Now showing items 2513-2532 of 13392

    • Crafting the Internship: An Empathy-Driven Approach

      Blakiston, Rebecca; University of Arizona Libraries, University of Arizona (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2022)
      At their core, internships are for student learning and career preparation. Students aim to get hands-on experience in a professional environment, building specific competencies and skills and deepening their understanding of a particular field and potential career path after graduation. At the University of Arizona, students are encouraged and often required to complete real-world experiences as part of their degree programs. The 100% Engagement initiative, an outcome of the university’s strategic plan in 2013, called for “100 percent of our students to have the opportunity to engage in integrating and applying their knowledge through real-world experiential learning.” 1 In response to this initiative, the School of Information added an internship requirement for its master’s in library and information science degree in 2015.2 The school has approximately two hundred students in its program, with the majority being distant students who are seeking local or remote opportunities. Even students who aren’t required to complete an internship as part of their program often seek one out as a way to supplement course instruction and strengthen their qualifications and future job prospects. 184 Chapter 11 Most graduate-level internships hosted at the University of Arizona Libraries are designed as structured learning experiences, so they are unpaid and compensated through academic credit. The time and effort required for a student to complete an internship is equivalent to a three-credit course, which is nine hours per week during a regular (fall or spring) semester. Departments across the library host interns regularly, including Student Learning and Engagement, Research Engagement, the Health Sciences Library, and the University of Arizona Press. The majority of library interns are graduate students seeking master’s degrees from the School of Information, though interns have come from a range of disciplines and have also included high school students, undergraduate students, and PhD students. Some of our library internships are publicly posted, competitive positions, whereas others are individually tailored to specific students. This book chapter focuses on those tailored experiences.
    • Crash proximity and equivalent property damage calculation techniques: An investigation using a novel horizontal curve dataset

      Ryan, Alyssa; Ai, Chengbo; Fitzpatrick, Cole; Knodler, Michael; Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-03)
      Despite the numerous breakthroughs in crash analytics, there remains a lack of consensus among safety practitioners as to the optimal method for locating high crash locations. Two critical components in the traffic safety analysis process not agreed upon are 1) how the crash distance to a target location is included in the analysis and 2) how crashes are weighted based on crash-related characteristics. For example, the commonly used buffering technique to determine which crashes are associated with a specific target road segment does not associate crashes that are closer to a target road segment with any additional weight, even though it is likely to be more greatly associated with the characteristics of the target location. Additionally, the commonly used equivalent property damage only (EPDO) crash weight method has been found to weigh fatal crashes significantly more than serious injury crashes, even if the difference between the two outcomes was a single factor. This study proposes more robust crash weighting techniques for use in high-risk location identification using an application of a novel horizontal curve dataset. Specifically, a heteroscedastic censored regression approach was used to investigate the impact of different crash proximity weighting techniques and crash severity weighting methods on model outcomes. The results demonstrate that the use of a linear distance weighting factor used in conjunction with the buffering technique as well as a less precise EPDO weighting factor method results in more robust safety analysis outcomes. The improved results have the potential to improve hot spot identification and resource allocation at both the federal and regional levels by employing models that more accurately link specific crash segments with contributing crash characteristics.
    • Crater 2: An Extremely Cold Dark Matter Halo

