• Embedding social inclusiveness and appropriateness in engineering assessment of green infrastructure to enhance urban resilience

      Ward, Sarah; Staddon, Chad; de Vito, Laura; Zuniga-Teran, Adriana; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Schoeman, Yolandi; Hart, Aimee; Booth, Giles; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-30)
      Urban resilience emerges not only from ‘what’ is done in relation to critical infrastructure systems, but in the ‘how’ of their conception, co-creation and integration into complex socio-ecological-technical systems. For green infrastructure, where ownership and agency may be distributed amongst organisations and diverse communities, inclusiveness and appropriateness require embedding in engineering assessments of green infrastructure and resilience. Through consideration of past, present and future engineering and resilience assessments – from monetising, through greening, to humanising – this paper examines the ways in which GI may be or has already contributed to enhancing urban resilience and types of assessment and indicators that have been or could be used. We suggest that enhancing visibility of the ‘whos’ (individuals, communities) is crucial to fully diversifying assessments. We also suggest some ideas for additional indicators and assert that co-production of future indicators needs to be undertaken with appropriate professionals (e.g. social impact assessment professionals).
    • The estimand framework and its application in substance use disorder clinical trials: a case study

      Roydhouse, Jessica K.; Floden, Lysbeth; Tomko, Rachel L.; Gray, Kevin M.; Bell, Melanie L.; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-26)
      Relapse rates among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) remain high and new treatment approaches are needed, which require evaluation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Measurement and interpretation challenges for SUD RCT data are often ignored or presented only in statistical analysis plans. Since different analytic approaches may result in different estimates and thus interpretations of the treatment effect, it is important to present this clearly throughout the trial. Inconsistencies between study analyses and objectives present further challenges for interpretation and cross-study comparisons. The recent International Council for Harmonization (ICH) addendum provides standardized language and a common framework for aligning trial objectives, design, conduct, and analysis. The framework focuses on estimands, which describe the treatment effect and link the trial objective with the scientific question and the analytic approach. The use of estimands offers SUD researchers and clinicians the opportunity to explicitly address events that affect measurement and interpretation at the outset of the trial. Furthermore, the use of standard terminology can lead to clearer interpretations of SUD trials and the treatments evaluated in SUD trials. Resources for understanding and applying estimands are needed to optimize the use of this new, helpful framework. This Perspective provides this resource for SUD researchers. Specifically, it highlights the relevance of estimands for SUD trials. Furthermore, it demonstrates how estimands can be used to develop clinically relevant analyses to address challenges in SUD trials. It also shows how a standardized framework can be employed to improve the interpretation and presentation of SUD study findings.
    • Examining the Moderating Influence of Relationship Satisfaction on Affection and Trust, Closeness, Stress, and Depression

      van Raalte, Lisa J.; Floyd, Kory; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-11)
      This study sought to explore whether relationship satisfaction moderated the relationship between affection and individual health (i.e., depression and stress) and affection and relational well-being (i.e., trust and closeness). The sample (N = 631) was comprised of predominantly female non-married Southwestern college students. Relationship satisfaction did not interact with the relationship between affection and trust, affection and closeness, and affection and depression. However, relationship satisfaction moderated the relationship between affection and stress such that affection was significantly and negative related to stress only for highly satisfied relationships. Dissatisfied participants were affectionately deprived, and their frequency of affectionate behaviors varied. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Expanding Ecotheology to Embrace the Earth-Moon System

      Rappaport, Margaret Boone; Corbally, Christopher; Campa, Riccardo; Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-03-17)
      An enlarged purview for amplification of religious doctrine can become necessary for a spacefaring species. Settlement of distant planetary bodies involves both technological and theological issues. The authors apply this notion to environmental preservation of the Earth, Earth's Moon, and cislunar space between Earth and Moon, as a unit. In expanding environmental protection beyond Earth to the new cislunar unit, humans take an important step in settling the Moon responsibly. The relationships of immanence and transcendence to the new environmental unit provide examples of the conceptual tasks ahead. Profiles in Ecotheology round out the analysis and point toward future roles.
    • Fact or fake? Identifying ways of knowing everyday truths in research methods courses

