• Friendships, Subjective Age, and Life Satisfaction of Women in Midlife

      Degges‐White, Suzanne; Kepic, Marcela; Univ Arizona, Dept Disabil & Psychoeduc Studies (WILEY, 2020-04)
      The authors conducted a study of 422 women, ages 31 to 77 years, to explore the relationships among friendship networks, subjective age, and life satisfaction. Friendship network size was related to lower subjective age but not to chronological age. More frequent visits with friends were related to lower subjective age and to higher life satisfaction. Satisfaction with the number of friends and a larger number of friends were related to higher levels of life satisfaction. Subjective age, group belonging, and being someone's best friend were significant predictors of life satisfaction.
    • The HOSTS Survey for Exozodiacal Dust: Observational Results from the Complete Survey

      Ertel, S.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Mennesson, B.; Kennedy, G. M.; Danchi, W. C.; Gelino, C.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mazoyer, J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-04)
      The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) enables nulling interferometric observations across the N band (8 to 13 mu m) to suppress a star's bright light and probe for faint circumstellar emission. We present and statistically analyze the results from the LBTI/Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems survey for exozodiacal dust. By comparing our measurements to model predictions based on the solar zodiacal dust in the N band, we estimate a 1 sigma median sensitivity of 23 zodis times the solar system dust surface density in its habitable zone (HZ; 23 zodis) for early-type stars and 48 zodis for Sun-like stars, where 1 zodi is the surface density of HZ dust in the solar system. Of the 38 stars observed, 10 show significant excess. A clear correlation of our detections with the presence of cold dust in the systems was found, but none with the stellar spectral type or age. The majority of Sun-like stars have relatively low HZ dust levels (best-fit median: 3 zodis, 1 sigma upper limit: 9 zodis, 95% confidence: 27 zodis based on our N band measurements), while similar to 20% are significantly more dusty. The solar system's HZ dust content is consistent with being typical. Our median HZ dust level would not be a major limitation to the direct imaging search for Earth-like exoplanets, but more precise constraints are still required, in particular to evaluate the impact of exozodiacal dust for the spectroscopic characterization of imaged exo-Earth candidates.
    • Orbital Refinement and Stellar Properties for the HD 9446, HD 43691, and HD 179079 Planetary Systems

      Hill, Michelle L.; Močnik, Teo; Kane, Stephen R.; Henry, Gregory W.; Pepper, Joshua; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Dalba, Paul A.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Rosenthal, Lee J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05)
      The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey is a project that aims to detect transits of intermediate-long period planets by refining orbital parameters of the known radial velocity planets using additional data from ground-based telescopes, calculating a revised transit ephemeris for the planet, then monitoring the planet host star during the predicted transit window. Here we present the results from three systems that had high probabilities of transiting planets: HD 9446 b and c, HD 43691 b, and HD 179079 b. We provide new radial velocity (RV) measurements that are then used to improve the orbital solution for the known planets. We search the RV data for indications of additional planets in orbit and find that HD 9446 shows a strong linear trend of 4.8 sigma. Using the newly refined planet orbital solutions, which include a new best-fit solution for the orbital period of HD 9446 c, and an improved transit ephemerides, we found no evidence of transiting planets in the photometry for each system. Transits of HD 9446 b can be ruled out completely and transits HD 9446 c and HD 43691 b can be ruled out for impact parameters up to b = 0.5778 and b = 0.898, respectively, due to gaps in the photometry. A transit of HD 179079 b cannot be ruled out, however, due to the relatively small size of this planet compared to the large star and thus low signal to noise. We determine properties of the three host stars through spectroscopic analysis and find through photometric analysis that HD 9446 exhibits periodic variability.
    • The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. IV. Abundances for 128 Open Clusters Using SDSS/APOGEE DR16