      Caldwell, Nelson; Walker, Matthew G.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, Vasily; Torrealba, Gabriel; Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Johnson, C. I.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-04-10)
      We present results from MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopy of 390 red giant candidate stars along the line of sight to the recently discovered Galactic satellite Crater 2. Modeling the joint distribution of stellar positions, velocities, and metallicities as a mixture of Crater 2 and Galactic foreground populations, we identify similar to 62 members of Crater 2, for which we resolve a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of sigma(nu los) = 2.7(-0.3)(+0.3) km s(-1) and a. mean velocity of = 87.5(-0.4)(+0.4) km s(-1) (solar rest frame). We also resolve a metallicity dispersion of sigma([Fe/H]) = 0.22(-0.03)(+0.04) dex and a mean of <[Fe/H]> = 1.98(-0.1)(+0.1) dex that is 0.28 +/- 0.14 dex poorer than estimated from photometry. Despite Crater 2's relatively large size (projected halflight radius R-h similar to 1 kpc) and intermediate luminosity (M-V similar to -8), its velocity dispersion is the coldest that has been resolved for any dwarf galaxy. These properties make Crater 2 the most extreme low-density outlier in dynamical as well as structural scaling relations among the Milky Way's dwarf spheroidals. Even so, under assumptions of dynamical equilibrium and negligible contamination by unresolved binary stars, the observed velocity distribution implies a gravitationally dominant dark matter halo, with a dynamical mass of. 4.4(-0.9)(+1.2) x 10(6) M-circle dot and a mass-to-light ratio of 53(-11)(+15) M-circle dot/L-V,L-circle dot enclosed within a radius of similar to 1 kpc, where the equivalent circular velocity is 4.3(-0.5)(+0.5) km s(-1).
    • Creating a Student-Centered Alternative to Research Guides: Developing the Infrastructure to Support Novice Learners

      Paschke-Wood, Jeremiah; Dubinsky, Ellen; Sult, Leslie; University of Arizona Libraries, University of Arizona (In the Library with the Lead Pipe, 2020-10-21)
      Research and course guides typically feature long lists of resources without the contextual or instructional framework to direct novice researchers through the research process. An investigation of guide usage and user interactions at a large university in the southwestern U.S. revealed a need to reexamine the way research guides can be developed and implemented to better meet the needs of these students by focusing on pedagogical support of student research and information literacy skill creation. This article documents the justification behind making the changes as well as the theoretical framework used to develop and organize a system that will place both pedagogically-focused guides as well as student-focused answers to commonly asked questions on a reimagined FAQ/research page. This research offers academic libraries an alternative approach to existing methods of helping students. Rather than focusing on guiding students to a list of out-of-context guides and resources, it reconceptualizes our current system and strives to offer pedagogically-sound direction and alternatives for students who formerly navigated unsuccessfully through the library’s website, either requiring more support, or failing to find the assistance they needed.
    • Creating an experimental testbed for information-theoretic analysis of architectures for x-ray anomaly detection

      Coccarelli, David; Greenberg, Joel A.; Mandava, Sagar; Gong, Qian; Huang, Liang-Chih; Ashok, Amit; Gehm, Michael E.; Univ Arizona, ECE Dept; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci; Duke Univ. (United States); et al. (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2017-05-01)
      Anomaly detection requires a system that can reliably convert measurements of an object into knowledge about that object. Previously, we have shown that an information-theoretic approach to the design and analysis of such systems provides insight into system performance as it pertains to architectural variations in source fluence, view number/angle, spectral resolution, and spatial resolution.(1) However, this work was based on simulated measurements which, in turn, relied on assumptions made in our simulation models and virtual objects. In this work, we describe our experimental testbed capable of making transmission x-ray measurements. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution is sufficient to validate aspects of the simulation-based framework, including the forward models, bag packing techniques, and performance analysis. In our experimental CT system, designed baggage is placed on a rotation stage located between a tungsten-anode source and a spectroscopic detector array. The setup is able to measure a full 360 rotation with 18,000 views, each of which defines a 10 ms exposure of 1,536 detector elements, each with 64 spectral channels. Measurements were made of 1,000 bags that comprise 100 clutter instantiations each with 10 different target materials. Moreover, we develop a systematic way to generate bags representative of our desired clutter and target distributions. This gives the dataset a statistical significance valuable in future investigations.
    • CREATING HIGH-VALUE REAL-WORLD IMPACT THROUGH SYSTEMATIC PROGRAMS OF RESEARCH