      Bighash, Leila; Sangalang, Angeline; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-06)
      This activity motivates students of communication research methods by challenging them to face their personal epistemologies. We introduce them to a set of formal ways of knowing and match these with their personal justifications for knowledge. Through this exercise, students learn that the scientific method is worthy of study not just to pass a social science focused research methods course, but also to have a deeper understanding of their personal knowledge. Courses: Undergraduate Research Methods (quantitative and/or social science focus). Objectives: By the end of the activity, students should be able to: identify examples of the four ways of knowing; compare and contrast the uses and relative rigor of the four ways of knowing; consume research and media reports with a skeptic’s mindset; establish interpersonal contact with classmates and the instructor; and gain motivation for learning the rest of the course material. © 2021 National Communication Association.
    • Financial behaviors, financial satisfaction, and goal attainment among college-educated young adults: A mediating analysis with latent change scores

      Li, Xiaomin; Curran, Melissa; Serido, Joyce; LeBaron-Black, Ashley B.; Shim, Soyeon; Zhou, Nan; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-23)
      The aim of the study is to investigate how 2,084 U.S. college-educated young adults (61.9% female, and 69.5% non-Hispanic White) navigated the goal attainment process during the transition to adulthood. Using four-wave data collected across eight years, we examined how financial behaviors (self-regulating behaviors) predicted both depressive symptoms (affective goal attainment evaluations) and financial obstacles to goal attainment (cognitive goal attainment evaluations) via financial satisfaction (resources). Given the variability in developmental trajectories (i.e., initial levels and rates of over-time changes) among young adults, we conducted an exploratory mediational analysis with Latent Change Scores. The results revealed indirect-only mediation patterns, and 8 of 16 (50%) indirect effects via financial satisfaction were statistically significant. Collectively, we identified the salient roles of financial behaviors and financial satisfaction among young adults who pursued and attained life goals amid the financial difficulties during the 2007–2009 Great Recession. Our findings should be informative for promoting desired development among the current generation of young adults who were pursuing goals during the financial recession, primarily by indicating the necessity in implementing financial education and providing financial resources for young adults.
    • Finding the self through others: exploring fandom, identification, and self-concept clarity among U.S. adolescents

      Dajches, Leah; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-29)
      The primary developmental task of adolescence (12–18 years old) is identity development. During this time, adolescents individuate from their parents and may instead use media models for social guidance. Previous research has analyzed the impact of media figures on adolescents’ socialization but few have explored the influence of non-fiction media figures on their self-concept. As such, the present study examined of the role of fanship and identification on adolescent self-concept clarity. From a survey of 251 adolescents (ages 13–18), results showed that adolescents’ fanship intensity was negatively associated with their self-concept clarity. Further, identification did not moderate this association, but identification demonstrated a negative association with self-concept clarity. Impact summary Prior State of Knowledge: Previous research shows that media fandom may impact peoples’ ideological beliefs and behaviors (e.g., gender roles, prosocial behavior, overcoming adversity). Moreover, research finds that fandom engagement may benefit marginalized communities. Novel Contributions: The current project contributes to the media entertainment and fan studies literatures with a novel exploration of fandom and fan identification in relation to adolescents’ self-concept clarity. Specifically, fanship intensity and identification were negatively associated with self-concept clarity. Practical Implications: Parents should be aware of their child’s fanship intensity surrounding their favorite non-fiction media figure because such engagement may negatively influence their self-concept, which might contribute to difficulties in establishing a cohesive identity. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
    • Flood-fragility analysis of instream bridges – consideration of flow hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties, and variable scour depth

