Now showing items 11476-11495 of 12955

    • T-BAS Version 2.1: Tree-Based Alignment Selector Toolkit for Evolutionary Placement of DNA Sequences and Viewing Alignments and Specimen Metadata on Curated and Custom Trees

      Carbone, Ignazio; White, James B; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Miller, Mark A; Magain, Nicolas; U'Ren, Jana M; Lutzoni, François; Univ Arizona, Dept Biosyst Engn; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci; et al. (MICROBIOLOGY RESOURCE ANNOUNCEMENTS, 2019-07-18)
      The Tree-Based Alignment Selector (T-BAS) toolkit combines phylogenetic-based placement of DNA sequences with alignment and specimen metadata visualization tools in an integrative pipeline for analyzing microbial biodiversity. The release of T-BAS version 2.1 makes available reference phylogenies, supports multilocus sequence placements and permits uploading and downloading trees, alignments, and specimen metadata.
    • T-Cell Replete Myeloablative Haploidentical Bone Marrow Transplantation Is an Effective Option for Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

      Katsanis, Emmanuel; Sapp, Lauren N; Reid, Susie Cienfuegos; Reddivalla, Naresh; Stea, Baldassarre; Univ Arizona, Dept Pediat; Univ Arizona, Dept Immunobiol; Univ Arizona, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Pathol; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; et al. (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-06-09)
      Twenty-one pediatric and young adult patients (1.1-24.7 years) with hematologic malignancies underwent myeloablative T-cell replete haploidentical bone marrow transplant (haplo-BMT) between October 2015 to December 2019. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were ethnic or racial minorities. Thirteen patients had B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with 10 receiving 1,200 cGy fractionated total body irradiation with fludarabine while the remaining 11 patients had targeted dose-busulfan, fludarabine, melphalan conditioning. Graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis consisted of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (15 patients) or cyclophosphamide and bendamustine (six patients), with all patients receiving tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Twelve patients were in first or second remission at time of transplant with five in >2nd remission and four with measurable disease. Three patients had failed prior transplants and three CAR-T cell therapies. Only one patient developed primary graft failure but engrafted promptly after a second conditioned T-replete peripheral blood stem cell transplant from the same donor. An absolute neutrophil count of 0.5 × 109/L was achieved at a median time of 16 days post-BMT while platelet engraftment occurred at a median of 30 days. The cumulative incidence of grades III to IV acute GvHD and chronic GvHD was 15.2 and 18.1%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 25.1 months the relapse rate is 17.6% with an overall survival of 84.0% and a progression-free survival of 74.3%. The chronic graft-vs.-host-free relapse-free survival (CRFS) is 58.5% while acute and chronic graft-vs.-host-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) is 50.1%. Myeloablative conditioned T-replete haploidentical BMT is a viable alternative to matched unrelated transplantation for children and young adults with high-risk hematologic malignancies.
    • Table cartogram

      Evans, William; Felsner, Stefan; Kaufmann, Michael; Kobourov, Stephen G.; Mondal, Debajyoti; Nishat, Rahnuma Islam; Verbeek, Kevin; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-03)
      A table cartogram of a two dimensional m x n table A of non-negative weights in a rectangle R, whose area equals the sum of the weights, is a partition of R into convex quadrilateral faces corresponding to the cells of A such that each face has the same adjacency as its corresponding cell and has area equal to the cell's weight. Such a partition acts as a natural way to visualize table data arising in various fields of research. In this paper, we give a O (mn)-time algorithm to find a table cartogram in a rectangle. We then generalize our algorithm to obtain table cartograms inside arbitrary convex quadrangles, circles, and finally, on the surface of cylinders and spheres. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • TAF1-gene editing alters the morphology and function of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex

      Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Yu, Jie; Moutal, Aubin; Chinnasamy, Dhanalakshmi; Boinon, Lisa; Batchelor, Shelby N; Anandhan, Annaduri; Khanna, Rajesh; Nelson, Mark A; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pathol; et al. (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-12-01)
      TAF1/MRSX33 intellectual disability syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the TAF1 gene. How these mutations cause dysmorphology, hypotonia, intellectual and motor defects is unknown. Mouse models which have embryonically targeted TAF1 have failed, possibly due to TAF1 being essential for viability, preferentially expressed in early brain development, and intolerant of mutation. Novel animal models are valuable tools for understanding neuronal pathology. Here, we report the development and characterization of a novel animal model for TAF1 ID syndrome in which the TAF1 gene is deleted in embryonic rats using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology and somatic brain transgenesis mediated by lentiviral transduction. Rat pups, post-natal day 3, were subjected to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of either gRNA-control or gRNA-TAF1 vectors. Rats were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests followed by histopathological analyses of brains at post-natal day 14 and day 35. TAF1-edited rats exhibited behavioral deficits at both the neonatal and juvenile stages of development. Deletion of TAF1 lead to a hypoplasia and loss of the Purkinje cells. We also observed a decreased in GFAP positive astrocytes and an increase in Iba1 positive microglia within the granular layer of the cerebellum in TAF1-edited animals. Immunostaining revealed a reduction in the expression of the CaV3.1 T-type calcium channel. Abnormal motor symptoms in TAF1-edited rats were associated with irregular cerebellar output caused by changes in the intrinsic activity of the Purkinje cells due to loss of pre-synaptic CaV3.1. This animal model provides a powerful new tool for studies of neuronal dysfunction in conditions associated with TAF1 abnormalities and should prove useful for developing therapeutic strategies to treat TAF1 ID syndrome.
    • TagSeq for gene expression in non‐model plants: A pilot study at the Santa Rita Experimental Range NEON core site

      Marx, Hannah E.; Scheidt, Stephen; Barker, Michael S.; Dlugosch, Katrina M.; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2020-11-22)
      Premise TagSeq is a cost-effective approach for gene expression studies requiring a large number of samples. To date, TagSeq studies in plants have been limited to those with a high-quality reference genome. We tested the suitability of reference transcriptomes for TagSeq in non-model plants, as part of a study of natural gene expression variation at the Santa Rita Experimental Range National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) core site. Methods Tissue for TagSeq was sampled from multiple individuals of four species (Bouteloua aristidoides and Eragrostis lehmanniana [Poaceae], Tidestromia lanuginosa [Amaranthaceae], and Parkinsonia florida [Fabaceae]) at two locations on three dates (56 samples total). One sample per species was used to create a reference transcriptome via standard RNA-seq. TagSeq performance was assessed by recovery of reference loci, specificity of tag alignments, and variation among samples. Results A high fraction of tags aligned to each reference and mapped uniquely. Expression patterns were quantifiable for tens of thousands of loci, which revealed consistent spatial differentiation in expression for all species. Discussion TagSeq using de novo reference transcriptomes was an effective approach to quantifying gene expression in this study. Tags were highly locus specific and generated biologically informative profiles for four non-model plant species.
    • Taguchi Design for Heat Treatment of Rene 65 Components

      Katsari, Christina Maria; Wessman, Andrew; Yue, Stephen; Univ Arizona, Dept Mat Sci & Engn (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-04-17)
      Rene 65 is a nickel-based superalloy used in aerospace components such as turbine blades and disks. The microstructure in the as-received condition of the superalloy consists of ~ 40% volume fraction of gamma prime precipitates, which gives such a high strength that thermomechanical processing is problematic. The goal of this study was to improve the processability of Rene 65 by developing a heat treatment to lower the strength through changes in the size distribution and volume fraction of those precipitates. Gamma prime in this alloy is observed in three sizes, ranging from a few mu m to tens of nm. For the design of the heat treatments, Taguchi's L8 matrix design of experiments was used. The four factors that are examined are cooling rate, hold temperature, hold time and cooling method to room temperature. The levels of the factors were two (high and low) with replication. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and mechanical properties by Vickers microhardness testing. Regression analysis on the results revealed that the most significant factor for this design is hold temperature. The softest sample and the hardest sample have a significant difference microstructurally, with the latter having a trimodal distribution of precipitates which is believed to cause the strength.
    • Tai Chi in Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome: A pilot randomized controlled trial

