• Automating Wavefront Parallelization for Sparse Matrix Computations

      Venkat, Anand; Mohammadi, Mahdi Soltan; Park, Jongsoo; Rong, Hongbo; Barik, Rajkishore; Strout, Michelle Mills; Hall, Mary; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (IEEE, 2016)
      This paper presents a compiler and runtime framework for parallelizing sparse matrix computations that have loop-carried dependences. Our approach automatically generates a runtime inspector to collect data dependence information and achieves wavefront parallelization of the computation, where iterations within a wavefront execute in parallel, and synchronization is required across wavefronts. A key contribution of this paper involves dependence simplification, which reduces the time and space overhead of the inspector. This is implemented within a polyhedral compiler framework, extended for sparse matrix codes. Results demonstrate the feasibility of using automatically-generated inspectors and executors to optimize ILU factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxations, which are part of the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) computation. Our implementation achieves a median speedup of 2.97x on 12 cores over the reference sequential PCG implementation, significantly outperforms PCG parallelized using Intel's Math Kernel Library (MKL), and is within 6% of the median performance of manually-parallelized PCG.
    • Automation and control of the MMT thermal system

      Gibson, J. D.; Porter, Dallan; Goble, William; Univ Arizona, MMT Observ; MMT Observatory (United States); MMT Observatory (United States); MMT Observatory (United States) (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2016-07-26)
      This study investigates the software automation and control framework for the MMT thermal system. Thermal-related effects on observing and telescope behavior have been considered during the entire software development process. Regression analysis of telescope and observatory subsystem data is used to characterize and model these thermal-related effects. The regression models help predict expected changes in focus and overall astronomical seeing that result from temperature variations within the telescope structure, within the primary mirror glass, and between the primary mirror glass and adjacent air (i.e., mirror seeing). This discussion is followed by a description of ongoing upgrades to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system and the associated software controls. The improvements of the MMT thermal system have two objectives: 1) to provide air conditioning capabilities for the MMT facilities, and 2) to modernize and enhance the primary mirror (M1) ventilation system. The HVAC upgrade necessitates changes to the automation and control of the M1 ventilation system. The revised control system must factor in the additional requirements of the HVAC system, while still optimizing performance of the M1 ventilation system and the M1's optical behavior. An industry-standard HVAC communication and networking protocol, BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), has been adopted. Integration of the BACnet protocol into the existing software framework at the MMT is discussed. Performance of the existing automated system is evaluated and a preliminary upgraded automated control system is presented. Finally, user interfaces to the new HVAC system are discussed.
    • Autonomous Detection of Particles and Tracks in Optical Images

      Liounis, Andrew J.; Small, Jeffrey L.; Swenson, Jason C.; Lyzhoft, Joshua R.; Ashman, Benjamin W.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Moreau, Michael C.; Adam, Coralie D.; Leonard, Jason M.; Nelson, Derek S.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-08)
      When optical navigation images acquired by the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer) mission revealed the periodic ejection of particles from asteroid (101955) Bennu, it became a mission priority to quickly identify and track these objects for both spacecraft safety and scientific purposes. The large number of particles and the mission criticality rendered time-intensive manual inspection impractical. We present autonomous techniques for particle detection and tracking that were developed in response to the Bennu phenomenon but that have the capacity for general application to particles in motion about a celestial body. In an example OSIRIS-REx data set, our autonomous techniques identified 93.6% of real particle tracks and nearly doubled the number of tracks detected versus manual inspection alone.
    • Autophagic/lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease

      Orr, Miranda; Oddo, Salvatore; Department of Physiology and The Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA; Banner Sun Health Research Institute and Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, 10515 W. Santa Fe Drive, Sun City, AZ 85351, USA (BioMed Central, 2013)
      Autophagy serves as the sole catabolic mechanism for degrading organelles and protein aggregates. Increasing evidence implicates autophagic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein misprocessing and accumulation. Under physiologic conditions, the autophagic/lysosomal system efficiently recycles organelles and substrate proteins. However, reduced autophagy function leads to the accumulation of proteins and autophagic and lysosomal vesicles. These vesicles contain toxic lysosomal hydrolases as well as the proper cellular machinery to generate amyloid-beta, the major component of AD plaques. Here, we provide an overview of current research focused on the relevance of autophagic/lysosomal dysfunction in AD pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic targets aimed at restoring autophagic/lysosomal pathway function.
    • Autophagy and chloroplast-associated ubiquitination cooperate to manage oxidative damage and starvation responses