      Nunamaker, Jay F.; Twyman, Nathan W.; Giboney, Justin Scott; Briggs, Robert O.; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management (SOC INFORM MANAGE-MIS RES CENT, 2017-06)
      An ongoing conversation in the Information Systems literature addresses the concern, "How can we conduct research that makes a difference?" A shortage of high-impact research will, over time, challenge the identity and weaken the viability of IS as an academic discipline. This paper presents the systematic high-impact research model (SHIR), an approach to conducting high-impact research. SHIR embodies the insight gained from three streams of high-impact research programs spanning more than 50 years. The SHIR framework rests on the proposition that IS researchers can produce higher-impact contributions by developing long-term research programs around major real-world issues, as opposed to ad hoc projects addressing a small piece of a large problem. These persistent research programs focus on addressing the entirety of an issue, by leveraging multidisciplinary, multiuniversity research centers that employ a breadth of research methods and large-scale projects. To function effectively, SHIR programs must be sustained by academic and practitioner partnerships, research centers, and outreach activities. We argue that SHIR research programs increase the likelihood of high impact research.
    • Creating the Urban Farmer's Almanac with Citizen Science Data

      Prudic, Kathleen L; Wilson, J Keaton; Toshack, Michelle C; Gerst, Katharine L; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Crimmins, Theresa M; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm; Univ Arizona, Off Digital Innovat & Stewardship, Lib (MDPI, 2019-09)
      Agriculture has long been a part of the urban landscape, from gardens to small scale farms. In recent decades, interest in producing food in cities has grown dramatically, with an estimated 30% of the global urban population engaged in some form of food production. Identifying and managing the insect biodiversity found on city farms is a complex task often requiring years of study and specialization, especially in urban landscapes which have a complicated tapestry of fragmentation, diversity, pollution, and introduced species. Supporting urban growers with relevant data informs insect management decision-making for both growers and their neighbors, yet this information can be difficult to come by. In this study, we introduced several web-based citizen science programs that can connect growers with useful data products and people to help with the who, what, where, and when of urban insects. Combining the power of citizen science volunteers with the efforts of urban farmers can result in a clearer picture of the diversity and ecosystem services in play, limited insecticide use, and enhanced non-chemical alternatives. Connecting urban farming practices with citizen science programs also demonstrates the ecosystem value of urban agriculture and engages more citizens with the topics of food production, security, and justice in their communities.
    • Creation of large temperature anisotropies in a laboratory plasma

      Beatty, C. B.; Steinberger, T. E.; Aguirre, E. M.; Beatty, R. A.; Klein, K. G.; McLaughlin, J. W.; Neal, L.; Scime, E. E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Planetary Sci (AMER INST PHYSICS, 2020-12-01)
      Ion temperature anisotropy in an expanding magnetized plasma is investigated using laser induced fluorescence. Parallel and perpendicular ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) were measured simultaneously with high spatial resolution in the expanding plasma. Large ion temperature anisotropies ( T perpendicular to i / T parallel to i similar to 10) are observed in a conical region at the periphery of the expanding plasma plume. A simple 2D Boris stepper model that incorporates the measured electric field structure is able to reproduce the gross features of the measured perpendicular IVDFs. A Nyquist stability analysis of the measured IVDFs suggests that multiple instabilities with k perpendicular to rho i similar to 1 and k | | rho i similar to 0.2 are likely to be excited in these plasmas.
    • Creative Mitigation: Alternative Strategies for Resources, Stakeholders, and the Public

      Douglass, John G.; Manney, Shelby A.; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2020-08)
      Standard mitigation treatment for adverse effects to significant cultural resources has historically been a combination of data recovery excavation along with artifact analysis, reporting, and curation, whose purpose is to move the undertaking forward. Over the past several decades, there has been increased interest and understanding of alternative, or creative, mitigation options in these situations, which may, in the end, be the best option for the resource and more meaningful to both project stakeholders and the public. This article, the first in this special issue on creative mitigation, introduces the regulatory and conceptual framework for creative mitigation and weaves themes introduced in subsequent articles in this issue.
    • Credibility of Convection-Permitting Modeling to Improve Seasonal Precipitation Forecasting in the Southwestern United States

