Now showing items 12533-12552 of 12955

    • Vaccine Protection of Mice With Primary Immunodeficiencies Against Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis

      Powell, D.A.; Hsu, A.P.; Butkiewicz, C.D.; Trinh, H.T.; Frelinger, J.A.; Holland, S.M.; Galgiani, J.N.; Shubitz, L.F.; Valley Fever Center for Excellence, University of Arizona; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      Disseminated coccidioidomycosis (DCM), often a severe and refractory disease leading to poor outcomes, is a risk for people with certain primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Several DCM-associated PID (STAT4, STAT3, IFNγ, and Dectin-1) are modeled in mice. To determine if vaccination could provide these mice protection, mice with mutations in Stat4, Stat3, Ifngr1, Clec7a (Dectin-1), and Rag-1 (T- and B-cell deficient) knockout (KO) mice were vaccinated with the live, avirulent, Δcps1 vaccine strain and subsequently challenged intranasally with pathogenic Coccidioides posadasii Silveira strain. Two weeks post-infection, vaccinated mice of all strains except Rag-1 KO had significantly reduced lung and spleen fungal burdens (p<0.05) compared to unvaccinated control mice. Splenic dissemination was prevented in most vaccinated immunodeficient mice while all unvaccinated B6 mice and the Rag-1 KO mice displayed disseminated disease. The mitigation of DCM by Δcps1 vaccination in these mice suggests that it could also benefit humans with immunogenetic risks of severe disease. Copyright © 2022 Powell, Hsu, Butkiewicz, Trinh, Frelinger, Holland, Galgiani and Shubitz.
    • Vacuum stabilized by anomalous magnetic moment

      Evans, Stefan; Rafelski, Johann; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-07-10)
      An analytical result for Euler-Heisenberg effective action, valid for electron spin g-factor vertical bar g vertical bar < 2, was extended to the domain vertical bar g vertical bar > 2 via discovered periodicity of the effective action. This allows for a simplified computation of vacuum instability modified by the electron's measured g = 2.002319. We find a strong suppression of vacuum decay into electron positron pairs when magnetic fields are dominant. The result is reminiscent of mass catalysis by magnetic fields.
    • Vaginal microbiota, genital inflammation, and neoplasia impact immune checkpoint protein profiles in the cervicovaginal microenvironment

      Laniewski, Pawel; Cui, Haiyan; Roe, Denise J.; Chase, Dana M.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Dept Basic Med Sci; Univ Arizona, UA Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Dept Obstet & Gynecol (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-08)
      Emerging evidence suggests that the vaginal microbiota play a role in HPV persistence and cervical neoplasia development and progression. Here we examine a broad range of immune checkpoint proteins in the cervicovaginal microenvironment across cervical carcinogenesis and explore relationships among these key immunoregulatory proteins, the microbiota composition, and genital inflammation. First, we demonstrate that immune checkpoint molecules can be measured in cervicovaginal lavages. Secondly, we identify CD40, CD27, and TIM-3 to specifically discriminate cervical cancer from other groups and CD40, CD28, and TLR2 to positively correlate to genital inflammation. Finally, PD-L1 and LAG-3 levels negatively, whereas TLR2 positively correlate to health-associatedLactobacillusdominance. Overall, our study identifies immune checkpoint signatures associated with cervical neoplasm and illuminates the multifaceted microbiota-host immunity network in the local microenvironment. This study provides a foundation for future mechanistic studies and highlights the utility of cervicovaginal lavage profiling for predicting and monitoring response to cancer therapy.
    • VALES – IV. Exploring the transition of star formation efficiencies between normal and starburst galaxies using APEX/SEPIA Band-5 and ALMA at low redshift