      Kikuchi, Yuta; Nakamura, Sakuya; Woodson, Jesse; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Ling, Qihua; Hidema, Jun; Jarvis, Paul; Hagihara, Shinya; Izumi, Masanori; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2020-08)
      Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are the major degradation processes for intracellular components in eukaryotes. Although ubiquitination acts as a signal inducing organelle-targeting autophagy, the interaction between ubiquitination and autophagy in chloroplast turnover has not been addressed. In this study, we found that two chloroplast-associated E3 enzymes, SUPPRESSOR OF PPI1 LOCUS1 and PLANT U-BOX4 (PUB4), are not necessary for the induction of either piecemeal autophagy of chloroplast stroma or chlorophagy of whole damaged chloroplasts in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Double mutations of an autophagy gene and PUB4 caused synergistic phenotypes relative to single mutations. The double mutants developed accelerated leaf chlorosis linked to the overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species during senescence and had reduced seed production. Biochemical detection of ubiquitinated proteins indicated that both autophagy and PUB4-associated ubiquitination contributed to protein degradation in the senescing leaves. Furthermore, the double mutants had enhanced susceptibility to carbon or nitrogen starvation relative to single mutants. Together, these results indicate that autophagy and chloroplast-associated E3s cooperate for protein turnover, management of reactive oxygen species accumulation, and adaptation to starvation.
    • Autophagy Inhibition to Augment mTOR Inhibition: a Phase I/II Trial of Everolimus and Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with Previously Treated Renal Cell Carcinoma

      Haas, Naomi B; Appleman, Leonard J; Stein, Mark; Redlinger, Maryann; Wilks, Melissa; Xu, Xiaowei; Onorati, Angelique; Kalavacharla, Anusha; Kim, Taehyong; Zhen, Chao Jie; et al. (AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, 2019-04-01)
      Purpose: Everolimus inhibits the mTOR, activating cytoprotective autophagy. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits autophagy. On the basis of preclinical data demonstrating synergistic cytotoxicity when mTOR inhibitors are combined with an autophagy inhibitor, we launched a clinical trial of combined everolimus and hydroxychloroquine, to determine its safety and activity in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Patients and Methods: Three centers conducted a phase I/II trial of everolimus 10 mg daily and hydroxychloroquine in patients with advanced ccRCC. The objectives were to determine the MTD of hydroxychloroquine with daily everolimus, and to estimate the rate of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ccRCC receiving everolimus/hydroxychloroquine after 1-3 prior treatment regimens. Correlative studies to identify patient subpopulations that achieved the most benefit included population pharmacokinetics, measurement of autophagosomes by electron microscopy, and next-generation tumor sequencing. Results: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in the phase I trial. The recommended phase II dose of hydroxychloroquine 600 mg twice daily with everolimus was identified. Disease control [stable disease thorn partial response (PR)] occurred in 22 of 33 (67%) evaluable patients. PR was observed in 2 of 33 patients (6%). PFS >= 6 months was achieved in 15 of 33 (45%) of patients who achieved disease control. Conclusions: Combined hydroxychloroquine 600 mg twice daily with 10 mg daily everolimus was tolerable. The primary endpoint of >40% 6-month PFS rate was met. Hydroxychloroquine is a tolerable autophagy inhibitor in future RCC or other trials.
    • An autosomal dominant neurological disorder caused by de novo variants in FAR1 resulting in uncontrolled synthesis of ether lipids