      Donor, John; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Cunha, Katia; O’Connell, Julia E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Almeida, Andrés; Anders, Friedrich; Beaton, Rachael; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05)
      The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical evolution parameters by the construction of a large, comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based spectroscopic data set of hundreds of open clusters. This fourth contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis using Sloan Digital Sky Survey/APOGEE DR16 of a sample of 128 open clusters, 71 of which we designate to be "high quality" based on the appearance of their color-magnitude diagram. We find the APOGEE DR16 derived [Fe/H] abundances to be in good agreement with previous high-resolution spectroscopic open cluster abundance studies. Using the high-quality sample, we measure Galactic abundance gradients in 16 elements, and find evolution of some of the [X/Fe] gradients as a function of age. We find an overall Galactic [Fe/H] versus R-GC gradient of -0.068 0.001 dex kpc(-1) over the range of 6 R-GC < 13.9 kpc; however, we note that this result is sensitive to the distance catalog used, varying as much as 15%. We formally derive the location of a break in the [Fe/H] abundance gradient as a free parameter in the gradient fit for the first time. We also measure significant Galactic gradients in O, Mg, S, Ca, Mn, Cr, Cu, Na, Al, and K, some of which are measured for the first time. Our large sample allows us to examine four well-populated age bins in order to explore the time evolution of gradients for a large number of elements and comment on possible implications for Galactic chemical evolution and radial migration.
    • Constraining dark-matter ensembles with supernova data

      Desai, Aditi; Dienes, Keith R.; Thomas, Brooks; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2020-02-24)
      The constraints on nonminimal dark sectors involving ensembles of unstable dark-matter species are well established and quite stringent in cases in which these species decay to visible-sector particles. However, in cases in which these ensembles decay exclusively to other, lighter dark-sector states, the corresponding constraints are less well established. In this paper, we investigate how information about the expansion rate of the universe at low redshifts gleaned from observations of Type Ia supernovae can be used to constrain ensembles of unstable particles which decay primarily into dark radiation.
    • Radiometric Degradation Curves for the ASTER VNIR Processing Using Vicarious and Lunar Calibrations

      Tsuchida, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kouyama, Toru; Obata, Kenta; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Kamei, Akihide; Arai, Kohei; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; et al. (MDPI, 2020-01-29)
      The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard Terra platform, which was launched in 1999, has three separate subsystems: a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) radiometer, a shortwave-infrared radiometer, and a thermal-infrared radiometer. The ASTER VNIR bands have been radiometrically corrected for approximately 14 years by the sensor degradation curves estimated from the onboard calibrator according to the original calibration plan. However, this calibration by the onboard calibrator encountered a problem; specifically, it is inconsistent with the results of vicarious calibration and cross calibration. Therefore, the ASTER VNIR processing was applied by the radiometric degradation curves calculated from the results of three calibration approaches, i.e., the onboard calibrator, the vicarious calibration, and the cross calibration since February 2014. Even though the current degradation curves were revised, the inter-band and lunar calibrations show some inconsistencies owing to the different traceability in the bands by different calibration approaches. In this study, the current degradation curves and their problems are explained, and the new curves that are derived from the vicarious calibration with lunar calibration are discussed. The new degradation curves that have the same traceability in the bands will be used for future ASTER VNIR processing.
    • Trends, Patient and Prescriber Characteristics in Gabapentinoid Use in a Sample of United States Ambulatory Care Visits from 2003 to 2016

      Zhou, Lili; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Kwoh, C Kent; Tighe, Patrick J; Malone, Daniel C; Slack, Marion; Wilson, Debbie L; Brown, Joshua D; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharm Practice & Sci; et al. (MDPI, 2019-12-29)
      Increasing gabapentinoid use has raised concerns of misuse and abuse in the United States (US). Little is known about the characteristics of gabapentinoid use in general clinical practice over time. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We examined the trends of patient and prescriber characteristics and the diagnoses associated with US ambulatory care visits involving gabapentinoids for adult visits from 2003 to 2016. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the adjusted proportion of gabapentinoid-involved visits among all visits and tested for trend significance. Among the weighted estimate of 260.1 million gabapentinoid-involved visits (aged 18-64 years: 61.8%; female: 61.9%; white: 85.5%), the adjusted annual proportion of gabapentinoid-involved visits nearly quadrupled from 2003 to 2016 (9.1 to 34.9 per 1000 visits; Ptrend < 0.0001), driven mainly by gabapentin. Nearly half had concurrent use with opioids (32.9%) or benzodiazepines (15.3%). Primary care physicians (45.8%), neurologists (8.2%), surgeons (6.2%), and psychiatrists (4.8%) prescribed two-thirds of the gabapentinoids. Most (96.6%) of the gabapentinoid visits did not have an approved indication for gabapentinoids among the first three diagnoses. Among US ambulatory care visits from 2003 to 2016, gabapentinoid use increased substantially, commonly prescribed by primary care physicians.
    • Association Between Hormone-Modulating Breast Cancer Therapies and Incidence of Neurodegenerative Outcomes for Women With Breast Cancer