      Leung, Leona Yuen-Ling; Chan, Aileen Wai-Kiu; Sit, Janet Wing-Hung; Liu, Ting; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 2019-10-01)
      Objective: To determine the feasibility, acceptability and effects of a 12-week Tai Chi exercise program on cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in community-dwelling Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome. Design: A single blind, pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting/location: A general outpatient clinic of a community-based hospital in Hong Kong. Subjects: Ethnic Chinese, 18 years and older, who had at least three of the five criteria of metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education- Adult Treatment Panel III. Intervention: The Tai Chi group attended a 1-h Tai Chi class, twice a week for 12 weeks, plus 30-minutes home practice three-times per week. The control group maintained their usual daily activities. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability of the Tai Chi intervention. Secondary outcome measures were cardiometabolic risk factors, quality of life, stress and Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy. Results: Study retention rate was 65% (n = 35). Overall satisfaction of completers with the Tai Chi intervention was 4.5 +/- 0.63 (possible range = 1-5). When compared to controls, the Tai Chi group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (p = 0.037) at 12-weeks. Significant within group changes for the Tai Chi group included lower diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015), higher fasting blood glucose (p = 0.009), higher waist circumference (females only, p = 0.007), and better perceived mental health (p = 0.046); while controls had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p = 0.031), and higher waist circumference (females only, p = 0.003). Conclusion: The study intervention was feasible and acceptable for Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome. While not powered to find statistically significant differences, positive and negative changes were observed in some cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life. Further investigation with a larger sample size and longer study period is needed to explore potential environmental factors that may have influenced the study results.
    • Tail Wags the Dog? Functional Gene Classes Driving Genome-Wide GC Content in Plasmodium spp

      Castillo, Andreina I; Nelson, Andrew D L; Lyons, Eric; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci, BIO5 Inst (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-02)
      Plasmodium parasites are valuable models to understand how nucleotide composition affects mutation, diversification, and adaptation. No other observed eukaryotes have undergone such large changes in genomic Guanine-Cytosine (GC) content as seen in the genus Plasmodium (approximate to 30% within 35-40 Myr). Although mutational biases are known to influence GC content in the human-infective Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum; no study has addressed how different gene functional classes contribute to genus-wide compositional changes, or if Plasmodium GC content variation is driven by natural selection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that certain gene processes and functions drive variation in global GC content between Plasmodium species. We performed a large-scale comparative genomic analysis using the genomes and predicted genes of 17 Plasmodium species encompassing a wide genomic GC content range. Genic GC content was sorted and divided into ten equally sized quantiles that were then assessed for functional enrichment classes. In agreement that selection on gene classes may drive genomic GC content, trans-membrane proteins were enriched within extreme GC content quantiles (Q1 and Q10). Specifically, variant surface antigens, which primarily interact with vertebrate immune systems, showed skewed GC content distributions compared with other trans-membrane proteins. Although a definitive causation linking GC content, expression, and positive selection within variant surface antigens from Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium falciparum could not be established, we found that regardless of genomic nucleotide composition, genic GC content and expression were positively correlated during trophozoite stages. Overall, these data suggest that, alongside mutational biases, functional protein classes drive Plasmodium GC content change.
    • Tailoring phonon band structures with broken symmetry by shaping spatiotemporal modulations of stiffness in a one-dimensional elastic waveguide

      Deymier, Pierre A.; Gole, Vitthal; Lucas, Pierre; Vasseur, Jérôme O.; Runge, Keith; Univ Arizona, Dept Mat Sci & Engn (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017-08-17)
      Spatiotemporal modulations of the elastic properties of materials can be used to break time and parity symmetry of elastic waves. We show that the form of the elastic band structure depends not only on the spatial and temporal periodicity of a spatiotemporal modulation but also on its shape through its Fourier components. We demonstrate that hybridization gaps open from interactions between the Bloch modes of the periodic medium in absence of the temporal variation of the modulation and the combined sinusoidal components of the Fourier decomposition of the periodic modulation.
    • Taiwan and Itu Aba (Taiping): Creating an ‘Island for All’ in the South China Sea