      Pal, Sujan; Chang, Hsin-I; Castro, Christopher L.; Dominguez, Francina; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-03-05)
      Sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) forecasts are critical for planning and management decisions in multiple sectors. This study shows results from dynamical downscaling using a regional climate model at a convection-permitting scale driven by boundary conditions from the global reanalysis of the Climate Forecast System Model (CFSR). Convection-permitting modeling (CPM) enhances the representation of regional climate by better resolving the regional forcings and processes, associated with topography and land cover, in response to variability in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. We performed dynamically downscaled simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Upper and Lower Colorado basin at 12 km and 3 km grid spacing from 2000 to 2010 to investigate the potential of dynamical downscaling to improved the modeled representation of precipitation the Southwestern United States. Employing a convection-permitting nested domain of 3 km resolution significantly reduces the bias in mean (similar to 2 mm/day) and extreme (similar to 4 mm/day) summer precipitation when compared to coarser domain of 12 km resolution and coarse resolution CFSR products. The convection-permitting modeling product also better represents eastward propagation of organized convection due to mesoscale convective systems at a subdaily scale, which largely account for extreme summer rainfall during the North American monsoon. In the cool season both coarse and high-resolution simulations perform well with limited bias of similar to 1 mm/day for the mean and similar to 2 mm/day for the extreme precipitation. Significant correlation was found (similar to 0.85 for summer and similar to 0.65 for winter) for both coarse and high-resolution model with observed regionally and seasonally averaged precipitation. Our findings suggest that the use of CPM is necessary in a dynamical modeling system for S2S prediction in this region, especially during the warm season when precipitation is mostly convectively driven.
    • CredibleMeds.org: What does it offer?

      Woosley, Raymond L.; Black, Kristin; Heise, C. William; Romero, Klaus; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Dept Med, Div Clin Data Analyt & Decis Support (ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON, 2018-02)
      Since the 1990s, when numerous non-cardiac drugs were first recognized to have the potential to prolong the QT interval and cause torsades de pointes (TdP), clinicians, drug regulators, drug developers, and clinical investigators have become aware of the complexities of assessing evidence and determining TdP causality for the many drugs being marketed or under development. To facilitate better understanding, the Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics, known as AZCERT, has developed the CredibleMeds.org website which includes QTdrugs, a listing of over 220 drugs placed in four risk categories based on their association with QT prolongation and TdP. Since the site was launched in 1999, it has become the single and most reliable source of information of its kind for patients, healthcare providers, and research scientists. Over 96,000 registered users rely on the QTdrugs database as their primary resource to inform their medication use, their prescribing or their clinical research into the impact of QT-prolonging drugs and drug induced arrhythmias. The QTdrugs lists are increasingly used as the basis for clinical decision support systems in healthcare and for metrics of prescribing quality by healthcare insurers. A free smartphone app and an application program interface enable rapid and mobile access to the lists. Also, the CredibleMeds website offers numerous educational resources for patients, educators and healthcare providers that foster the safe use of medications.
    • Cretaceous shortening and exhumation history of the South Pamir terrane