      Branigan, Gregory L; Soto, Maira; Neumayer, Leigh; Rodgers, Kathleen; Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Univ Arizona, Ctr Innovat Brain Sci; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol; Univ Arizona, MD PhD Training Program, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Surg, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Coll Med; et al. (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2020-03-02)
      Question Is hormone-modulating therapy associated with neurodegenerative disease in women with breast cancer? Findings In this cohort study of 57 & x202f;843 perimenopausal- to postmenopausal-aged women with breast cancer, exposure to hormone-modulating therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, especially exemestane) was associated with a significant decrease in the number of women who received a diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease, most specifically Alzheimer disease. Meaning With the increased life expectancy seen after treatment, therapy selection for breast cancer should include a careful discussion of the risks and benefits of each treatment option that may be associated with a reduced risk of neurodegenerative disease. Importance The association between exposure to hormone-modulating therapy (HMT) as breast cancer treatment and neurodegenerative disease (NDD) is unclear. Objective To determine whether HMT exposure is associated with the risk of NDD in women with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective cohort study used the Humana claims data set from January 1, 2007, to March 31, 2017. The Humana data set contains claims from private-payer and Medicare insurance data sets from across the United States with a population primarily residing in the Southeast. Patient claims records were surveyed for a diagnosis of NDD starting 1 year after breast cancer diagnosis for the duration of enrollment in the claims database. Participants were 57 & x202f;843 women aged 45 years or older with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Patients were required to be actively enrolled in Humana claims records for 6 months prior to and at least 3 years after the diagnosis of breast cancer. The analyses were conducted between January 1 and 15, 2020. Exposure Hormone-modulating therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators, estrogen receptor antagonists, and aromatase inhibitors). Main Outcomes and Measures Patients receiving HMT for breast cancer treatment were identified. Survival analysis was used to determine the association between HMT exposure and diagnosis of NDD. A propensity score approach was used to minimize measured and unmeasured selection bias. Results Of the 326 & x202f;485 women with breast cancer in the Humana data set between 2007 and 2017, 57 & x202f;843 met the study criteria. Of these, 18 & x202f;126 (31.3%; mean [SD] age, 76.2 [7.0] years) received HMT, whereas 39 & x202f;717 (68.7%; mean [SD] age, 76.8 [7.0] years) did not receive HMT. Mean (SD) follow-up was 5.5 (1.8) years. In the propensity score-matched population, exposure to HMT was associated with a decrease in the number of women who received a diagnosis of NDD (2229 of 17 878 [12.5%] vs 2559 of 17 878 [14.3%]; relative risk, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93; P < .001), Alzheimer disease (877 of 17 878 [4.9%] vs 1068 of 17 878 [6.0%]; relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90; P < .001), and dementia (1862 of 17 878 [10.4%] vs 2116 of 17 878 [11.8%]; relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93; P < .001). The number needed to treat was 62.51 for all NDDs, 93.61 for Alzheimer disease, and 69.56 for dementia. Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with breast cancer, tamoxifen and steroidal aromatase inhibitors were associated with a decrease in the number who received a diagnosis of NDD, specifically Alzheimer disease and dementia. This cohort study uses the Humana claims data set to examine whether exposure to hormone-modulating therapy is associated with the risk of neurodegenerative disease in women with breast cancer.
    • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Induces a Distinct Signature of Circulating Metabolites

      Rafikov, Ruslan; Coletta, Dawn K; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Rafikova, Olga; Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Endocrinol, Coll Med (MDPI, 2020-01-14)
    • Ted Chiang’s Asian American Amusement at Alien Arrival