      Hammer, Leonard; University of Arizona (Brill, 2020-02-03)
      One of the key decisions of the Law of the Sea Arbitration decision of 2016 was that the Itu Aba (Taiping) ‘island’ held by the Republic of China (roc) was not an island at all. Recognising the ongoing policy shifts by the roc since 2008 regarding the South China Sea, this article contends that the roc would do well to declare Itu Aba an international haven for scientific exploration. Such a move would buttress the roc’s international position, appease its allies, and allow it to maintain some form of control over its interests in the South China Sea.
    • The Tajik Basin: A composite record of sedimentary basin evolution in response to tectonics in the Pamir

      Chapman, James B.; Carrapa, Barbara; DeCelles, Peter G.; Worthington, James; Mancin, Nicoletta; Cobianchi, Miriam; Stoica, Marius; Wang, Xin; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; et al. (WILEY, 2019)
      Investigation of a >6-km-thick succession of Cretaceous to Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Tajik Basin reveals that this depocentre consists of three stacked basin systems that are interpreted to reflect different mechanisms of subsidence associated with tectonics in the Pamir Mountains: a Lower to mid-Cretaceous succession, an Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene succession and an Eocene-Neogene succession. The Lower to mid-Cretaceous succession consists of fluvial deposits that were primarily derived from the Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction-accretion complex in the northern Pamir. This succession is characterized by a convex-up (accelerating) subsidence curve, thickens towards the Pamir and is interpreted as a retroarc foreland basin system associated with northward subduction of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. The Upper Cretaceous to early Eocene succession consists of fine-grained, marginal marine and sabkha deposits. The succession is characterized by a concave-up subsidence curve. Regionally extensive limestone beds in the succession are consistent with late stage thermal relaxation and relative sea-level rise following lithospheric extension, potentially in response to Tethyan slab rollback/foundering. The Upper Cretaceous-early Eocene succession is capped by a middle Eocene to early Oligocene (ca. 50-30 Ma) disconformity, which is interpreted to record the passage of a flexural forebulge. The disconformity is represented by a depositional hiatus, which is 10-30 Myr younger than estimates for the initiation of India-Asia collision and overlaps in age with the start of prograde metamorphism recorded in the Pamir gneiss domes. Overlying the disconformity, a >4-km-thick upper Eocene-Neogene succession displays a classic, coarsening upward unroofing sequence characterized by accelerating subsidence, which is interpreted as a retro-foreland basin associated with crustal thickening of the Pamir during India-Asia collision. Thus, the Tajik Basin provides an example of a long-lived composite basin in a retrowedge position that displays a sensitivity to plate margin processes. Subsidence, sediment accumulation and basin-forming mechanisms are influenced by subduction dynamics, including periods of slab-shallowing and retreat.
    • TAK1 activation of alpha-TAT1 and microtubule hyperacetylation control AKT signaling and cell growth

      Shah, Nirav; Kumar, Sanjay; Zaman, Naveed; Pan, Christopher C.; Bloodworth, Jeffrey C.; Lei, Wei; Streicher, John M.; Hempel, Nadine; Mythreye, Karthikeyan; Lee, Nam Y.; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-04-27)
      Acetylation of microtubules (MT) confers mechanical stability necessary for numerous functions including cell cycle and intracellular transport. Although alpha TAT1 is a major MT acetyltransferase, how this enzyme is regulated remains much less clear. Here we report TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) as a key activator of alpha TAT1. TAK1 directly interacts with and phosphorylates alpha TAT1 at Ser237 to critically enhance its catalytic activity, as mutating this site to alanine abrogates, whereas a phosphomimetic induces MT hyperacetylation across cell types. Using a custom phospho-alpha TAT1-Ser237 antibody, we screen various mouse tissues to discover that brain contains some of the highest TAK1-dependent alpha TAT1 activity, which, accordingly, is diminished rapidly upon intra-cerebral injection of a TAK1 inhibitor. Lastly, we show that TAK1 selectively inhibits AKT to suppress mitogenic and metabolism-related pathways through MT-based mechanisms in culture and in vivo. Collectively, our findings support a fundamental new role for TGF-beta signaling in MT-related functions and disease.
    • Take a deep breath: the effects of television exposure and family communication on family shopping-related stress