      Chapman, James B.; Robinson, Alexander C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Villarreal, Dustin; Worthington, James; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gehrels, George; et al. (GEOLOGICAL SOC AMER, INC, 2018-08)
      Despite Miocene extension and exhumation of middle to lower crust in a series of gneiss domes and interpreted Cenozoic delamination of the lower crust, the crust in the modern Pamir Mountains is among the thickest in the world. Cenozoic shortening, crustal thickening, and prograde metamorphism in the Pamir have been associated with India-Asia collision. However, new mapping in the South Pamir terrane indicates relatively minor, distributed shortening since the Jurassic, which occurs in a thrust belt overprinted by late Cenozoic transpression. The thrust belt connects with the Rushan-Pshart suture zone, a Mesozoic terrane boundary. New detrital zircon U-Pb and detrital zircon fission track ages of synorogemc clastic rocks exposed in the footwall of thrust faults in the South Pamir thrust belt provide maximum deposition ages (76-112 Ma), which are interpreted to document Cretaceous shortening prior to India-Asia collision. Furthermore, zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the South Pamir terrane generally record cooling ages of ca. 102-44 Ma, suggesting limited Cenozoic exhumation. These results (1) are consistent with widespread Cretaceous deformation throughout the Pamir-Tibet orogen with limited Cenozoic upper crustal shortening in the South Pamir terrane, (2) together with previous studies, allow for the possibility that the upper crust of the Pamir orogen was characterized by net extension during the Cenozoic rather than net shortening, and (3) are consistent with models that relate Cenozoic crustal thickening to the insertion of Indian lower crust beneath the Pamir. Lower crustal thickening of the South Pamir terrane is difficult to reconcile with the prograde metamorphic history of gneiss domes in the South Pamir terrane and may require a relatively shallow (<15-20 km) shear zone separating lower crustal contraction from upper crustal extension.
    • Cretaceous to Middle Cenozoic Exhumation History of the Cordillera de Domeyko and Salar de Atacama Basin, Northern Chile

      Henriquez, Susana; DeCelles, Peter G.; Carrapa, Barbara; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019-02)
      Spatiotemporal patterns of deformation and exhumation in the central Andes are key parameters for reconstructing the kinematic history of the orogenic belt. Previous studies of the retroarc thrust belt document overall eastward propagation of deformation since the late Eocene, but the amount and timing of exhumation during the early phase of Andean orogeny remains largely unconstrained, particularly in the modern forearc region. In order to determine the timing and amount of exhumation prior to the late Eocene, we employed a multidating approach combining zircon U-Pb geochronology with apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. We focus on the low-temperature cooling history of the Cordillera de Domeyko thrust belt and synorogenic deposits in the Salar de Atacama basin. Our results show Late Cretaceous to Oligocene cooling and exhumation in the Cordillera de Domeyko. The distribution of cooling ages in the forearc indicates three periods of exhumation: 86-65, 65-50, and 50-28Ma. The amount of cooling was variable in space and time but requires total exhumation of 2.5-3.3km of rocks above major structures in the thrust belt. Regional unconformities in the Salar de Atacama basin correlate with periods of eastward migration of the orogenic front at 65Ma and 50-40Ma. Pulses of deformation at the front of the thrust belt alternated with periods of out-of-sequence hinterland deformation and exhumation. Overall, our data show that shortening in the central Andes commenced during the Late Cretaceous (as early as 86Ma) and that deformation (shortening) and exhumation were coupled in space and time.
    • Crime and punishment: A realistic group conflict approach to racial discrimination in hiring convicted felons

