizona (Nature, 2022)
      The global pandemic response to COVID-19 has led to the generation of huge volumes of unrecyclable plastic waste from single use disposable face coverings. Rotary hearth furnaces can be used to recover Zn and Fe from non-recyclable steelmaking by-product dusts, and waste plastic material such as facemasks could be utilized as a supplementary reductant for the rotary hearth furnace (RHF), but their fibrous form makes milling and processing to appropriate sizing for RHF application extremely challenging. A scalable method of grinding facemasks to powder by melting and mixing with Welsh coal dust reported herein provides a solution to both environmental challenges. The melt-blended PPE/coal dust shows a dramatically improved CO2 gasification reactivity (Ea = 133-159 kJmol-1) when compared to the untreated coal (Ea = 183-246 kJmol-1), because of improved pore development in the coal during the pyrolysis stage of heating and the catalytic activity of the CaO based ash present in the facemask plastic. The results are promising for the application of waste facemasks in recycling steelmaking by-product dusts in rotary hearth furnaces and may also be suitable for direct injection to the blast furnace subject to further study. © 2022. The Author(s).
    • Facial Surgery in the Era of SARS-CoV-2 and Beyond: Challenges, Considerations, and Initiatives

      Dicaro, M.V.; Mintz, J.; Shir, S.; Muse, A.; Richards, J.; Shah, A.; Farber, S.; College of Medicine Tucson, University of Arizona (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2020)
      The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic resulted in the implementation of healthcare practice regulations and restrictions across the United States. To facilitate safe patient management practices for facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons, appropriate guidelines and recommendations should be followed. Guidelines and recommendations should include a synthesis of the best evidence available from public health authorities and respected members in the surgery community. This review contains evidence-based suggestions that prioritize the safety of healthcare professionals and patients to help guide facial and reconstructive surgeons toward safe patient management. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
    • Facile synthesis of 2h-benzo[h]chromenes via an arylamine-catalyzed mannich cyclization cascade reaction

      Zhang, Y.; Ji, P.; Meng, X.; Gao, F.; Zeng, F.; Wang, W.; Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Chemistry and Biochemistry, and BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona (MDPI AG, 2021)
      A simple arylamine-catalyzed Mannich-cyclization cascade reaction was developed for facile synthesis of substituted 2H-benzo[h]chromenes. The notable feature of the process included the efficient generation of ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) catalyzed by a simple aniline. The mild reaction conditions allowed for a broad spectrum of 1-and 2-naphthols and trans-cinnamaldehydes to engage in the cascade sequence with high efficiency. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Facile synthesis of Prussian blue nanoparticles as pH-responsive drug carriers for combined photothermal-chemo treatment of cancer

      Chen, Huajian; Ma, Yan; Wang, Xianwen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Zha, Zhengbao; Univ Arizona, Dept Aerosp & Mech Engn, Biomed Engn IDP, Inst Bio5 (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2017)
      Due to their clinical use approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) have been explored as a new generation of photothermal agents for cancer photothermal therapy (PTT). However, PTT treatment alone has limited therapeutic efficiency since it can not eliminate tumor cells completely. Herein we developed a facile method for the synthesis of PB NPs through a combined ligand exchange and thin film hydration process, modified the PB NPs by lipid-PEG conjugation, producing PEGylated PB NPs, and encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) in the PEGylated PB NPs via hydrophobic interactions, creating PEGylated PB-DOX NPs. Obtained from the results of fluorescence intensity measurements, the loading efficiency and content of DOX in PEGylated PB-DOX NPs was as high as 98.0% and 9.2%, respectively. The DOX release from the PEGylated PB-DOX NPs was significantly enhanced at acidic pH, likely due to the protonation of the amine group, and a three-parameter simulation model was used to gain insight into the pH effect on DOX release. Moreover, a cell cytotoxicity study in vitro shows that PEGylated PB-DOX NPs exhibits a remarkable photothermal-chemo synergistic effect to HeLa cells, attributed to both photothermal ablation mediated by the PEGylated PB NPs and enhanced cellular uptake of DOX. Therefore, our study may open a new path for the production of PB NPs as drug delivery vehicles for combined photothermal-chemo cancer treatment.
    • Facilitated Communication, Neurodiversity, and Human Rights