      Lapierre, Matthew A.; Krcmar, Marina; Choi, Eunjoo; Haberkorn, Kristen A.; Locke, Sarah J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-21)
      Parents of children (age 2-12) participated in this study examining the influence of children's television exposure on parent-reported child-initiated purchase requests and coercive behaviors and their subsequent effect on overall parental stress, a factor associated with reduced well-being. Using a general family systems framework, and Family Communication Patterns (FCP), we also examined how these consumer oriented communication patterns could help or harm family interactions and ultimately, parent stress. Results indicated that increased child television exposure was associated with increased child-purchase initiations and consumer related coercive behavior. Additionally, child coercive behavior and child purchase initiation was then associated with increased parental stress, which has a well-documented impact on both physical and emotional parent well-being. Lastly, increased collaborative communication had an exacerbating direct effect on parent stress; whereas, parents who engaged in more control oriented and advertising communication had children who were more likely to ask for more products and exhibit more coercive behaviors. Finally, the link between television exposure and coercive behavior was weaker in homes where parents engaged in more advertising focused communication. Thus, advertising can directly and indirectly influence parent stress; however, effects can be mitigated through constructive parental communication with children.
    • Taking a Long Look: A Two-decade Reverberation Mapping Study of High-luminosity Quasars

      Kaspi, S.; Brandt, W.N.; Maoz, D.; Netzer, H.; Schneider, D.P.; Shemmer, O.; Grier, C.J.; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021)
      Reverberation mapping (RM) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been used over the past three decades to determine AGN broad-line region (BLR) sizes and central black hole masses, and their relations with the AGN luminosity. Until recently, the sample of objects with RM data was limited to low-luminosity AGNs (L opt ≲ 1046 erg s-1) and low redshifts (z ≲ 0.5). Here we present results from an RM project of some of the most luminous and highest-redshift quasars that have been mapped to date. The study is based on almost 20 years of photometric monitoring of 11 quasars, 6 of which were monitored spectrophotometrically for 13 yr. This is the longest RM project carried out so far on this type of AGNs. We successfully measure a time lag between the C iv λ 1549 broad emission line and the quasar continuum in three objects, and measure a C iii] λ 1909 lag in one quasar. Together with recently published data on C iv RM, the BLR size is found to scale as the square root of the UV luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in AGN luminosity. There is a significant scatter in the relation, part of which may be intrinsic to the AGNs. Although the C iv line is probably less well suited than Balmer lines for determination of the mass of the black hole, virial masses are tentatively computed, and in spite of a large scatter, we find that the mass of the black hole scales as the square root of the UV luminosity. © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
    • Talar-tarsal Stabilisation: Goals and Initial Outcomes