      Goldman, Barry; Cooper, Dylan; Kugler, Tamar; Univ Arizona, Management & Org (EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-02-11)
      Purpose A surprisingly large proportion of the working population of the USA consists of individuals with felony convictions. Moreover, the issue of employability of these individuals is compounded for minorities. This paper aims to present two experimental studies investigating whether minorities with felony backgrounds have a more difficult time being selected for employment than identically situated white applicants. The authors ground the paper in realistic group conflict theory. Results indicate discrimination is more acute against minorities with felony backgrounds than whites with the same background and shed light on the mechanisms leading to this discrimination. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Design/methodology/approach This paper involves two experimental studies involving working adults engaging with realistic survey situations using mTurk. Findings Results of both studies indicate discrimination is more acute against minorities with felony backgrounds than whites with the same background, and shed light on the mechanisms leading to this discrimination. Research limitations/implications One limitation of the methodology is that the authors used fictional candidates and jobs. This may have led to understating the effects of discrimination on minorities because it allowed applicants to answer in socially desirable ways (e.g. absent of racial bias) without suffering any of the anticipated negative consequences of actually hiring individuals about whom they hold negative stereotypes. Practical implications This research has several important implications for practice. First, organizations should be keenly aware of the potential for subtle and unconscious bias to affect the job application process even among well-intentioned hiring managers. Second, as the bias is often triggered by threats, organizations should share with their employees the nature of the threat involved with former felons. Social implications Organizations should deliberately address issues associated with the use of criminal background checks. For many organizations, a felony conviction in an applicant's background automatically eliminates that person from employment. However, a substantial amount of the workforce now has a felony in their background. Indeed, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2012) has issued guidelines that detail important factors that organizations should consider on a case-by-case basis when considering employment for former felons. Organizations may consider updating any blanket exclusions regarding the hiring of ex-felons - not only because it makes good policy but also because it may help the organization hire the best people. Originality/value This research studies an important - and growing - societal problem related to the hiring of convicted felons, and the related issue of racial discrimination that affects black convicted felons particularly hard. There has been very little work in the management area on this topic. Moreover, there has been very little work in all areas that includes experimental methods. The use of such methods is particularly useful to eliminate confounds found in field data.
    • Criminal Deterrence when There Are Offsetting Risks: Traffic Cameras. Vehicular Accidents. and Public Safety

      Gallagher, Justin; Fisher, Paul J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Econ (AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC, 2020-08)
      Numerous cities have enacted electronic monitoring programs at traffic intersections in an effort to reduce the high number of vehicle accidents. The rationale is that the higher expected fines for running a red light will induce drivers to stop and lead to fewer cross-road collisions. However, the cameras also incentivize drivers to accept a greater accident risk from stopping. We evaluate the termination of a monitoring program via a voter referendum using 12 years of geocoded police accident data. We find that the cameras changed the composition of accidents but no evidence of a reduction in total accidents or injuries.
    • CRISPR-mediated mutations in the ABC transporter gene ABCA2 confer pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab

      Fabrick, J.A.; LeRoy, D.M.; Mathew, L.G.; Wu, Y.; Unnithan, G.C.; Yelich, A.J.; Carrière, Y.; Li, X.; Tabashnik, B.E.; Department of Entomology, University of Arizona (Nature Research, 2021)
      Crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have many benefits and are important globally for managing insect pests. However, the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops reduces their benefits. Understanding the genetic basis of such resistance is needed to better monitor, manage, and counter pest resistance to Bt crops. Previous work shows that resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab is associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCA2 in lab- and field-selected populations of the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), one of the world’s most destructive pests of cotton. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to test the hypothesis that mutations in the pink bollworm gene encoding ABCA2 (PgABCA2) can cause resistance to Cry2Ab. Consistent with this hypothesis, introduction of disruptive mutations in PgABCA2 in a susceptible strain of pink bollworm increased the frequency of resistance to Cry2Ab and facilitated creation of a Cry2Ab-resistant strain. All Cry2Ab-resistant individuals tested in this study had disruptive mutations in PgABCA2. Overall, we found 17 different disruptive mutations in PgABCA2 gDNA and 26 in PgABCA2 cDNA, including novel mutations corresponding precisely to single-guide (sgRNA) sites used for CRISPR/Cas9. Together with previous results, these findings provide the first case of practical resistance to Cry2Ab where evidence identifies a specific gene in which disruptive mutations can cause resistance and are associated with resistance in field-selected populations. © 2021, The Author(s).
    • A critical analysis of recreational water guidelines developed from temperate climate data and applied to the tropics