      Cheng, C; Ibar, E; Hughes, T M; Villanueva, V; Leiton, R; Orellana, G; Muñoz Arancibia, A; Lu, N; Xu, C K; Willmer, C N A; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-03-21)
      In this work, we present new the Swedish-ESO PI receiver for the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment APEX/SEPIA Band-5 observations targeting the CO (J = 2-1) emission line of 24 Herschel-detected galaxies at z = 0.1-0.2. Combining this sample with our recent new Valparafso ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES), we investigate the star formation efficiencies [SFEs = star formation rate (SFR)/M-H2] of galaxies at low redshift. We find the SFE of our sample bridges the gap between normal star-forming galaxies and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), which are thought to be triggered by different star formation modes. Considering the SFE' as the SFR and the L'(CO) ratio, our data show a continuous and smooth increment as a function of infrared luminosity (or star formation rate) with a scatter about 0.5 dex, instead of a steep jump with a bimodal behaviour. This result is due to the use of a sample with a much larger range of sSFR/sSFR(ms) using LIRGs, with luminosities covering the range between normal and ULIRGs. We conclude that the main parameters controlling the scatter of the SFE in star-forming galaxies are the systematic uncertainty of the alpha(CO) conversion factor, the gas fraction, and physical size.
    • Validating advanced wavefront control techniques on the SCExAO testbed/instrument

      Guyon, Olivier; Lozi, Julien; Vievard, Sébastien; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Bos, Steven P.; Currie, Thayne; Deo, Vincent; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gratadour, Damien; et al. (SPIE, 2020-12-13)
      The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) serves both a science instrument in operation, and a prototyping platform for integrating and validating advanced wavefront control techniques. It provides a modular hardware and software environment optimized for flexible prototyping, reducing the time from concept formulation to on-sky operation and validation. This approach also enables external research group to deploy and test new hardware and algorithms. The hardware architecture allows for multiple subsystems to run concurrently, sharing starlight by means of dichroics. The multiplexing lends itself to running parallel experiments simultaneously, and developing sensor fusion approaches for increased wavefront sensing sensitivity and reliability. Thanks to a modular realtime control software architecture designed around the CACAO package, users can deploy WFS/C routines with full low-latency access to all cameras data streams. Algorithms can easily be shared with other cacao-based AO systems at Magellan (MagAO-X) and Keck. We highlight recent achievements and ongoing activities that are particularly relevant to the development of high contrast imaging instruments for future large ground-based telescopes (ELT, TMT, GMT) and space telescopes (HabEx, LUVOIR). These include predictive control and sensor fusion, PSF reconstruction from AO telemetry, integrated coronagraph/WFS development, focal plane speckle control with photon counting MKIDS camera, and fiber interferometry. We also describe upcoming upgrades to the WFS/C architecture: a new 64x64 actuator first stage DM, deployment of a beam switcher for concurrent operation of SCExAO with other science instruments, and the ULTIMATE upgrade including deployment of multiple LGS WFSs and an adaptive secondary mirror. © 2020 SPIE.
    • Validating indicators of CNS disorders in a swine model of neurological disease

      Swier, Vicki J; White, Katherine A; Meyerholz, David K; Chefdeville, Aude; Khanna, Rajesh; Sieren, Jessica C; Quelle, Dawn E; Weimer, Jill M; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Grad Interdisciplinary Program Neurosci (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-02-19)
      Genetically modified swine disease models are becoming increasingly important for studying molecular, physiological and pathological characteristics of human disorders. Given the limited history of these model systems, there remains a great need for proven molecular reagents in swine tissue. Here, to provide a resource for neurological models of disease, we validated antibodies by immunohistochemistry for use in examining central nervous system (CNS) markers in a recently developed miniswine model of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF1 is an autosomal dominant tumor predisposition disorder stemming from mutations in NF1, a gene that encodes the Ras-GTPase activating protein neurofibromin. Patients classically present with benign neurofibromas throughout their bodies and can also present with neurological associated symptoms such as chronic pain, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. As validated antibodies for immunohistochemistry applications are particularly difficult to find for swine models of neurological disease, we present immunostaining validation of antibodies implicated in glial inflammation (CD68), oligodendrocyte development (NG2, O4 and Olig2), and neuron differentiation and neurotransmission (doublecortin, GAD67, and tyrosine hydroxylase) by examining cellular localization and brain region specificity. Additionally, we confirm the utility of anti-GFAP, anti-Iba1, and anti-MBP antibodies, previously validated in swine, by testing their immunoreactivity across multiple brain regions in mutant NF1 samples. These immunostaining protocols for CNS markers provide a useful resource to the scientific community, furthering the utility of genetically modified miniswine for translational and clinical applications.
    • Validating N-body code chrono for granular DEM simulations in reduced-gravity environments