      Stevens, P.; Lancaster, A.; Khwaja, A.; Department of Orthopedics, University of Arizona (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, 2021)
      Background: While surgical stabilisation of the subtalar joint (arthroeresis) in children remains controversial in the USA, it is widely practised worldwide, with reportedly good outcomes. We are presenting a series of patients who met our criteria for calcaneal lengthening, but whose parents chose the less invasive option of talo-tarsal stabilisation (TTS). The goal of this surgery was to forestall or prevent hindfoot osteotomy. Materials and methods: With IRB approval, we conducted this retrospective review of 32 patients (60 ft), who underwent TTS for flexible planovalgus deformity and had a minimum of 1-year follow-up. The aetiology was idiopathic for the majority, with a few being neurogenic or syndromic. The age range was 6–15 years; the younger patients had neuromuscular aetiology or underlying syndromes. Concomitant procedures included percutaneous Achilles lengthening (33 ft), Kidner (9 ft) and guided growth for ankle valgus (2). Results: In the early post-immobilisation phase, peroneal spasm occurred in four patients (6 ft). This resolved with Botox injection in the peroneus brevis in three patients and required transfer of the peroneus brevis to the peroneus longus in one patient. At follow-up, ranging from 1 to 4.5 years, 50 implants (83.4%) were retained and the patients reported satisfactory outcomes. Henceforth, those patients will be monitored on a p.r.n. basis. Due to lingering discomfort, implants were repositioned in one and removed in five patients (10 ft = 16.6%). Upon further follow-up, these patients have not manifested recurrent deformity. Therefore, subsequent salvage by osteotomy and/or lengthening of the calcaneus has not been necessary. Conclusion: TTS for the symptomatic flatfoot, combined with other procedures as indicated, offers advantages over the currently more accepted methods of medial shift osteotomy or calcaneal lengthening. The outcome at 1 year is a good forecast of whether or not further treatment will be required. This is a simpler and preferred option as compared to other methods of surgical management and, in our experience, has obviated the need for osteotomy or lengthening of the calcaneus. Level of evidence: IV retrospective case series. © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-share alike license ( which permits unrestricted distribution, and non-commercial reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as original. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
    • Talking with a Volcano: Native American Perspectives on the Eruption of Sunset Crater, Arizona

      Stoffle, R.; Van Vlack, K.; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2022)
      A new volcano erupted in the eleventh century AD in the San Francisco volcanic field, which has as many as 80 old volcanoes and 600 eruption cones all centered around Flagstaff, Arizona. This volcanic landscape has been a cultural center for Native American spiritual activities for up to 23,000 years. During that time, they have come to perceive volcanoes as earth navels and thus places where the earth is reborn. For this reason, the emergence of an active volcano, called Sunset Crater, drew pilgrims and resulted in the construction of ceremonial and support communities surrounding a place called Wupatki. This paper is partially based on a 2004 study funded by the U.S. National Park Service, which produced 80 ethnographic interviews with representatives of six Native American ethnic groups composed of 12 tribes and pueblos. The analysis is informed by a total of 23 ethnographic studies of volcanoes conducted with Native Americans by the authors. In all studies, Native American participants conveyed that they have cultural connections with volcanoes that derive from their Creation-based knowledge of the Earth as being alive and volcanoes being its rebirth. Traditional cultural information is critical to park management and compliance with various laws, regulations, executive orders, and policies so that park managers can better address tribal requests for continued access, use, and interpretation of park natural resources. Native Americans involved in our NPS ethnographic studies agreed that it is not necessary for the NPS to accept as true what Native Americans believe, but it is essential to tell in park interpretative settings both stories side by side with equal accuracy. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

      U'Ren, Jana; Schupp, James; Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie; Friedman, Christine; Smith, Kimothy; Daugherty, Rebecca; Rhoton, Shane; Leadem, Ben; Georgia, Shalamar; et al. (BioMed Central, 2007)
      BACKGROUND:The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations.RESULTS:B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation) to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria.CONCLUSION:The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were identical using previous typing methods. Given the health threat to humans and livestock and the potential for B. pseudomallei to be released intentionally, MLVA could prove to be an important tool for fine-scale epidemiological or forensic tracking of this increasingly important environmental pathogen.
    • Tangled pasts, healthier futures: Nursing strategies to improve American Indian/Alaska Native health equity

      Pool, Natalie M; Stauber, Leah S; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing, Dept Mexican Amer Studies, Inst LGBT Studies (WILEY, 2020-06-16)
      American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the United States continue to experience overall health inequity, despite significant improvement in health status for nearly all other racial-ethnic groups over the past 30 years. Nurses comprise the bulk of healthcare providers in the U.S. and are in an optimal position to improve AI/AN health by transforming both nursing education and practice. This potential is dependent, however, on nurses' ability to recognize the distinct historical and political conditions through which AI/AN health inequities have been produced and sustained. Nurse providers, educators, and leaders must in turn recognize how the sustained conditions of marginalization and expropriation that underpin current AI/AN health inequities continue to shape contemporary AI/AN health outcomes. This manuscript builds upon the extant literature of AI/AN historical health policy and utilizes decolonial theorizations of nursing and a cultural safety framework to propose a series of immediately actionable steps for nursing intervention into AI/AN health inequity. Ultimately, we suggest that it is crucial for nurses to collaborate with AI/AN individuals and communities across educational and clinical settings to further refine these approaches in alignment with the disciplinary obligation of promoting social justice within healthcare.
    • TaPT: Temperature-Aware Dynamic Cache Optimization for Embedded Systems