      Ahamed, Touhid; Duan, Jennifer G.; Jo, Hongki; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-08)
      Floods, bridge scour, and flood-associated loads have caused over sixty percent of bridge failures in the U.S. Current practices for the vulnerability assessment of instream bridges under the effect of such flood largely rely on qualitative methods, such as visual inspection, without considering uncertainties associated with structural behaviors and flood loads. Recently, numerical methods have been investigated to quantitatively consider such uncertainty effects by adapting fragility analysis concept that has been well established in the earthquake engineering area. However, river hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties of foundation, variable scour-depth effects, and their significance in structural fragility of bridges have rarely been systematically investigated. This study proposes a comprehensive fragility analysis framework that can effectively incorporate both flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties, in addition to commonly considered components in flood-fragility analysis of bridges. The significance of flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties has been demonstrated through a real-bridge case study. Conventional fragility curves with maximum scour depth may not represent actual vulnerability during floods, as the scour may not reach to the maximum in many cases. Therefore, fragility surface with two intensity measures, i.e. flow discharges and scour depths, is introduced for real-time vulnerability assessment during floods in this study.
    • For the love of music: Changing Whites’ stereotypes of Asians with mediated intergroup musical contact

      Case, Tiana; Gim, Hyeonchang; Gahler, Heather; Harwood, Jake; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-12)
      This study examined whether stereotypes of warmth and competence can be changed through exposure to outgroup musical behavior. We hypothesized that exposure to an outgroup musician would result in more perceived outgroup warmth, reduced intergroup anxiety, and more pro-diversity attitudes relative to nonmusical outgroup exposure, and that these effects would be mediated by target warmth, synchronization, empathy, and trust. The hypotheses were tested in the context of anti-Asian prejudice early in the COVID19 pandemic. We found substantial support for our mediator predictions: experimental exposure to an Asian musician yielded more positive warmth and synchronization perceptions, for instance, than exposure to an Asian nonmusician. Those perceptions were subsequently associated with more positive perceptions of Asians as a group.
    • Forage yield and quality as affected by salt stress in different ratios of Sorghum bicolor-Bassia indica intercropping

      Hedayati-Firoozabadi, A.; Kazemeini, S. A.; Pirasteh-Anosheh, H.; Ghadiri, H.; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Sch Plant Sci (Informa UK Limited, 2020-06-24)
      Salinity tolerance is presumed to be improved in the intercropping system, however, there has been inadequate evidence to scientifically prove this. In the current study, the effect of salinity was examined on forage yield and quality of sorghum and kochia in an intercropping system with different planting ratios in a two-year field trial at Shiraz University. The treatments included three salinity levels of irrigation water; 2 (non-saline as a control), 7 and 14 dS m(-1)in main plots and planting ratios; sole sorghum (SS), sorghum-1/3 kochia (S2K1), 1/2 sorghum-1/2 kochia (SK), 1/3 sorghum- kochia (S1K2) and sole kochia in subplots. The results showed that salt stress decreased forage yield of both plants, especially of sorghum. Salt stress at 14 dS m(-1)reduced fresh and dry weights by 44.9% and 62.4% in sorghum, and 38.7% and 23.3% in kochia, respectively. Salinity also reduced forage quality assessed in terms of crude protein, ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and total digestible nutrients (TDN). The optimum intercropping systems did not change forage yield, but it increased forage quality via reducing ash, ADF and NDF. The optimum planting ratio was S(2)K(1)for both sorghum and kochia, while the SK ratio was suitable for kochia only. Under non-saline conditions, the sole crop cultivation was a better system, while under saline conditions intercropping with a low density of another plant led to higher dry and fresh weights, as well as lower ash, ADF and NDF for each plant. Since kochia performed as a dominant plant, sorghum growth was considerably suppressed under the high density of kochia (i.e., S1K2), especially at 14 dS m(-1)salinity level, which might have been due to high salt tolerance of kochia. Based on the findings of the current study, it could be inferred that in regions with limited freshwater, optimum planting ratio (SK in general for both plants) in an intercropping system could improve the quality of forage with no significant reduction in forage quantity.
    • Growth and shelf life of basil in response to selenium fertilization