      Sunday, Cecily; Murdoch, Naomi; Tardivel, Simon; Schwartz, Stephen R; Michel, Patrick; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-08-18)
      The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is frequently used to model complex granular systems and to augment the knowledge that we obtain through theory, experimentation, and real-world observations. Numerical simulations are a particularly powerful tool for studying the regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids, comets, and small moons, where reduced-gravity environments produce ill-defined flow behaviours. In this work, we present a method for validating soft-sphere DEM codes for both terrestrial and small-body granular environments. The open-source code CHRONO is modified and evaluated first with a series of simple two-body-collision tests, and then, with a set of piling and tumbler tests. In the piling tests, we vary the coefficient of rolling friction to calibrate the simulations against experiments with 1 mm glass beads. Then, we use the friction coefficient to model the flow of 1 mm glass beads in a rotating drum, using a drum configuration from a previous experimental study. We measure the dynamic angle of repose, the flowing layer thickness, and the flowing layer velocity for tests with different particle sizes, contact force models, coefficients of rolling friction, cohesion levels, drum rotation speeds, and gravity levels. The tests show that the same flow patterns can be observed at the Earth and reduced-gravity levels if the drum rotation speed and the gravity level are set according to the dimensionless parameter known as the Froude number. CHRONO is successfully validated against known flow behaviours at different gravity and cohesion levels, and will be used to study small-body regolith dynamics in future works.
    • Validating Resilience and Vulnerability Indices in the Context of Natural Disasters

      Bakkensen, Laura A.; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura K.; Linkov, Igor; University of Arizona, School of Government and Public Policy; University of Arizona; School of Government and Public Policy; Tucson AZ USA; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Engineer Research & Development Center; Concord MA USA; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Engineer Research & Development Center; Concord MA USA; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Engineer Research & Development Center; Concord MA USA (WILEY, 2017-05)
      Due to persistent and serious threats from natural disasters around the globe, many have turned to resilience and vulnerability research to guide disaster preparation, recovery, and adaptation decisions. In response, scholars and practitioners have put forth a variety of disaster indices, based on quantifiable metrics, to gauge levels of resilience and vulnerability. However, few indices are empirically validated using observed disaster impacts and, as a result, it is often unclear which index should be preferred for each decision at hand. Thus, we compare and empirically validate five of the top U.S. disaster indices, including three resilience indices and two vulnerability indices. We use observed disaster losses, fatalities, and disaster declarations from the southeastern United States to empirically validate each index. We find that disaster indices, though thoughtfully substantiated by literature and theoretically persuasive, are not all created equal. While four of the five indices perform as predicted in explaining damages, only three explain fatalities and only two explain disaster declarations as expected by theory. These results highlight the need for disaster indices to clearly state index objectives and structure underlying metrics to support validation of the results based on these goals. Further, policymakers should use index results carefully when developing regional policy or investing in resilience and vulnerability improvement projects.
    • Validation of a brief scale to assess ambulatory patients' perceptions of reading visit notes: a scale development study

      Wright, Julie A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Chimowitz, Hannah; Fossa, Alan; Stametz, Rebecca; Clarke, Deserae; Walker, Jan; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Clin Data Analyt & Decis Support (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-10-20)
      Study 1 resulted in the selection of a 10-point importance response option format over a 4-point agreement scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in study 2 resulted in two-factor solution: a four-item benefits factor with good reliability (alpha=0.83) and a three-item risks factor with poor reliability (alpha=0.52). The factor structure was confirmed in study 3, and confirmatory factor analysis of benefit items resulted in an excellent fitting model, X2(2)=2.949; confirmatory factor index=0.998; root mean square error of approximation=0.04 (0.00, 0.142); loadings 0.68-0.86; alpha=0.88. Study 4 supported configural, measurement and structural invariance for the benefits scale across high and low-education patient groups.
    • Validation of a Stochastic Discrete Event Model Predicting Virus Concentration on Nurse Hands