      Verhougstraete, Marc P; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Reynolds, Kelly A; Lamparelli, Claudia Condé; Zanoli Sato, Maria Inês; Wade, Timothy J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Community Environm & Policy; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-03-01)
      Recreational water epidemiology studies are rare in settings with minimal wastewater treatment where risk may be highest, and in tropical settings where warmer temperature influences the ecology of fecal indicator bacteria commonly used to monitor recreational waters. One exception is a 1999 study conducted in Sao Paulo Brazil. We compared the risk and exposure characteristics of these data with those conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) in the early 1990s that are the basis of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guidelines on recreational water risks. We then developed adjusted risk difference models (excess gastrointestinal illness per swimming event) for children (<10 years of age) and nonchildren (>= 10 years of age) across five Brazil beaches. We used these models along with beach water quality data from 2004 to 2015 to assess spatial and temporal trends in water quality and human risk. Risk models indicate that children in Brazil have as much as two times the risk of gastrointestinal illness than non-children. In Brazil, 11.8% of the weekly water samples from 2004 to 2015 exceeded 158 enterococci CFU/100 ml, the highest level of fecal streptococci concentration measured in the UK study. Risks associated with these elevated levels equated to median NEEAR-Gastrointestinal Illness (NGI) risks of 53 and 96 excess cases per 1000 swimmers in non-children and children, respectively. Two of the five beaches appear to drive the overall elevated NGI risks seen during this study. Distinct enteric pathogen profiles that exist in tropical settings as well as in settings with minimal wastewater treatment highlight the importance of regionally specific guideline development. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Critical care nurses' clinical reasoning about physiologic monitor alarm customisation: An interpretive descriptive study

      Ruppel, Halley; Funk, Marjorie; Whittemore, Robin; Wung, Shu-Fen; Bonafide, Christopher P; Powell Kennedy, Holly; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
      Aims and objectives To explore clinical reasoning about alarm customisation among nurses in intensive care units. Background Critical care nurses are responsible for detecting and rapidly acting upon changes in patients' clinical condition. Nurses use medical devices including bedside physiologic monitors to assist them in their practice. Customising alarm settings on these devices can help nurses better monitor their patients and reduce the number of clinically irrelevant alarms. As a result, customisation may also help address the problem of alarm fatigue. However, little is known about nurses' clinical reasoning with respect to customising physiologic monitor alarm settings. Design This article is an in-depth report of the qualitative arm of a mixed methods study conducted using an interpretive descriptive methodological approach. Methods Twenty-seven nurses were purposively sampled from three intensive care units in an academic medical centre. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone and were analysed using thematic analysis. Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) reporting guidelines were used. Results Four themes were identified from the interview data: unit alarm culture and context, nurse attributes, motivation to customise and customisation "know-how." A conceptual model demonstrating the relationship of these themes was developed to portray the factors that affect nurses' customisation of alarms. Conclusions In addition to drawing on clinical data, nurses customised physiologic monitor alarms based on their level of clinical expertise and comfort. Nurses were influenced by the alarm culture on their clinical unit and colleagues' and patients' responses to alarms, as well as their own technical understanding of the physiologic monitors. Relevance to clinical practice The results of this study can be used to design strategies to support the application of clinical reasoning to alarm management, which may contribute to more appropriate alarm customisation practices and improvements in safety.
    • Critical Care Nurses' Cognitive Ergonomics Related to Medical Device Alarms

      Wung, Shu-Fen; Schatz, Marilyn Rose; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing, Biobehav Hlth Sci Div (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2018-06-01)
      This study uniquely gained insight into the intricacy of intensive care nurses' decision-making process when responding to and managing device alarms. Difficulty in responding to alarms included low staffing, multiple job responsibilities, and competing priority tasks. Novice nurses are more tolerant of alarms sounding owing to a lower threshold of comfort with resetting or silencing alarms; more experienced nurses are more comfortable resetting alarm limits to the patient's baseline. Understanding the decision-making process used by nurses can guide the development of policies and learning experiences that are crucial clinical support for alarm management.
    • Critical Library Pedagogy Handbooks: Acknowledgments

      Pagowsky, Nicole; McElroy, Kelly; University of Arizona; Oregon State University (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2016-09)