      Fallah, Sina; Ganji, Zahra; Pessarakli, Mohammad; School of Plant Science, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-04-19)
      Selenium is essential for human metabolism and its enrichment in vegetables plays an effective role in providing the body with selenium requirements. This factorial experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Shahrekord University in 2019 to study the effects of selenium on basil growth and shelf life in the conditions of feeding with poultry manure (PM) and chemical fertilizers (CF). Experimental factors included two types of soil amended for plant nutrition (PM and CF) and five selenium concentrations (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 mg L − 1) applied as foliar sprays. The results showed that shoot fresh weight in plants receiving PM was 16.6% more than CF fertilizers and foliar application of selenium had no effect on fresh weight. In the PM applied conditions, with the increase of selenium, the chlorophyll b content increased and then decreased. Increasing selenium improved its accumulation in the basil tissue, and the amount of selenium accumulated with poultry manure was more than that accumulated with chemical fertilizer. Whereas, the greatest weight loss in storage was observed in high selenium concentration. In plants receiving PM, increasing concentration of selenium sprays improved the shelf life, then decreased. However, in the amended soil with CF, the shelf life did not change by selenium, except in 1.5 mg L − 1 concentration. It is concluded that the foliar application of moderate amounts of selenium in poultry manure conditions helps to produce more basil, relatively good enrichment of selenium in plant tissue and maintain its optimal quality during the storage.
    • How the concavity of reproduction/survival trade-offs impacts the evolution of life history strategies

      Farrell, Alex P.; Department of Mathematics, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2020-11-30)
      Previous works using different mathematical techniques, however, show that the concavity of the trade-off relationship can alter the expected life history strategies. Thus we developed a model and found that the concavity of the reproduction–survival curve can still have a large impact on life history strategies in an ecological model with Darwinian evolution.
    • Human-wildlife conflict mitigation and the self-efficacy of wildlife professionals in non-formal education and outreach

      Foerster, Taylor A.; Mars, Matthew M.; Torres, Robert M.; Sias, Patricia M.; Department of Communication, University of Arizona; Department of Agricultural Education, Technology, and Innovation, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-07)
      Preventing human-wildlife conflict (HWC) constitutes a substantial challenge for wildlife agencies. The literature on HWC is primarily focused on public understanding of and perceptions toward HWC issues and on mitigation interventions, which often involve public education and outreach. Yet, the non-formal education and community outreach capacities of wildlife professionals remain relatively under-studied. This study develops new insights into the professional development (PD) needs of wildlife professionals relevant to non-formal education and community outreach aimed at mitigating HWC. Using data generated through a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the self-efficacy of respondents in non-formal education and community outreach skill areas, this study proposes a PD sequence that prioritizes the relevant HWC training needs of a sample of wildlife professionals from the Four Corners region of the United States. The sequence spans curriculum development, media engagement, and evaluation. Recommendations for practice and future research are provided. © 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
    • Identifying, projecting, and evaluating informal urban expansion spatial patterns

      Tellman, Beth; Eakin, Hallie; Turner, B.L.; School of Geography, Development, and Environment, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-03)
      Informal urban land expansion is produced through a diversity of social and political transactions, yet ‘pixelizable’ data capturing these transactions is commonly unavailable. Understanding informal urbanization entails differentiating spatial patterns of informal settlement from formal growth, associating such patterns with the social transactions that produce them, and evaluating the social and environmental outcomes of distinct settlement types. Demonstrating causality between distinct urban spatial patterns and social-institutional processes requires both high-resolution spatial temporal time-series data of urban change and insights into social transactions giving rise to these patterns. We demonstrate an example of linking distinct spatial patterns of informal urban expansion to the institutional processes each engenders in Mexico City. The approach presented here can be applied across cases, potentially improving land projection models in the rapidly urbanizing Global South, characterized by high informality. We conclude with a research agenda to identify, project, and evaluate informal urban expansion patterns.
    • Impact of Drought, Salinity, and Heavy Metal Stress on Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Physiological Traits of Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.)