      Wilson, Amanda M; Reynolds, Kelly A; Verhougstraete, Marc P; Canales, Robert A; Univ Arizona, Dept Community Environm & Policy, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
      Understanding healthcare viral disease transmission and the effect of infection control interventions will inform current and future infection control protocols. In this study, a model was developed to predict virus concentration on nurses' hands using data from a bacteriophage tracer study conducted in Tucson, Arizona, in an urgent care facility. Surfaces were swabbed 2 hours, 3.5 hours, and 6 hours postseeding to measure virus spread over time. To estimate the full viral load that would have been present on hands without sampling, virus concentrations were summed across time points for 3.5- and 6-hour measurements. A stochastic discrete event model was developed to predict virus concentrations on nurses' hands, given a distribution of virus concentrations on surfaces and expected frequencies of hand-to-surface and orifice contacts and handwashing. Box plots and statistical hypothesis testing were used to compare the model-predicted and experimentally measured virus concentrations on nurses' hands. The model was validated with the experimental bacteriophage tracer data because the distribution for model-predicted virus concentrations on hands captured all observed value ranges, and interquartile ranges for model and experimental values overlapped for all comparison time points. Wilcoxon rank sum tests showed no significant differences in distributions of model-predicted and experimentally measured virus concentrations on hands. However, limitations in the tracer study indicate that more data are needed to instill more confidence in this validation. Next model development steps include addressing viral concentrations that would be found naturally in healthcare environments and measuring the risk reductions predicted for various infection control interventions.
    • Validation of salivary oxytocin and vasopressin as biomarkers in domestic dogs

      MacLean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Gee, Nancy; Levy, Kerinne; Martin, W. Lance; Carter, C. Sue; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-01)
      Background: Oxytocin (OT) and Vasopressin (AVP) are phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides with effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Although OT and AVP are-most commonly measured in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), these approaches present an array of challenges including concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses. New method: We validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the measurement of salivary OT and AVP in domestic dogs. Results: Both OT and AVP were present in dog saliva and detectable by ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). OT concentrations in dog saliva were much higher than those typically detected in humans. OT concentrations in the same samples analyzed with and without sample extraction were highly correlated, but this was not true for AVP. ELISA validation studies revealed good accuracy and parallelism, both with and without solid phase extraction. Collection of salivary samples with different synthetic swabs, or following salivary stimulation or the consumption of food led to variance in results. However, samples collected from the same dogs using different techniques tended to be positively correlated. We detected concurrent elevations in salivary and plasma OT during nursing. Comparison with existing methods: There are currently no other validated methods for measuring OT/AVP in dog saliva. Conclusions: OT and AVP are present in dog saliva, and ELISAs for their detection are methodologically valid. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Validation of selection function, sample contamination and mass calibration in galaxy cluster samples

      Grandis, S; Klein, M; Mohr, J J; Bocquet, S; Paulus, M; Abbott, T M C; Aguena, M; Allam, S; Annis, J; Benson, B A; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-08-11)
      We construct and validate the selection function of the MARD-Y3 galaxy cluster sample. This sample was selected through optical follow-up of the 2nd ROSAT faint source catalogue with Dark Energy Survey year 3 data. The selection function is modelled by combining an empirically constructed X-ray selection function with an incompleteness model for the optical follow-up. We validate the joint selection function by testing the consistency of the constraints on the X-ray flux-mass and richness-mass scaling relation parameters derived from different sources of mass information: (1) cross-calibration using South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) clusters, (2) calibration using number counts in X-ray, in optical and in both X-ray and optical while marginalizing over cosmological parameters, and (3) other published analyses. We find that the constraints on the scaling relation from the number counts and SPT-SZ cross-calibration agree, indicating that our modelling of the selection function is adequate. Furthermore, we apply a largely cosmology independent method to validate selection functions via the computation of the probability of finding each cluster in the SPT-SZ sample in the MARD-Y3 sample and vice versa. This test reveals no clear evidence for MARD-Y3 contamination, SPT-SZ incompleteness or outlier fraction. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the techniques presented here to limit systematic selection effects in future cluster cosmological studies.
    • Validation of Spaceborne and Modelled Surface Soil Moisture Products with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probes

      Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye; Zreda, Marek; Monerris, Alessandra; Morrison, Ross; Muddu, Sekhar; Vereecken, Harry; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (MDPI AG, 2017-01-25)
      ]The scale difference between point in situ soil moisture measurements and low resolution satellite products limits the quality of any validation efforts in heterogeneous regions. Cosmic Ray Neutron Probes (CRNP) could be an option to fill the scale gap between both systems, as they provide area-average soil moisture within a 150-250 m radius footprint. In this study, we evaluate differences and similarities between CRNP observations, and surface soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the METOP-A/B Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP), the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), as well as simulations from the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS2). Six CRNPs located on five continents have been selected as test sites: the Rur catchment in Germany, the COSMOS sites in Arizona and California (USA), and Kenya, one CosmOz site in New SouthWales (Australia), and a site in Karnataka (India). Standard validation scores as well as the Triple Collocation (TC) method identified SMAP to provide a high accuracy soil moisture product with low noise or uncertainties as compared to CRNPs. The potential of CRNPs for satellite soil moisture validation has been proven; however, biomass correction methods should be implemented to improve its application in regions with large vegetation dynamics.
    • Validation of stereophotoclinometric shape models of asteroid (101955) Bennu during the OSIRIS-REx mission

      Al Asad, M.M.; Philpott, L.C.; Johnson, C.L.; Barnouin, O.S.; Palmer, E.; Weirich, J.R.; Daly, M.G.; Perry, M.E.; Gaskell, R.; Bierhaus, E.B.; et al. (Web Portal IOP, 2021)
      NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission to asteroid (101955) Bennu relied on the production of real-time shape models for both spacecraft navigation and scientific analysis. The primary method of constructing shape models during the early phases of the mission was image-based stereophotoclinometry (SPC). The SPC shape models were used for operational planning, navigation, sample site selection, and initial scientific investigations. To this end, detailed analyses of the quality of each shape model and a thorough documentation of all sources of error were vital to ensure proper considerations of the limitations of each model. In this paper, we present methods used during the OSIRIS-REx mission to validate the SPC shape models and construct the associated quality reports. Although developed for the OSIRIS-REx mission, these validation techniques can be applied to SPC-derived shape models of other planetary bodies. © 2021. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
    • Validation of the Predicted Heat Strain Model in Hot Underground Mines

      Lazaro, Paloma; Momayez, Moe; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-06-27)
      Heat-related illnesses (HRI) are relatively common in both hot surface and underground mining operations. When workers are exposed to extreme heat or strenuous work in a hot environment, they become prone to heat stress. Heat strain is the result of the body's response to external and internal heat stress. It is therefore vital for the conditions leading to heat strain be detected and treated in a timely manner. Heat-related illnesses are manifested by exhaustion and heat stroke. The predicted heat strain (PHS) [ISO 7933 (2004)] model has been developed to predict the health condition of the worker in terms of core body temperature and water loss. The PHS model tested in this study is based on eight physical parameters that are measured at different intervals during a work shift. They include air temperature, humidity, radiation, air velocity, metabolic rate, clothing insulation, posture, and acclimatization. The model predictions are then compared with a direct physiological measurement, such as core body temperature. We present the results of an extensive study that monitored and predicted body's response to heat stress under different environmental and working conditions. The PHS model provided reliable results in most instances in comparison with other prediction methods currently in use in the field.
    • Validity and Reliability of a New Measure of Nursing Experience With Unintended Consequences of Electronic Health Records.