      Simmons, William Paul; Boynton, Janyce; Landman, Todd; University of Arizona (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2021-02-28)
      Facilitated Communication (FC) has rightly been labeled a pseudoscience as there are no controlled studies showing its validity as a form of communication for people with severe autism or other disabilities. In controlled studies, it has been the facilitator and not the person with disabilities that is generating the communication. Spurious communications have led to numerous cases of sexual assault and false accusations of misconduct. Nev-ertheless, FC remains widely practiced and touted even by supposed experts. We argue that this controversy has important human rights implications, especially for activists attempting to amplify marginalized people’s voices by speaking for them, and raises critical questions about epistemological issues in human rights work. © 2021 by Johns Hopkins University Press.
    • Fact or fake? Identifying ways of knowing everyday truths in research methods courses

      Bighash, Leila; Sangalang, Angeline; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-06)
      This activity motivates students of communication research methods by challenging them to face their personal epistemologies. We introduce them to a set of formal ways of knowing and match these with their personal justifications for knowledge. Through this exercise, students learn that the scientific method is worthy of study not just to pass a social science focused research methods course, but also to have a deeper understanding of their personal knowledge. Courses: Undergraduate Research Methods (quantitative and/or social science focus). Objectives: By the end of the activity, students should be able to: identify examples of the four ways of knowing; compare and contrast the uses and relative rigor of the four ways of knowing; consume research and media reports with a skeptic’s mindset; establish interpersonal contact with classmates and the instructor; and gain motivation for learning the rest of the course material. © 2021 National Communication Association.
    • A factor increasing venous contamination on bolus chase three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging: Charcot neuroarthropathy

      Cildag, MehmetB; Ertuğrul, MustafaB; Köseoğlu, ÖmerFK; Armstrong, DavidG; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Surg (MEDKNOW PUBLICATIONS & MEDIA PVT LTD, 2018-04-05)
      Background: The study aimed to evaluate the ratio of venous contamination in diabetic cases without foot lesion, with foot lesion and with Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN). Materials and Methods: Bolus-chase three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) of 396 extremities of patients with diabetes mellitus was analyzed, retrospectively. Extremities were divided into three groups as follows: diabetic patients without foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy (Group A), patients with diabetic foot ulcers (Group B) and patients with CN accompanying diabetic foot ulcers (Group C). Furthermore, amount of venous contamination classified as no venous contamination, mild venous contamination, and severe venous contamination. The relationship between venous contamination and extremity groups was investigated. Results: Severe venous contamination was seen in Group A, Group B, and Group C, 5.6%, 15.2%, and 34.1%, respectively. Statistically significant difference was seen between groups with regard to venous contamination. Conclusion: Venous contamination following bolus chase MR was higher in patients with CN.
    • Factors Affecting Compliance with Alerts in the Context of Healthcare-related Emergencies

      Kumar, M.; Leroy, G.; Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management, University of Arizona (Association for Information Systems, 2021)
      This study is a conceptual replication of the study by Han et al. (2015) in which the authors evaluated factors affecting students’ compliance with emergency instructions during campus emergencies. The current study focused on broader public health-related emergencies using eight scenarios evaluated by Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants. Analysis on the aggregated data showed that subjective norm and trust in information quality positively affected intention to comply with instructions, consistent with the original study. Three follow up analyses provide more nuanced results. First, an abridged dataset was created by filtering out participants whose reasons for non-immediate compliance weren't related to verifying information and then complying. Analysis on this dataset showed that subjective norm no longer positively affected intention to comply. Second, scenarios used in the study were grouped by characteristics such as development speed, frequency, and area affected, and the analysis was redone. Factors affecting intention to comply immediately changed based on the characteristic, with subjective norm positively affected intention to comply in slow-developing scenarios, scenarios that affect at a limited area, and commonly occurring scenarios, while trust in information quality affects the other scenarios. Third, recall of information from the notification was collected from participants and analyzed. Results show that participants who chose to comply immediately recalled more information than others. Our replication study shows some support for the original conclusions; however, the broader setting and more nuanced analyses show also differences between both studies. © 2021 by the Association for Information Systems.
    • Factors affecting early identification of pregnant women by community health workers in Morogoro, Tanzania