      Akhzari, Davoud; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Mahdavi, Shahriar; Ariapour, Ali; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-04-14)
      Drought and salinity are the most common abiotic stresses in arid and semi-arid regions. Vetiver grass is one of the best plants for planting in heavy metal contaminated areas. Therefore, the impact of drought, salinity, and heavy metal stress on growth, nutrient uptake, and physiological traits of vetiver has been investigated in this research. The greenhouse experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Drought stress was performed at two levels of control (field capacity) and water stress conditions (25% field capacity) (defined as FC and 25%FC, respectively). The salinity treatment was applied to the relevant pots in two levels (0 and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) defined as S0 and S1, respectively). The cadmium stress was exerted with 0 and 12 mM cadmium nitrate concentrations (defined as Cd0 and Cd1, respectively). The results indicated the highest values of root length and root weight (as 52.14 and 31.22, respectively) were observed in the 25% FC S1 Cd0 treatment. The minimum amount of root length and root weight reported as 15.32 and 10.52 that seen in FC S0 Cd0 treatment. The highest values of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were seen in the FC S0 Cd0 treatment. Moreover, the lowest value of sodium (Na) concentrations was 4.92 (g kg−1), observed in FC S0 Cd0. The maximum content of proline and the lowest total nitrogen content (TNC) values in Chrysopogon zizanioides tissue indicated as 0.41 μmol gFW−1 and 0.97% which seen in 25% FC S1 Cd1 treatment.
    • Impact of in-Station Medication Automated Dispensing Systems on Prehospital Pain Medication Administration

      Gaither, Joshua B.; Rice, Amber D.; Jado, Isrealia; Armstrong, Smita; Packard, Samuel E.; Clark, John; Draper, Scott; Duncan, Mike; Bradley, Brad; Spaite, Daniel W.; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2022-04-15)
      Introduction: Medication automatic dispensing systems (ADS) have been implemented in many settings, including fire-based EMS stations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of in-station ADSs on controlled substance administration rates and EMS response intervals. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of data from a single fire-based EMS agency. Medication administration rates and EMS response intervals were compared before ADS implementation (P1; 6/1/15 to 5/31/16) and after ADS implementation (P3; 6/1/17-5/31/19). Cases with missing data and during a one-year implementation period were excluded. Results: 4045 cases were identified in P1 and 8168 in P3. The odds of morphine or versed administration increased following ADS implementation: OR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.53, 2.03) and OR = 1.53 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.00) respectively. There were statistically, but likely not operationally significant increases in median response interval and transport interval from P1 to P3 of 14 seconds, (p < 0.001) and 39 seconds (p < 0.001) respectively. Time at hospital for all calls decreased by more than 11 minutes for all transports, from a median of 34 minutes (IQR; 23.7, 45.5) to 22.7 minutes (IQR:18.5, 27.6) in P3, p < 0.001 and by 27.9 minutes for calls in which a controlled substance was given: P1 = 50.6 minutes (IQR: 34.6, 63.2), P3 = 22.7 minutes (IQR: 18.3, 27.4), p < 0.001. Conclusion: In this system, medication ADS implementation was associated with an increase in the rates of controlled substance administration and a decrease in the time units were at hospitals.
    • Improved strategy of screening tolerant genotypes in drought stress based on a new program in R-language: a practical triticale breeding program

      Saed-Moucheshi, Armin; Mozafari, Ali Akbar; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Rezaei Mirghaed, Elham; Sohrabi, Fatemeh; Zaheri, Sara; Barzegar Marvasti, Fatemeh; Baniasadi, Fatemeh; School of Plant Sciences College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-07-13)
      In order to improve the efficiency of breeding programs related to abiotic stresses, a new package in R-based-language, “PBTolindex,” was introduced to distinguish tolerant genotypes to drought stress. Accordingly, a dataset of a practical breeding program on 30 triticale genotypes cultivated under drought stress and normal irrigation conditions in six different environments was evaluated. Correlation plot, scatter plot matrix, 3 D plot, and biplot along with indices’ values and their correlation coefficients were automatically produced as output files for considering the tested genotypes. Additionally, heatmap, a novel data mining method, was successfully applied for the first time in tolerance analysis. Our results indicated that no single suitable tolerance index could be suggested as the best one, and for any other study, different indices should be considered. Furthermore, the outputs of testing triticale genotypes indicated no suitable genotypes for both conditions. However, genotype ELTTCL15 for normal condition and genotypes ET-90-7, ELTTCL21, and ELTTCL18 for stress conditions were recommended by the program. Testing and identifying genotypes by heatmap and principal component analyses showed that the output of our program was accurate. Therefore, using this source-code in future plant breeding projects based on stress indices in any plant species is recommended.
    • Improving salt tolerance threshold in common bean cultivars using melatonin priming: a possible mission?