      Adegbija, Tosiron; Gordon-Ross, Ann; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (MDPI, 2018-03)
      Embedded systems have stringent design constraints, which has necessitated much prior research focus on optimizing energy consumption and/or performance. Since embedded systems typically have fewer cooling options, rising temperature, and thus temperature optimization, is an emergent concern. Most embedded systems only dissipate heat by passive convection, due to the absence of dedicated thermal management hardware mechanisms. The embedded system's temperature not only affects the system's reliability, but can also affect the performance, power, and cost. Thus, embedded systems require efficient thermal management techniques. However, thermal management can conflict with other optimization objectives, such as execution time and energy consumption. In this paper, we focus on managing the temperature using a synergy of cache optimization and dynamic frequency scaling, while also optimizing the execution time and energy consumption. This paper provides new insights on the impact of cache parameters on efficient temperature-aware cache tuning heuristics. In addition, we present temperature-aware phase-based tuning, TaPT, which determines Pareto optimal clock frequency and cache configurations for fine-grained execution time, energy, and temperature tradeoffs. TaPT enables autonomous system optimization and also allows designers to specify temperature constraints and optimization priorities. Experiments show that TaPT can effectively reduce execution time, energy, and temperature, while imposing minimal hardware overhead.
    • Target Capture Sequencing Unravels Rubus Evolution

      Carter, Katherine A; Liston, Aaron; Bassil, Nahla V; Alice, Lawrence A; Bushakra, Jill M; Sutherland, Brittany L; Mockler, Todd C; Bryant, Douglas W; Hummer, Kim E; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-12-20)
      Rubus (Rosaceae) comprises more than 500 species with additional commercially cultivated raspberries and blackberries. The most recent (> 100 years old) global taxonomic treatment of the genus defined 12 subgenera; two subgenera were subsequently described and some species were rearranged. Intra- and interspecific ploidy levels and hybridization make phylogenetic estimation of Rubus challenging. Our objectives were to estimate the phylogeny of 94 taxonomically and geographically diverse species and three cultivars using chloroplast DNA sequences and target capture of approximately 1,000 low copy nuclear genes; estimate divergence times between major Rubus clades; and examine the historical biogeography of species diversification. Target capture sequencing identified eight major groups within Rubus. Subgenus Orobatus and Subg. Anoplobatus were monophyletic, while other recognized subgenera were para- or polyphyletic. Multiple hybridization events likely occurred across the phylogeny at subgeneric levels, e.g., Subg. Rubus (blackberries) × Subg. Idaeobatus (raspberries) and Subg. Idaeobatus × Subg. Cylactis (Arctic berries) hybrids. The raspberry heritage within known cultivated blackberry hybrids was confirmed. The most recent common ancestor of the genus was most likely distributed in North America. Multiple distribution events occurred during the Miocene (about 20 Ma) from North America into Asia and Europe across the Bering land bridge and southward crossing the Panamanian Isthmus. Rubus species diversified greatly in Asia during the Miocene. Rubus taxonomy does not reflect phylogenetic relationships and subgeneric revision is warranted. The most recent common ancestor migrated from North America towards Asia, Europe, and Central and South America early in the Miocene then diversified. Ancestors of the genus Rubus may have migrated to Oceania by long distance bird dispersal. This phylogeny presents a roadmap for further Rubus systematics research. In conclusion, the target capture dataset provides high resolution between species though it also gave evidence of gene tree/species tree and cytonuclear discordance. Discordance may be due to hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting, rather than a lack of phylogenetic signal. This study illustrates the importance of using multiple phylogenetic methods when examining complex groups and the utility of software programs that estimate signal conflict within datasets.