      Esaki, Brett J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Religious Studies & Class (MDPI, 2020-01-22)
      In the 2016 movie Arrival, aliens with advanced technology appear on Earth in spaceships reminiscent of the black obelisk in 2001: A Space Odyssey. The film presents this arrival as a serious problem to be solved, with the future of human life and interplanetary relationships in the balance. The short story, "Story of Your Life" by Ted Chiang, on which the film was based, takes a different, amusing route that essentially depicts an ideal vision of the era of colonialism. To articulate this reading, this article will compare Chiang's science fiction (SF) to the genre in general and will take Isiah Lavender III's positionality of otherhood to reveal how Chiang's work expresses a Chinese American secular faith in a moral universe. It will analyze the narrative form in Chiang's collection, Stories of Your Life and Others, and will use it to compare the prose and film versions of "Story of Your Life." It will also explain how Chiang may be using a nonlinear orthography and variational principles of physics to frame multileveled humor. It utilizes theories of humor by John Morreall and analyses of Chinese American secularity by Russell Jeung and concludes that Chiang's work reflects concerns and trends of Asian Americans' secularized religions.
    • An Advanced Risk Modeling Method to Estimate Legionellosis Risks Within a Diverse Population

      Weir, Mark H.; Mraz, Alexis L.; Mitchell, Jade; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Community Environm & Policy Dept (MDPI, 2019-12-20)
      Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a computational science leveraged to optimize infectious disease controls at both population and individual levels. Often, diverse populations will have different health risks based on a population's susceptibility or outcome severity due to heterogeneity within the host. Unfortunately, due to a host homogeneity assumption in the microbial dose-response models' derivation, the current QMRA method of modeling exposure volume heterogeneity is not an accurate method for pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila. Therefore, a new method to model within-group heterogeneity is needed. The method developed in this research uses USA national incidence rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to calculate proxies for the morbidity ratio that are descriptive of the within-group variability. From these proxies, an example QMRA model is developed to demonstrate their use. This method makes the QMRA results more representative of clinical outcomes and increases population-specific precision. Further, the risks estimated demonstrate a significant difference between demographic groups known to have heterogeneous health outcomes after infection. The method both improves fidelity to the real health impacts resulting from L. pneumophila infection and allows for the estimation of severe disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for Legionnaires' disease, moderate DALYs for Pontiac fever, and post-acute DALYs for sequela after recovering from Legionnaires' disease.
    • Co-occurrence of Acheulian and Oldowan artifacts with Homo erectus cranial fossils from Gona, Afar, Ethiopia

      Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J; Simpson, Scott W; Levin, Naomi E; Quade, Jay; Dunbar, Nelia; McIntosh, William C; Cáceres, Isabel; Stinchcomb, Gary E; Holloway, Ralph L; et al. (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2020-03-06)
      Although stone tools generally co-occur with early members of the genus Homo, they are rarely found in direct association with hominins. We report that both Acheulian and Oldowan artifacts and Homo erectus crania were found in close association at 1.26 million years (Ma) ago at Busidima North (BSN12), and ca. 1.6 to 1.5 Ma ago at Dana Aoule North (DAN5) archaeological sites at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. The BSN12 partial cranium is robust and large, while the DAN5 cranium is smaller and more gracile, suggesting that H. erectus was probably a sexually dimorphic species. The evidence from Gona shows behavioral diversity and flexibility with a lengthy and concurrent use of both stone technologies by H. erectus, confounding a simple "single species/single technology" view of early Homo.
    • Multivariate Climate Field Reconstructions Using Tree Rings for the Northeastern United States

      Pearl, Jessie K.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Pederson, Neil; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-01-11)
      High-resolution paleoclimate records are essential for improving our understanding of internal variability and the detection and attribution of forced climate system responses. The densely populated northeastern United States is at risk from increasing temperatures, severe droughts, and extreme precipitation, but the region has limited annual and seasonal-resolution paleoclimate records beyond the instrumental record. Chamaecyparis thyoides, L. (B.S.P.), Atlantic white cedar, a wetland conifer found within 200 km of the Atlantic coastline of the United States, is a promising tree-ring proxy that can fill in these data gaps. Here, we develop and analyze a new network of Atlantic white cedar tree-ring chronologies across the northeastern United States and demonstrate that site selection is important for regional paleoclimate reconstructions. Ring width variability reflects winter through summer temperatures at inland and hydrologically stable sites in the northernmost section of the species' range. Ombrotrophic sites along the coast record hydrological signals and correlate with growing season precipitation. We demonstrate skillful regional climate field reconstructions for the last several centuries and show the increased skill from incorporating our moisture sensitive sites into broad-scale products like the North American Drought Atlas. This comprehensive understanding of the species' climate responses leads to a tree-ring network that provides the long-term multivariate climate context at multidecadal and centennial time scales for the large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that influence the climate of the region. We use this network to examine the covariance of temperature and drought across the New England area over the past two centuries.
    • An Overview of Managed Aquifer Recharge in Mexico and Its Legal Framework