      Alinia, Mozhgan; Kazemeini, Seyed Abdolreza; Dadkhodaie, Ali; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Pessarakli, Mohammad; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-17)
      Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is mostly cultivated on marginal soils where salinity is a key stress. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of melatonin priming and hydro priming on germination, growth parameters, antioxidant defense system and tolerance threshold in seven common bean cultivars grown under different levels of salinity stress. The experiments were conducted as a factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with six replicates. The results showed that salinity levels decreased radicle and hypocotyl lengths, seedling vigor index, and salinity tolerance threshold under Petri dish conditions. However, melatonin priming alleviated the inhibitory effects of salinity and enhanced salt tolerance threshold of all the cultivars. The highest tolerance thresholds of Dorsa, Almas, Koosha, and Pak cultivars were obtained under 100 µM melatonin treatment, while in Sayad, Shekoofa, and Derakhshan, 20 µM melatonin caused higher thresholds. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that melatonin priming increased salt tolerance threshold, but it reduced malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. It also induced a higher increase in relative shoot dry weight of the cultivar Dorsa than the other cultivars. The cultivars Dorsa and Shekoofa treated with 100 and 20 µM, respectively, maintained a lower MDA content and Na+ concentration and a higher K+/Na+ ratio in shoot and root, N concentration and salt tolerance threshold than the other cultivars under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin enhances salinity tolerance by stimulating antioxidant activities, alleviating oxidative damage and enhancing plant dry weight. © 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
    • Improving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) antioxidative defense mechanisms against salinity stress by exogenous application of potassium silicate

      Feghhenabi, Faride; Hadi, Hashem; Khodaverdiloo, Habib; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th.; Pessarakli, Mohammad; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-05-04)
      The primary objective of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of seed priming and foliar spray of potassium silicate on antioxidant activities under different salinity levels, thereby potentially improving wheat growth. Seeds were soaked into solutions containing potassium silicate (K2SiO3, 1.5 mM) for 6 h, while foliar spray with K2SiO3 (4 mM) was applied at the early and the late stages of tillering. Lake Urmia water was used to prepare salinity levels of 0, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, and 14 dS m −1. For such traits as anthocyanin, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity, an initial increase was observed at lower salinity levels; higher salinities subsequently decreased these traits or they remained mostly constant. Salinity also increased phenol, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and polyphenol oxidase, but decreased flavonoid, nitrate content, and nitrate reductase activity. Seed priming and foliar spray provided effective approaches to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) manifestation in wheat grown under saline conditions. The improved antioxidant defense abilities by seed priming and foliar spray alleviated the oxidative damage of proteins and lipids and improved nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity.
    • Inter-organizational dynamics and the ecology of localized entrepreneurship

      Mars, Matthew M.; Univ Arizona, Dept Agr Educ Technol & Innovat (Informa UK Limited, 2020-01-30)
      In this paper, a set of ecological principles (actor-type, interaction-type, nestedness) that have been theoretically associated with organizational ecosystems guides a qualitative exploration of the ecology of localized entrepreneurial clusters (LECs). The focus of analysis is the Southern Arizona craft brewing sector (SACBS). The inter-organizational dynamic that characterizes the ecology of the SACBS is found to be based more on mutualism than on competition. This dynamic is primarily based on shared commitments to local beer brand identity, product quality, and sustainable production, as well as an overall sense of community connectedness. The SACBS is also shown to be a tightly nested LEC with craft breweries operating primarily as generalists within the local context rather than as specialists within the national and global contexts. Findings illustrate the strategic value of treating LECs as community-based sectors that are driven more by inter-organizational coordination and collaboration than by division and competition.