      Frumence, G; Goodman, M; Chebet, J J; Mosha, I; Bishanga, D; Chitama, D; Winch, P J; Killewo, J; Baqui, A H; Univ Arizona, Dept Hlth Promot Sci (BMC, 2019-07-08)
      Background: It is recommended that Antenatal Care (ANC) be initiated within the first trimester of pregnancy for essential interventions, such folic acid supplementation, to be effective. In Tanzania, only 24% of mothers attend their first ANC appointment during their first trimester. Studies have shown that women who have had contact with a health worker are more likely to attend their first antenatal care appointment earlier in pregnancy. Community health workers (CHWs) are in an opportune position to be this contact. This study explored CHW experiences with identifying women early in gestation to refer them to facility-based antenatal care services in Morogoro, Tanzania. Methods: This qualitative study employed 10 semi-structured focus group discussions, 5 with 34 CHWs and 5 with 34 recently delivered women in three districts in Morogoro, Tanzania. A thematic analytical approach was used to identify emerging themes among the CHW and RDW responses.ResultsStudy findings show CHWs play a major role in identifying pregnant women in their communities and linking them with health facilities. Lack of trust and other factors, however, affect early pregnancy identification by the CHWs. They utilize several methods to identify pregnant women, including: asking direct questions to households when collecting information on the national census, conducting frequent household visits and getting information about pregnant women from health facilities. Conclusions: We present a framework for the interaction of factors that affect CHWs' ability to identify pregnant women early in gestation. Further studies need to be conducted investigating optimal workload for CHWs, as well as reasons pregnant women might conceal their pregnancies.
    • Factors Affecting Hydroxide Ion Concentrations in Bipolar Membranes

      Chen, Y.; Baygents, J.C.; Gervasio, D.; Farrell, J.; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona (Amirkabir University of Technology - Membrane Processes Research Laboratory, 2021)
      The useful lifetime of bipolar ion exchange membranes is often limited by nucleophilic attack by hydroxide ions on the ionic groups and polymer backbone in the anion exchange layers (AELs). This is especially problematic in water treatment applications for making acid and base from salt solutions. This research investigated the effect of bulk electrolyte composition, current density, membrane thickness, ion exchange capacity, and bulk solution pH value on hydroxide ion concentrations inside the AELs of a bipolar membrane. Onedimensional Nernst-Plank equations were solved for the species Na+, Cl-, OH- and H+ within 20-100 μm thick anion and cation exchange layers with fixed charged densities ranging from 0.5-2.0 eq/L. In 1 M NaCl solutions at neutral pH values, hydroxide concentrations in the AEL reached as high as 2.2 M at a current density of 100 mA/cm2. In 1 M NaOH solutions, hydroxide ion concentrations reached as high as 3.77 M. Hydroxide concentrations in the AEL were significantly affected by the ratio of Cl- to hydroxide ions in the bulk electrolyte. Where hydroxide concentrations in the bulk electrolyte were an order of magnitude lower than chloride concentrations, membrane hydroxide concentrations were nearly proportional to the current density. Increases in ion exchange capacity and AEL thickness resulted in increased membrane hydroxide ion concentrations. Membrane concentrations of hydroxide ions can be minimized by operation at low current densities, with high background electrolyte concentrations using thin membranes with low ion exchange capacities and producing base concentrations less than 0.1 M. © 2021 Amirkabir University of Technology - Membrane Processes Research Laboratory. All rights reserved.
    • Factors associated with baseline smoking selfefficacy among male Qatari residents enrolled in a quit smoking study

      Al Thani, M.; Leventakou, V.; Sofroniou, A.; Butt, H.I.; Hakim, I.A.; Thomson, C.; Nair, U.S.; Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona; Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona (Public Library of Science, 2022)
      Smoking self-efficacy, described as confidence in one's ability to abstain from smoking in high-risk situations is a key predictor in cessation outcomes; however, there is a dearth of research on factors that influence self-efficacy surrounding smoking behavior. This study examines factors associated with baseline self-efficacy among treatment seeking participants enrolled in a pilot feasibility smoking cessation study. Participants (n = 247) were daily male smokers, residents of Doha in Qatar (18-60 years) who were enrolled in a telephonebased smoking cessation study. Baseline assessments included self-efficacy, home smoking rules, socio-demographic variables, smoking history, and psychosocial characteristics. Factors associated with self-efficacy were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that after controlling for relevant variables, number of cigarettes smoked (β = -0.22; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.06), having at least one quit attempt in the past year (β = 2.30; 95% CI: 0.27, 4.35), and reporting a complete home smoking ban (β = 3.13; 95% CI: 0.56, 5.70) were significantly associated with higher self-efficacy to quit smoking. These results provide data-driven indication of several key variables that can be targeted to increase smoking self-efficacy in this understudied population. © 2022 Al Thani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    • Factors Associated with Cancer Screening Among Hopi Men