      Cruz-Ayala, Mary Belle; Megdal, Sharon B.; Univ Arizona, Water Resources Res Ctr; Univ Arizona (MDPI, 2020-02-10)
      In Mexico, one hundred of the 188 most important aquifers dedicated to agriculture and human consumption are over-exploited and 32 are affected by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Considering that Mexico relies on groundwater, it is vital to develop a portfolio of alternatives to recover aquifers and examine policies and programs regarding reclaimed water and stormwater. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) may be useful for increasing water availability and adapting to climate change in semi-arid regions of Mexico. In this paper, we present an overview of water recharge projects that have been conducted in Mexico in the last 50 years, their methods for recharge, water sources, geographical distribution, and the main results obtained in each project. We found three types of MAR efforts: (1) exploratory and suitability studies for MAR, (2) pilot projects, and (3) MAR facilities that currently operate. This study includes the examination of the legal framework for MAR to identify some challenges and opportunities that Mexican regulation contains in this regard. We find that beyond the technical issues that MAR projects normally address, the regulatory framework is a barrier to increasing MAR facilities in Mexico.
    • Ubiquitous Fractal Scaling and Filtering Behavior of Hydrologic Fluxes and Storages from A Mountain Headwater Catchment

      Dwivedi, Ravindra; Knowles, John F.; Eastoe, Christopher; Minor, Rebecca; Abramson, Nathan; Mitra, Bhaskar; Wright, William E.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Meixner, Thomas; “Ty” Ferre, Paul A.; et al. (MDPI, 2020-02-24)
      We used the weighted wavelet method to perform spectral analysis of observed long-term precipitation, streamflow, actual evapotranspiration, and soil water storage at a sub-humid mountain catchment near Tucson, Arizona, USA. Fractal scaling in precipitation and the daily change in soil water storage occurred up to a period of 14 days and corresponded to the typical duration of relatively wet and dry intervals. In contrast, fractal scaling could be observed up to a period of 0.5 years in streamflow and actual evapotranspiration. By considering long-term observations of hydrologic fluxes and storages, we show that, in contrast to previous findings, the phase relationships between water balance components changed with component period and were not perfectly in or out of phase at all periods. Self-averaging behavior was apparent, but the temporal scales over which this behavior was applicable differed among the various water balance components. Conservative tracer analysis showed that this catchment acted as a fractal filter by transforming white noise in the precipitation input signal to a 1/f flicker in the streamflow output signal by means of both spatial and temporal subsurface advection and dispersion processes and soil wetting properties. This study provides an improved understanding of hydrological filtering behavior in mountain critical zones that are critical sources of water and ecosystem services throughout the world.
    • Phreatic Water Quality Assessment and Associated Hydrogeochemical Processes in an Irrigated Region Along the Upper Yellow River, Northwestern China

      Liu, Fei; Zhao, Zhipeng; Yang, Lihu; Ma, Yuxue; Li, Bingliang; Gong, Liang; Liu, Haiyan; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (MDPI, 2020-02-10)
      Groundwater resources are playing an increasingly vital role in water supply for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Yinchuan Plain, along with the reduction in water transfer from the Yellow River. This study aimed to identify the current status of phreatic water quality and associated hydrogeochemical processes in an irrigated region along the upper Yellow River. A total of 78 water samples were collected in September 2018 for chemical analysis. Results showed that the phreatic water was excellent or good in most areas west of the Yellow River, while it was poor or very poor quality in some places east of the Yellow River. The nitrate contamination is particularly severe in the pluvial-alluvial plain, relating to the localized fine-grained zone with low permeability. Most samples had no sodium hazard but had magnesium hazard. Additionally, the overall evolutionary trend of the phreatic water showed the transformation of Ca-Mg-HCO3 into Na-Cl-SO4 type. Rock weathering and evaporation jointly predominate the evolution of phreatic water chemistry. The main geochemical processes involve the dissolution/precipitation of gypsum, halite, dolomite. and calcite, along with the cation exchange. Insights from this work have important implications for groundwater sustainable management in such irrigated regions along the upper Yellow River.
    • The First Drying Lake in Chile: Causes and Recovery Options

      Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Pizarro-Tapia, Roberto; Univ Arizona, Hydrol & Atmospher Sci Dept (MDPI, 2020-01-19)
      Located southwest of the city of Santiago (Chile), the Aculeo Lagoon used to be an important body of water, providing environmental, social, and economic services to both locals (mostly drinking water and small-scale agricultural irrigation) and tourists who visited the area for fishing, sailing, and other recreational activities. The lagoon dried completely in May of 2018. The phenomenon has been attributed to the current climatic drought. We implemented and calibrated a surface-groundwater model to evaluate the hydrogeologic causes of the lagoon's disappearance, and to develop feasible solutions. The lagoon's recovery requires a series of urgent actions, including environmental education and significant investment in infrastructure to import water. Ultimately, there are two goals: bringing back historic water levels and ensuring the sustainability of water resources at the catchment scale.
    • Mitigating Inter-Job Interference via Process-Level Quality-of-Service

      Savoie, Lee; Lowenthal, David K.; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Mohror, Kathryn; Jain, Nikhil; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (IEEE, 2019-09)
      Jobs on most high-performance computing (HPC) systems share the network with other concurrently executing jobs. This sharing creates contention that can severely degrade performance. We investigate the use of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms to reduce the negative impacts of network contention. Our results show that careful use of QoS reduces the impact of contention for specific jobs, resulting in up to a 27% performance improvement. In some cases the impact of contention is completely eliminated. These improvements are achieved with limited negative impact to other jobs; any job that experiences performance loss typically degrades less than 5%, often much less. Our approach can help ensure that HPC machines maintain high throughput as per-node compute power continues to increase faster than network bandwidth.
    • Early for Everyone: Reconceptualizing Palliative Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

      Quinn, Megan; Weiss, Alyssa B; Crist, Janice D; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-04)
      Background: Palliative care (PC) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is often provided exclusively to infants expected to die. Standards of care support providing PC early after diagnosis with any condition likely to impact quality of life. Purpose: To determine the state of early PC practice across populations to derive elements of early PC applicable to neonates and their families and demonstrate their application in practice. Search Strategy: Multiple literature searches were conducted from 2016 to 2019. Common keywords used were: palliative care; early PC; end of life, neonate; NICU; perinatal PC; pediatric PC; family-centered care; advanced care planning; palliative care consultant; and shared decision-making. Findings: Early PC is an emerging practice in adult, pediatric, and perinatal populations that has been shown to be helpful for and recommended by families. Three key elements of early PC in the NICU are shared decision-making, care planning, and coping with distress. A hypothetical case of a 24-week infant is presented to illustrate how findings may be applied. Evidence supports expansion of neonatal PC to include infants and families without terminal diagnoses and initiation earlier in care.
    • Pretreatment for water reuse using fluidized bed crystallization

      AzadiAghdam, Mojtaba; Park, Minkyu; Lopez-Prieto, Israel J.; Achilli, Andrea; Snyder, Shane A.; Farrell, James; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn (ELSEVIER, 2020-06)
      This research investigated the use of fluidized bed crystallization for removing scale forming species and natural organic matter (NOM) from treated municipal wastewater prior to water reclamation. The effect of pH on Ca2+, Mg2+, silica and NOM removal in a fluidized bed crystallization reactor (FBCR) was determined. NOM removal in the FBCR was compared to that for the conventional treatments, ultrafiltration and ferric chloride coagulation/flocculation. Under optimized conditions, fluidized bed crystallization was able to remove more than 99.9 % of Mg2+, 97 % of Ca2+ and 42 % of silica. The FBCR was also able to remove 25 % of NOM, which was intermediate between NOM removal by ferric chloride (56 %) and ultrafiltration (13 %). Size exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD) indicated that the majority of NOM removal occurred via co-precipitation with Mg(OH)(2). Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis was used to investigate the types of NOM removed. The FBCR was able to remove all five NOM components (three humic acids, one fulvic acid and one protein-like substance), including 100 % of the autochthonous fulvic acids. Ferric chloride was also able to remove all five NOM components, but only one third of the autochthonous fulvic acids, while ultrafiltration was able to remove only 11 % of the protein-like NOM.