      Ferdinandusse, Sacha; McWalter, Kirsty; te Brinke, Heleen; IJlst, Lodewijk; Mooijer, Petra M.; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; van Lint, Alida E. M.; Pras-Raves, Mia; Wever, Eric; Millan, Francisca; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-11-26)
      Purpose: In this study we investigate the disease etiology in 12 patients with de novo variants in FAR1 all resulting in an amino acid change at position 480 (p.Arg480Cys/His/Leu). Methods: Following next-generation sequencing and clinical phenotyping, functional characterization was performed in patients’ fibroblasts using FAR1 enzyme analysis, FAR1 immunoblotting/immunofluorescence, and lipidomics. Results: All patients had spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts, in most combined with speech and gross motor developmental delay and truncal hypotonia. FAR1 deficiency caused by biallelic variants results in defective ether lipid synthesis and plasmalogen deficiency. In contrast, patients’ fibroblasts with the de novo FAR1 variants showed elevated plasmalogen levels. Further functional studies in fibroblasts showed that these variants cause a disruption of the plasmalogen-dependent feedback regulation of FAR1 protein levels leading to uncontrolled ether lipid production. Conclusion: Heterozygous de novo variants affecting the Arg480 residue of FAR1 lead to an autosomal dominant disorder with a different disease mechanism than that of recessive FAR1 deficiency and a diametrically opposed biochemical phenotype. Our findings show that for patients with spastic paraparesis and bilateral cataracts, FAR1 should be considered as a candidate gene and added to gene panels for hereditary spastic paraplegia, cerebral palsy, and juvenile cataracts. © 2020, The Author(s).
    • Average Worst-Case Secrecy Rate Maximization via UAV and Base Station Resource Allocation

      Ahmed, Shakil; Bash, Boulat A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE, 2019-09)
      In this paper, we consider a wireless network setting where a base station (BS) employs a single unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mobile relay to disseminate information to multiple users in the presence of multiple adversaries. The BS, which is on the ground, has no direct link to the users or the adversaries, who are also on the ground. We optimize the joint transmit power of the BS and the UAV, and the UAV trajectory. We introduce the information causality constraint and maximize the average worst-case secrecy rate in the presence of the adversaries. The formulated average worst-case secrecy rate optimization problem is not convex and is solved sub-optimally. First, we optimize the transmit power of the BS and the UAV under a given UAV trajectory. Then, we optimize the UAV trajectory under the sub-optimal UAV and BS transmit power. An efficient algorithm solves the average worst-case secrecy rate maximization problem iteratively until it converges. Finally, simulation results are provided, which demonstrate the correspondence of the UAV optimal track and transmit power allocation to what is suggested by the previous theoretic results.
    • Away from fossil-fuels and toward a bioeconomy: Knowledge versatility for public policy?

      Mukhtarov, Farhad; Gerlak, Andrea; Pierce, Robin; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2017-09)
      In the face of energy security and climate change, and with technological advances, many industrial countries have embraced the transition to a bioeconomy - an economy based on energy, chemicals and materials obtained from biomass. However, the policy and academic discourses on a bioeconomy transition suggest growing controversy around its social, environmental and ethical impacts. In this article, we apply an epistemic forms framework to better understand the scope and extent of the bioeconomy debate. We find that industry and governments take a narrow approach to a bioeconomy and tend to view it exclusively as a technical concept. We argue that the discursive and practical dimensions of the transition would shed light on the issues of what type of a bioeconomy to strive for, through which procedures and with what impacts for diverse stakeholders. We conclude with a set of recommendations related to a bioeconomy transition.
    • Axillary vein thrombosis induced by an increasingly popular oscillating dumbbell exercise device: a case report

      Shennib, H.; Hickle, K.; Bowles, B.; Arizona Heart Hospital; University of Arizona, College of Medicine-Phoenix (BioMed Central, 2015)
      A 53 year-old male presented with a one-day history of a swollen arm and dull, aching pain in the right upper extremity. The patient reported commencing exercising daily over the prior week with a modified, oscillating dumbbell; commonly referred to as a Shake Weight. Imaging revealed an occlusive thrombus in the right axillary, proximal brachial and basilic veins. The patient was treated with a 24-hour tPA infusion followed by mechanical thrombectomy, balloon angioplasty, and stent placement for a residual thrombus and stenosis. The patient was discharged the following day on warfarin and aspirin. This is the first report of effort-induced thrombosis of the upper extremity following the use of a modified, oscillating dumbbell. Due to the growing popularity of modified dumbbells and the possible risk for axillary vein thrombosis, consideration should be made to caution consumers of this potential complication.
    • Axisymmetric Radiative Transfer Models of Kilonovae