      Gephart, Sheila M; Bristol, Alycia A; Dye, Judy L; Finley, Brooke A; Carrington, Jane M; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2016-10)
      Unintended consequences of electronic health records represent undesired effects on individuals or systems, which may contradict initial goals and impact patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a new quantitative measure called the Carrington-Gephart Unintended Consequences of Electronic Health Record Questionnaire (CG-UCE-Q) was valid and reliable. Then, it was used to describe acute care nurses' experience with unintended consequences of electronic health records and relate them to the professional practice environment. Acceptable content validity was achieved for two rounds of surveys with nursing informatics experts (n = 5). Then, acute care nurses (n = 144) were recruited locally and nationally to complete the survey and describe the frequency with which they encounter unintended consequences in daily work. Principal component analysis with oblique rotation was applied to evaluate construct validity. Correlational analysis with measures of the professional practice environment and workarounds was used to evaluate convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was measured in the local sample (N = 68). Explanation for 63% of the variance across six subscales (patient safety, system design, workload issues, workarounds, technology barriers, and sociotechnical impact) supported construct validity. Relationships were significant between subscales for electronic health record-related threats to patient safety and low autonomy/leadership (P < .01), poor communication about patients (P < .01), and low control over practice (P < .01). The most frequent sources of unintended consequences were increased workload, interruptions that shifted tasks from the computer, altered workflow, and the need to duplicate data entry. Convergent validity of the CG-UCE-Q was moderately supported with both the context and processes of workarounds with strong relationships identified for when nurses perceived a block and altered process to work around it to subscales in the CG-UCE-Q for electronic health record system design (P < .01) and technological barriers (P < .01).
    • Validity and reliability of four language mapping paradigms

      Wilson, Stephen M.; Bautista, Alexa; Yen, Melodie; Lauderdale, Stefanie; Eriksson, Dana K.; Univ Arizona, Dept Speech Language & Hearing Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurol; Univ Arizona, Dept Linguist (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017)
      Language areas of the brain can be mapped in individual participants with functional MRI. We investigated the validity and reliability of four language mapping paradigms that may be appropriate for individuals with acquired aphasia: sentence completion, picture naming, naturalistic comprehension, and narrative comprehension. Five neurologically normal older adults were scanned on each of the four paradigms on four separate occasions. Validity was assessed in terms of whether activation patterns reflected the known typical organization of language regions, that is, lateralization to the left hemisphere, and involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and/or superior temporal gyri. Reliability (test-retest reproducibility) was quantified in terms of the Dice coefficient of similarity, which measures overlap of activations across time points. We explored the impact of different absolute and relative voxelwise thresholds, a range of cluster size cutoffs, and limitation of analyses to a priori potential language regions. We found that the narrative comprehension and sentence completion paradigms offered the best balance of validity and reliability. However, even with optimal combinations of analysis parameters, there were many scans on which known features of typical language organization were not demonstrated, and test-retest reproducibility was only moderate for realistic parameter choices. These limitations in terms of validity and reliability may constitute significant limitations for many clinical or research applications that depend on identifying language regions in individual participants. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
    • The Validity of 21 cm Spin Temperature as a Kinetic Temperature Indicator in Atomic and Molecular Gas

      Shaw, Gargi; Ferland, G. J.; Hubeny, I.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-07-14)
      The gas kinetic temperature (T-K) of various interstellar environments is often inferred from observations that can deduce level populations of atoms, ions, or molecules using spectral line observations; H I 21 cm is perhaps the most widely used, and has a long history. Usually the H I 21 cm line is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium. and the populations are given by the Boltzmann distribution. A variety of processes, many involving Ly alpha, can affect the 21 cm line. Here we show how this is treated in the spectral simulation code Cloudy, and present numerical simulations of environments where this temperature indicator is used, with a detailed treatment of the physical processes that determine level populations within H-0. We discuss situations where this temperature indicator traces TK, cases where it fails, as well as the effects of Lya pumping on the 21 cm spin temperature. We also show that the Lya excitation temperature rarely traces the gas kinetic temperature.
    • Validity of Random Triglyceride Levels in Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition

      Bader, M.Y.; Lam, M.A.; Munoz, F.; Thompson, L.; Kylat, R.I.; Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona Health Sciences; Banner University Medical Center; College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona; Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona Health Sciences (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
      Background: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IL) are an important part of parenteral nutrition (PN) to meet essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements and metabolic demands of neonates and preterm infants. Some critically-ill neonates may not metabolize IL effectively which can lead to hypertriglyceridemia. Risks associated with this include increased pulmonary vascular resistance, displaced bilirubins, and platelet or macrophage dysfunction. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker for lipid tolerance and predictor of potential complications involved with IL administration, but the clinical significance of this is still debated. Management of TG levels with regard to timing of laboratory tests, the ideal goal range, and duration of infusion of IL varies across institutions and is not standardized. Methods: Single-center, retrospective study of newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Fasting and non-fasting TG levels were drawn during the same lipid infusion of 2–3g/kg/day. The primary outcome was the difference between fasting and non-fasting TG levels. Statistical assessment of continuous data was done with student t-test and nominal data was evaluated using X2-test and logistic regression. Results: Forty infants were included with mean gestational age at birth of 29.5 ± 3.4 weeks and mean birth weight of 1.3 ± 0.5 kg. Mean time between lab draws while on same IL dose was 11.6 ± 0.2 h with resulting mean fasting and non-fasting (random) TG levels 82 ± 40 mg/dL (95% CI 68.4, 97.6) and 101 ± 40 mg/dL (95% CI 88.5, 115.8), respectively. Mean difference between TG levels during lipid-free interval and during infusion was −18.6 ± 51.2 mg/dL (95% CI −35.0, −2.3; p = 0.03). Conclusion: We concluded there is no difference in the management of IL, when TG level was drawn randomly or as fasting sample. Obtaining TG level during routine lab draws is appropriate. We extrapolated that the administration of IL over 24 h will not interfere with TG level. © Copyright © 2021 Bader, Lam, Munoz, Thompson and Kylat.
    • Validity of two retrospective questionnaire versions of the Consensus Sleep Diary: the whole week and split week Self-Assessment of Sleep Surveys

      Dietch, Jessica R; Sethi, Kevin; Slavish, Danica C; Taylor, Daniel J; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (ELSEVIER, 2019-11-01)
      Objective/Background: Prospective, daily sleep diaries are the gold standard for assessing subjective sleep but are not always feasible for cross-sectional or epidemiological studies. The current study examined psychometric properties of two retrospective questionnaire versions of the Consensus Sleep Diary. Participants/Methods: College students (N = 131, mean age = 19.39 +/- 1.65; 73% female) completed seven days of prospective sleep diaries then were randomly assigned to complete either the Self-Assessment of Sleep Survey (SASS), which assessed past week sleep (n = 70), or the SASS-Split (SASS-Y), which assessed weekday/weekend sleep separately (n = 61). Participants also completed psychosocial/sleep questionnaires including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep parameters derived from SASS, SASS-Y, PSQI, and sleep diaries were assessed via Bland Altman plots, limits of agreement, mean differences, and correlations. Results: SASS-Y demonstrated stronger correlations with prospective sleep diaries and slightly less biased estimates (r = 0.51 to 0.85, alpha = -0.43 to 1.70) compared to SASS (r = 0.29 to 0.84, alpha = -1.63 to 2.33) for terminal wakefulness (TWAK), sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency (SE), and quality (QUAL). SASS resulted in slightly less bias for total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) (alpha = -0.65 and 0.93, respectively) compared to SASS-Y (alpha = 14.90 and 1.05, respectively). SASS and SASS-Y demonstrated greater convergence with sleep diary than PSQI. Conclusions: Results demonstrated good psychometric properties for the SASS and SASS-Y. When prospective sleep diaries are not feasible, the SASS and SASS-Y are acceptable substitutes to retrospectively estimate sleep parameters. Retrospective estimation of sleep parameters separately for weekdays/weekends may offer advantages compared to whole week estimation. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.