      Batai, Ken; Sanderson, Priscilla R; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Joshweseoma, Lori; Russell, Dana; Joshweseoma, Lloyd; Ojeda, Jordan; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Brown, Sylvia R; Ami, Delores; et al. (SPRINGER, 2020-10-20)
      Cancer screening rates remain low among American Indian men, and cancer screening behaviors and barriers to cancer screening among American Indian men are not well understood. This study evaluated cancer screening behaviors in 102 Hopi men who were 50 years of age or older from the Hopi Survey of Cancer and Chronic Disease. Reported cancer screening frequencies were 15.7%, 45.1%, and 35.3% for fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, respectively. Among men who reported having had a FOBT, 81.2% had the test more than 1 year ago. Among men who reported a colonoscopy, 60.8% had colonoscopy within the past 3 years. Similarly, among men who reported having had PSA, 72.3% had PSA within the past 3 years. "No one told me" was the most common answer for not undergoing FOBT (33.7%), colonoscopy (48.2%), and PSA (39.4%). Men who reported having had a PSA or digital rectal exam were three times as likely to also report having a FOBT or colonoscopy (odds ratio [OR] 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-8.46). Younger age (< 65) was associated with reduced odds of ever having prostate cancer screening (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.77). Ever having colorectal cancer screening and previous diagnosis of cancer increased odds of ever having prostate cancer screening (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.13-8.81 and OR 5.28, 95% CI: 1.15-24.18 respectively). This study illustrates the importance of community cancer education for men to improve cancer screening participation.
    • Factors Associated with Functional Decline in Elderly Female Breast Cancer Patients in Appalachia

      Singh, Raj; Ansinelli, Hayden; Katz, Heather; Jafri, Hassaan; Gress, Todd; Tirona, Maria T; Univ Arizona, Dept Radiat Oncol (CUREUS INC, 2018-05-12)
      Background Functional status has been previously shown in the elderly cancer population to predict both mortality as well as treatment tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine if there are certain subsets of the elderly breast cancer population that are at higher risk of experiencing functional decline following treatment. Methods Patient charts from the Edwards Comprehensive Cancer Center in Huntington, West Virginia, from January 2006 - January 2016 were reviewed. Relevant inclusion criteria included patients of 65 years of age and older with a new diagnosis of Stage 0-III breast cancer. Functional decline was defined as an increase of at least one point in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores within one year of diagnosis. ECOG performance status was subjectively determined by the physician. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's Chi-squared test were initially utilized to assess potential factors associated with functional decline such as pretreatment ECOG score, age at diagnosis, stage, hormone receptor status, type of surgery received, whether radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy was received, medical comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), complaints of weakness at diagnosis, and ambulatory status. Factors that were found to be significant were further assessed via multivariate logistic regressions. Results Three-hundred and fourteen patients were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. At one-year follow-up, 45 patients (14.3% of the cohort) had documented functional decline. On initial analysis, factors associated with functional decline included Stage III disease (p=0.002) and complaints of weakness at diagnosis (p=0.004). Following multivariate analysis, Stage III disease (p = 0.02), complaints of weakness at diagnosis (p = 0.04), and bilateral mastectomy (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with functional decline. Conclusion Patients who were diagnosed with Stage III breast cancer, had complaints of weakness at time of diagnosis, or had bilateral mastectomies were more likely to have a decline in functional status at one-year follow-up. Awareness of factors associated with functional decline in the elderly Appalachian population with Stage 0-III breast cancer will be useful during discussions regarding patient expectations, treatment, and goals of care. Elderly breast cancer patients for whom bilateral prophylactic mastectomies are not indicated may be better served by lumpectomy alone (based on patient age, hormone receptor status, and tumor size), lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy, or unilateral mastectomy to maximize the likelihood of functional preservation following treatment.
    • Factors associated with patient, and diagnostic delays in Chinese TB patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Li, Ying; Ehiri, John; Tang, Shenglan; Li, Daikun; Bian, Yongqiao; Lin, Hui; Marshall, Caitlin; Cao, Jia; Department of Social Medicine and Health Service Management, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Road, Shapingba District, Chongqing, China; Division of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin Avenue, Tucson, AZ, USA; et al. (BioMed Central, 2013)
      BACKGROUND:Delay in seeking care is a major impediment to effective management of tuberculosis (TB) in China. To elucidate factors that underpin patient and diagnostic delays in TB management, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of factors that are associated with delays in TB care-seeking and diagnosis in the country.METHODS:This review was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to November 2012 were identified from three major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure).RESULTS:We included 29 studies involving 38,947 patients from 17 provinces in China. Qualitative analysis showed that key individual level determinants of delays included socio-demographic and economic factors, mostly poverty, rural residence, lack of health insurance, lower educational attainment, stigma and poor knowledge of TB. Health facility determinants included limited availability of resources to perform prompt diagnosis, lack of qualified health workers and geographical barriers.Quantitative meta-analysis indicated that living in rural areas was a risk factor for patient delays (pooled odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.79 (1.62, 1.98)) and diagnostic delays (pooled OR (95% CI): 1.40 (1.23, 1.59)). Female patients had higher risk of patient delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.13, 3.33)). Low educational attainment (primary school and below) was also a risk factor for patient delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 2.14 (1.03, 4.47)). The practice of seeking care first from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TMC) providers was also identified as a risk factor for diagnostic delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 5.75 (3.03, 10.94)).CONCLUSION:Patient and diagnostic delays in TB care are mediated by individual and health facility factors. Population-based interventions that seek to reduce TB stigma and raise awareness about the benefits of early diagnosis and prompt treatment are needed. Policies that remove patients' financial barriers in access to TB care, and integration of the informal care sector into TB control in urban and rural settings are central factors in TB control.
    • Factors Associated with Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes of South Benin: A Cross-Sectional Study