      Korobkin, O.; Wollaeger, R.T.; Fryer, C.L.; Hungerford, A.L.; Rosswog, S.; Fontes, C.J.; Mumpower, M.R.; Chase, E.A.; Even, W.P.; Miller, J.; et al. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021)
      The detailed observations of GW170817 proved for the first time directly that neutron star mergers are a major production site of heavy elements. The observations could be fit by a number of simulations that qualitatively agree, but can quantitatively differ (e.g., in total r-process mass) by an order of magnitude. We categorize kilonova ejecta into several typical morphologies motivated by numerical simulations, and apply a radiative transfer Monte Carlo code to study how the geometric distribution of the ejecta shapes the emitted radiation. We find major impacts on both spectra and light curves. The peak bolometric luminosity can vary by two orders of magnitude and the timing of its peak by a factor of five. These findings provide the crucial implication that the ejecta masses inferred from observations around the peak brightness are uncertain by at least an order of magnitude. Mixed two-component models with lanthanide-rich ejecta are particularly sensitive to geometric distribution. A subset of mixed models shows very strong viewing angle dependence due to lanthanide "curtaining,"which persists even if the relative mass of lanthanide-rich component is small. The angular dependence is weak in the rest of our models, but different geometric combinations of the two components lead to a highly diverse set of light curves. We identify geometry-dependent P Cygni features in late spectra that directly map out strong lines in the simulated opacity of neodymium, which can help to constrain the ejecta geometry and to directly probe the r-process abundances. © 2021. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
    • B-meson semileptonic form factors on (2+1+1)-flavor HISQ ensembles

      Gelzer, Z.; DeTar, C.; El-Khadra, A.X.; Gámiz, E.; Gottlieb, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Liu, Y.; Meurice, Y.; Simone, J.N.; Toussaint, D.; et al. (Sissa Medialab Srl, 2019)
      We report updates to an ongoing lattice-QCD calculation of the form factors for the semileptonic decays B → π`ν, Bs → K`ν, B → π`+`−, and B → K`+`−. The tree-level decays B(s) → π(K)`ν enable precise determinations of the CKM matrix element |Vub|, while the flavor-changing neutral-current interactions B → π(K)`+`− are sensitive to contributions from new physics. This work uses MILC's (2+1+1)-flavor HISQ ensembles at approximate lattice spacings between 0.057 and 0.15 fm, with physical sea-quark masses on four out of the seven ensembles. The valence sector is comprised of a clover b quark (in the Fermilab interpretation) and HISQ light and s quarks. We present preliminary results for the form factors f0, f+, and fT, including studies of systematic errors. © Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
    • A BAC library of the SP80-3280 sugarcane variety (saccharum sp.) and its inferred microsynteny with the sorghum genome

      Figueira, Thais Rezende; Okura, Vagner; Rodrigues, da Silva; Jose, da Silva; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty; Talag, Jayson; Wing, Rod; Arruda, Paulo; Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-875, Brazil; et al. (BioMed Central, 2012)
      BACKGROUND:Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed in the last 30 years, but achieving additional yield gains has been difficult because of the constraints imposed by the complex ploidy of this crop. Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum. S. officinarum is an octoploid with 2n=80 chromosomes while S. spontaneum has 2n=40 to 128 chromosomes and ploidy varying from 5 to 16. The hybrid genome is composed of 70-80%S. officinaram and 5-20%S. spontaneum chromosomes and a small proportion of recombinants. Sequencing the genome of this complex crop may help identify useful genes, either per se or through comparative genomics using closely related grasses. The construction and sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an elite commercial variety of sugarcane could help assembly the sugarcane genome.RESULTS:A BAC library designated SS_SBa was constructed with DNA isolated from the commercial sugarcane variety SP80-3280. The library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 125 Kb, 88% of which has inserts larger than 90 Kb. Based on the estimated genome size of 760-930 Mb, the library exhibits 5-6 times coverage the monoploid sugarcane genome. Bidirectional BAC end sequencing (BESs) from a random sample of 192 BAC clones sampled genes and repetitive elements of the sugarcane genome. Forty-five per cent of the total BES nucleotides represents repetitive elements, 83% of which belonging to LTR retrotransposons. Alignment of BESs corresponding to 42 BACs to the genome sequence of the 10 sorghum chromosomes revealed regions of microsynteny, with expansions and contractions of sorghum genome regions relative to the sugarcane BAC clones. In general, the sampled sorghum genome regions presented an average 29% expansion in relation to the sugarcane syntenic BACs.CONCLUSION:The SS_SBa BAC library represents a new resource for sugarcane genome sequencing. An analysis of insert size, genome coverage and orthologous alignment with the sorghum genome revealed that the library presents whole genome coverage. The comparison of syntenic regions of the sorghum genome to 42 SS_SBa BES pairs revealed that the sorghum genome is expanded in relation to the sugarcane genome.
    • A BAC pooling strategy combined with PCR-based screenings in a large, highly repetitive genome enables integration of the maize genetic and physical maps

      Yim, Young-Sun; Moak, Patricia; Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Musket, Theresa; Close, Pamela; Klein, Patricia; Mullet, John; McMullen, Michael; Fang, Zheiwei; Schaeffer, Mary; et al. (BioMed Central, 2007)
      BACKGROUND:Molecular markers serve three important functions in physical map assembly. First, they provide anchor points to genetic maps facilitating functional genomic studies. Second, they reduce the overlap required for BAC contig assembly from 80 to 50 percent. Finally, they validate assemblies based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy in combination with a high-throughput PCR-based screening method to anchor the maize genetic and physical maps.RESULTS:A total of 110,592 maize BAC clones (~ 6x haploid genome equivalents) were pooled into six different matrices, each containing 48 pools of BAC DNA. The quality of the BAC DNA pools and their utility for identifying BACs containing target genomic sequences was tested using 254 PCR-based STS markers. Five types of PCR-based STS markers were screened to assess potential uses for the BAC pools. An average of 4.68 BAC clones were identified per marker analyzed. These results were integrated with BAC fingerprint data generated by the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI) and the Arizona Genomics Computational Laboratory (AGCoL) to assemble the BAC contigs using the FingerPrinted Contigs (FPC) software and contribute to the construction and anchoring of the physical map. A total of 234 markers (92.5%) anchored BAC contigs to their genetic map positions. The results can be viewed on the integrated map of maize 1,2].CONCLUSION:This BAC pooling strategy is a rapid, cost effective method for genome assembly and anchoring. The requirement for six replicate positive amplifications makes this a robust method for use in large genomes with high amounts of repetitive DNA such as maize. This strategy can be used to physically map duplicate loci, provide order information for loci in a small genetic interval or with no genetic recombination, and loci with conflicting hybridization-based information.
    • A BAC-based physical map of Brachypodium distachyon and its comparative analysis with rice and wheat

      Gu, Yong; Ma, Yaqin; Huo, Naxin; Vogel, John; You, Frank; Lazo, Gerard; Nelson, William; Soderlund, Carol; Dvorak, Jan; Anderson, Olin; et al. (BioMed Central, 2009)
      BACKGROUND:Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been recognized as a new model species for comparative and functional genomics of cereal and bioenergy crops because it possesses many biological attributes desirable in a model, such as a small genome size, short stature, self-pollinating habit, and short generation cycle. To maximize the utility of Brachypodium as a model for basic and applied research it is necessary to develop genomic resources for it. A BAC-based physical map is one of them. A physical map will facilitate analysis of genome structure, comparative genomics, and assembly of the entire genome sequence.RESULTS:A total of 67,151 Brachypodium BAC clones were fingerprinted with the SNaPshot HICF fingerprinting method and a genome-wide physical map of the Brachypodium genome was constructed. The map consisted of 671 contigs and 2,161 clones remained as singletons. The contigs and singletons spanned 414 Mb. A total of 13,970 gene-related sequences were detected in the BAC end sequences (BES). These gene tags aligned 345 contigs with 336 Mb of rice genome sequence, showing that Brachypodium and rice genomes are generally highly colinear. Divergent regions were mainly in the rice centromeric regions. A dot-plot of Brachypodium contigs against the rice genome sequences revealed remnants of the whole-genome duplication caused by paleotetraploidy, which were previously found in rice and sorghum. Brachypodium contigs were anchored to the wheat deletion bin maps with the BES gene-tags, opening the door to Brachypodium-Triticeae comparative genomics.CONCLUSION:The construction of the Brachypodium physical map, and its comparison with the rice genome sequence demonstrated the utility of the SNaPshot-HICF method in the construction of BAC-based physical maps. The map represents an important genomic resource for the completion of Brachypodium genome sequence and grass comparative genomics. A draft of the physical map and its comparisons with rice and wheat are available at http://phymap.ucdavis.edu/brachypodium/ webcite.
    • Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

      Simonson, Tatum; Okinaka, Richard; Wang, Bingxiang; Easterday, W. R.; Huynh, Lynn; U'Ren, Jana; Dukerich, Meghan; Zanecki, Shaylan; Kenefic, Leo; Beaudry, Jodi; et al. (BioMed Central, 2009)
      BACKGROUND:The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages) have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates.RESULTS:The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia
    • Back to the basics: how feelings of anger affect cooperation