      Alaofè, H.; Amoussa Hounkpatin, W.; Djrolo, F.; Ehiri, J.; Rosales, C.; Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona; Division of Public Health Practice & Translational Research, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2022)
      Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) adversely affects health-related quality of life (QoL). However, little is known about the QoL of diabetic patients in Benin, where the disease is a growing concern. Thus, this study aims to assess the QoL and its associated factors among T2D patients in Cotonou, southern Benin. Methods: A total of 300 T2D patients (age > 18 years) were enrolled, and the diabetes-specific quality of life (DQoL) and Natividad self-care behaviors’ (SCB) instruments were used for data collection. DQoL scores were calculated, and factors associated with DQoL explored using logistic regression. Results: The mean of patients’ DQoL was 38.1 ± 4.1, with 43% having low QoL. In terms of DQoL, 56.3% reported a high diabetes impact, followed by low life satisfaction (53%) and high worry about diabetes (32.7%). In the logistic regression analysis, education, marital status, occupation, family history of diabetes, complications, and social support were associated with DQoL. SCB factors, including healthy eating, problem-solving, coping strategies, and risk reduction, were significant predictors of DQoL. Conclusions: Patients’ empowerment, starting with self-management education, is essential to improve the QoL of T2D patients in Cotonou. However, the programs need to target low education, low socioeconomic status, low social support, and overweight patients. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Factors Associated With the Recurrence, Persistence, and Clearance of Asymptomatic Bacterial Vaginosis Among Young African American Women: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis

      Coudray, Makella S; Sheehan, Diana M; Li, Tan; Cook, Robert L; Schwebke, Jane; Madhivanan, Purnima; Univ Arizona, Dept Hlth Promot Sci, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Div Infect Dis; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Family & Community Med (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-12)
      Background Although risk factors of recurrent and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV) have been explored in the literature, the longitudinal incidence patterns of BV remain elusive. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from a randomized clinical trial of metronidazole treatment for asymptomatic BV. Repeated-measures latent class analysis was used to identify distinct longitudinal patterns of incident BV cases. Multinomial regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of class membership. The multivariable model included age, last BV treatment, douching frequency, birth control, sexual risk behavior, and assignment to treatment arm. Results A total of 858 African American women who were asymptomatic for BV were included in the analysis. Three emergent patterns of BV for 12 months were identified by repeated-measures latent class analysis: persistent (55.9%), recurrent (30.5%), and clearance (13.5%). Participants who had douched at least once had significantly lower odds to be in the recurrent class versus the clearance class (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.63). Women who had sex with women had significantly lower odds of belonging to the persistent class versus the clearance class (adjOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.22-0.68) and the recurrent class (adjOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.81). Those who were assigned to the treatment arm had significantly increased odds of being in the recurrent class versus the clearance class (adjOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.22-3.03). Women older than 21 years were significantly more likely to be in the recurrent class (adjOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.17-3.00) than in the clearance class. Conclusions Assessment of BV cases revealed distinct patterns of recurrence and persistence of BV, which were significantly associated with douching, being in the treatment arm, and being a woman who had sex with women.
    • Factors associated with treatment outcomes after use of auto-titrating CPAP therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea

      Fashanu, Olabimpe S.; Quan, Stuart F.; Asthma and Airways Research Center, University of Arizona College of Medicine (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-03-14)
      Objectives To determine factors that are associated with OSA therapy outcomes with auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP). Methods We sequentially grouped patients from a retrospective cohort based on APAP efficacy (sufficiently vs. insufficiently treated; insufficiently treatment defined as residual AHI of ≥ 5), therapy adherence (adherent vs. non-adherent, non-adherence defined as < 70% usage for ≥ 4 h/night), and therapy outcomes (optimal vs. non-optimal and non-optimal outcomes defined as non-adherent and/or insufficiently treated). We subsequently compared each group. Results The insufficiently treated were older (68.4 ± 12.5 vs. 60.4 ± 13.1 years, p < 0.01) and had lower BMI (31.9 ± 6.3 vs. 37.9 ± 9.1 kg/m2, p < 0.01). They had higher baseline central apnea indices (CAI), longer leaks, higher peak pressures, and were less compliant. The non-adherent were younger (61.1 ± 12.6 vs. 65.5 ± 13.2 years, p = 0.03) and comprised more females (56.1 vs. 43.9%, p = 0.04). The leak duration per usage hour was higher in the non-compliant (median: 1.5; IQR 7.9 vs. median: 0.3; IQR 1.9 min/h; p < 0.01). The non-optimally treated had lower BMI, longer leaks, and less nightly usage. Multivariate analyses showed that leak duration was the common factor associated with treatment effectiveness and optimal therapy outcomes. Conclusions Various demographic and clinical factors were associated with treatment efficacy and adherence. However, leak duration was the common factor related to treatment efficacy and overall optimal therapy outcomes.
    • Factors influencing detectability and responses of Elf Owls to playback of conspecific vocalizations

      Flesch, Aaron D.; Boone, John; Pluym, David Vander; Sabin, Laura Beth; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2021-08-06)
      Broadcasting conspecific vocalizations is commonly used to survey secretive, inconspicuous, and uncommon species of birds, but information about how response behaviors vary across temporal and broad spatial gradients is limited for most species despite the importance of such data for guiding survey efforts. We assessed response patterns and detection probability of Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi) across broad ecological gradients in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts of Arizona that spanned much of their breeding range in the United States. From March to June 2015–2017, we examined response times and distances of an estimated 587 Elf Owls detected during playback surveys at 1488 stations along 121 transects (193 km). Additionally, from April to June 2010–2011 and 2016–2017, we examined detection probability during 255 playback experiments at occupied nests and modeled the influence of spatial, temporal, moon illumination, vegetation, conspecific densities, and weather-related factors on detection probability. During transect surveys, response times were rapid (mean = 2.0 min), with 75% of detections within 3 min. Owls often responded close to broadcast stations (mean = 103 m), with only 25% of responses at distances > 140 m and none > 400 m. Response times were faster and from greater distances in the more arid western portion of our study area. During playback experiments at nests, detection probability averaged 0.65 and declined with increasing time of night, time of season, and noise levels. Detection probability also declined with increasing distance from target owls, but at lower rates in the western than the eastern portion of our study area. Spatial variation in detectability was primarily due to surveyors failing to detect responding owls in areas with higher owl densities in more resource-rich environments in the east, not differences in underlying responsiveness. Our results suggest that 5 or 6 min surveys within ˜4 h of sunset and early in the breeding season will be most effective and that spacing survey stations from 100 to 150 m apart, depending on local densities and study objectives, is adequate for estimating occupancy and abundance with relatively low false absence rates.