      Motro, Daphna; Kugler, Tamar; Connolly, Terry; Department of Management and Organizations, University of Arizona (EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-10)
      Purpose - The authors propose that angry individuals are much more likely to consider the emotional state of their partner than are neutral individuals. They then apply a lay theory dictating that anger decreases cooperation and react accordingly by lowering their own level of cooperation. Design/methodology/approach - The authors report four experiments involving different samples, manipulations, payment schemes and interfaces. The methodological approach was to capitalize on the positives of experimental research (e.g. establishing causality) while also trying to conceptually replicate the findings in different settings. Findings - The authors found evidence for a lay theory (i.e. expectation) that anger decreases cooperation, but that actual cooperation was lowest when angry individuals were paired with other angry individuals, supporting the hypotheses. Research limitations/implications - Anger can spill over from unrelated contexts to affect cooperation, and incidental anger by itself is not enough to decrease cooperation. However, the findings are limited to anger and cannot necessarily be used to understand the effects of other emotions. Practical implications - Before entering into a context that requires cooperation, such as a negotiation, be wary of the emotional state of both yourself and of your partner. This paper suggests that only if both parties are angry, then the likelihood of cooperation is low. Originality/value - To the best of the authors' knowledge, they are the first researchers to address the question of how incidental anger affects single-round cooperation. By going back to the basics, the authors believe that the findings fill a gap in existing research and offer a building block for future research on anger and cooperation.
    • Back to the Future: What Learning Communities Offer to Medical Education

      Osterberg, Lars; Hatem, David; Moynahan, Kevin; Shochet, Rob; Goldstein, Erika; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Med (LIBERTAS ACAD, 2016-05)
      Learning communities (LCs) have increasingly been incorporated into undergraduate medical education at a number of medical schools in the United States over the past decade. In an Association of Medical Colleges survey of 140 medical schools, 102 schools indicated that they had LC (described as colleges or mentorship groups; https://www.aamc.org/initiatives/cir/425510/19a.html). LCs share an overarching principle of establishing longitudinal relationships with students and faculty, but differ in the emphasis on specific components that may include curriculum delivery, advising/mentoring, student wellness, and community. The creation of LCs requires institutional commitment to reorganize educational processes to become more student centered. LCs are beginning to show positive outcomes for students including benefits related to clinical skills development, advising, and student wellness, in addition to positive outcomes for LC faculty.
    • The Backbone: Construction of a Regional Electricity Grid in the Arabian Peninsula

      Günel, Gökçe; Univ Arizona, Sch Middle Eastern & North African Studies (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)
      This article studies the production of a power grid across six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, known as 'the backbone,' which has been conceptualized as an answer to power outages. First it analyzes how experts working with and around the GCC Interconnection Authority (GCCIA) advance claims to a regional territorial imagination. Second, it shows that the construction of the grid not only indicates a shift in the material arrangement of wires and sub-stations, but also necessitates new understandings of transparency and a new formula for the electricity price, facilitating the cutting of government subsidies along with additional price increases. Third, it interrogates how electricity is consumed in the region. Policy-makers expected that electricity price increases would lead to lower rates of consumption. Yet after price hikes were instituted, analysts reported how they had no impact. Users behaved in ways that the grid's engineers did not anticipate. Overall the article shows how various actors conduct 'boundary work,' that is, how they set limits between the political, the financial and the technical while producing the backbone. The article explores how this boundary work helps stabilize a particular sociotechnical imaginary of energy security in the GCC, masking anxieties associated with a future beyond oil.
    • A Backwards Approach to Bariatric Surgery: The Perioperative Approach Used in a Woman with Situs Inversus Totalis Undergoing a Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

      Villalvazo, Yadira; Jensen, Candice M; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (CUREUS INC, 2018-10-18)
      Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital condition where organs are mirrored across the sagittal plane of the body. In the absence of associated comorbidities, most people have normal health and lifespan. Challenges with mirrored image anatomy arise when needing an operative procedure involving the intraabdominal organs. There are few reported cases in the literature of laparoscopic surgery in patients with situs inversus, with even fewer in the field of bariatric surgery. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities continue to increase in our society, and bariatric surgery is a treatment option for weight loss. We report the perioperative approach used in a 59-year-old obese woman with confirmed situs inversus totalis undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.