Medeiros, Lia; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Sa̧dowski, Aleksander (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-07-19)
Closure phases along different baseline triangles carry a large amount of information regarding the structures of the images of black holes in interferometric observations with the Event Horizon Telescope. We use long time span, high cadence, GRMHD+radiative transfer models of Sgr A* to investigate the expected variability of closure phases in such observations. We find that, in general, closure phases along small baseline triangles show little variability, except in the cases when one of the triangle vertices crosses one of the small regions of low visibility amplitude. The closure phase variability increases with the size of the baseline triangle, as larger baselines probe the small-scale structures of the images, which are highly variable. On average, the funnel-dominated MAD models show less closure phase variability than the disk-dominated SANE models, even in the large baseline triangles, because the images from the latter are more sensitive to the turbulence in the accretion flow. Our results suggest that image reconstruction techniques need to explicitly take into account the closure phase variability, especially if the quality and quantity of data allow for a detailed characterization of the nature of variability. This also implies that, if image reconstruction techniques that rely on the assumption of a static image are utilized, regions of the u-v space that show a high level of variability will need to be identified and excised.
Sheehan, Patrick D.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Eisner, Josh A.; Tobin, John J. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-04-01)
The Keplerian rotation in protoplanetary disks can be used to robustly measure stellar masses at very high precision if the source distance is known. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of spatially and spectrally resolved (CO)-C-12 (2-1) emission toward the disks around 2MASS J16262774-2527247 (the tertiary companion to ROXs 12 at 5100 au), CT Cha, and DH Tau. We employ detailed modeling of the Keplerian rotation profile, coupled with accurate distances from Gaia, to directly measure the stellar masses with similar to 2% precision. We also compare these direct mass measurements with the masses inferred from evolutionary models, determined in a statistically rigorous way. We find that 2MASS J16262774-2527247 has a mass of 0.535(-)(0.007)(+0.006) M-circle dot and CT Cha has a mass of 0.796(-0.014)(+0.015) M-circle dot, broadly consistent with evolutionary models, although potentially significant differences remain. DH Tau has a mass of 0.101(-0.003)(+0.004) M-circle dot, but it suffers from strong foreground absorption that may affect our mass estimate. The combination of ALMA, Gaia, and codes like pdspy, presented here, can be used to infer the dynamical masses for large samples of young stars and substellar objects, and place constraints on evolutionary models.
Pancoast, A.; Barth, A. J.; Horne, K.; Treu, T.; Brewer, B. J.; Bennert, V. N.; Canalizo, G.; Gates, E. L.; Li, W.; Malkan, M. A.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-03-29)
The Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp 151 was monitored as part of three reverberation mapping campaigns spanning 2008-2015. We present modeling of these velocity-resolved reverberation mapping data sets using a geometric and dynamical model for the broad-line region (BLR). By modeling each of the three data sets independently, we infer the evolution of the BLR structure in Arp 151 over a total of 7 yr and constrain the systematic uncertainties in nonvarying parameters such as the black hole mass. We find that the BLR geometry of a thick disk viewed close to face-on is stable over this time, although the size of the BLR grows by a factor of similar to 2. The dynamics of the BLR are dominated by inflow, and the inferred black hole mass is consistent for the three data sets, despite the increase in BLR size. Combining the inference for the three data sets yields a black hole mass and statistical uncertainty of log(10)(M-BH/M-circle dot) = 6.82(-0.09)(+0.09) with a standard deviation in individual measurements of 0.13 dex.
Kadowaki, Jennifer; Zaritsky, Dennis; Donnerstein, R. L. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-03-30)
We present spectra of five ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the vicinity of the Coma cluster obtained with the Multi-object Double Spectrograph on the Large Binocular Telescope. We confirm four of these as members of the cluster, quintupling the number of spectroscopically confirmed systems. Like the previously confirmed large (projected half-light radius > 4.6 kpc) UDG, DF44, the systems we targeted all have projected half-light radii > 2.9 kpc. As such, we spectroscopically confirm a population of physically large UDGs in the Coma cluster. The remaining UDG is located in the field, about 45 Mpc behind the cluster. We observe Balmer and Ca II H and K absorption lines in all of our UDG spectra. By comparing the stacked UDG spectrum against stellar population synthesis models, we conclude that, on average, these UDGs are composed of metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] less than or similar to -1.5). We also discover the first UDG with [O II] and [O III] emission lines within a clustered environment, demonstrating that not all cluster UDGs are devoid of gas and sources of ionizing radiation.
Bellini, Andrea; Libralato, Mattia; Bedin, Luigi R.; Milone, Antonino P.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Anderson, Jay; Apai, Dániel; Burgasser, Adam J.; Marino, Anna F.; Rees, Jon M. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-01-25)
In this second installment of the series, we look at the internal kinematics of the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster omega Centauri in one of the parallel Hubble Space Telescope (HST) fields, located at about 3.5 hal-flight radii from the center of the cluster. Thanks to the over 15 yr long baseline and the exquisite astrometric precision of the HST cameras, well-measured stars in our proper-motion catalog have errors as low as similar to 10 mu as yr(-1), and the catalog itself extends to near the hydrogen-burning limit of the cluster. We show that second-generation (2G) stars are significantly more radially anisotropic than first-generation (1G) stars. The latter are instead consistent with an isotropic velocity distribution. In addition, 1G stars have excess systemic rotation in the plane of the sky with respect to 2G stars. We show that the six populations below the main-sequence (MS) knee identified in our first paper are associated with the five main population groups recently isolated on the upper MS in the core of cluster. Furthermore, we find both 1G and 2G stars in the field to be far from being in energy equipartition, with eta(1G) = -0.007 +/- 0.026 for the former and eta(2G) = 0.074 +/- 0.029 for the latter, where eta is defined so that the velocity dispersion sigma(mu) scales with stellar mass as sigma(mu) proportional to m(-eta). The kinematical differences reported here can help constrain the formation mechanisms for the multiple stellar populations in omega Centauri and other globular clusters. We make our astro-photometric catalog publicly available.
Piskorz, Danielle; Benneke, Björn; Crockett, Nathan R.; Lockwood, Alexandra C.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Barman, Travis S.; Bender, Chad; Carr, John S.; Johnson, John A. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-08-01)
The Upsilon Andromedae system was the first multi-planet system discovered orbiting a main-sequence star. We describe the detection of water vapor in the atmosphere of the innermost non-transiting gas giant ups. And. b by treating the star-planet system as a spectroscopic binary with high-resolution, ground-based spectroscopy. We resolve the signal of the planet's motion and break the mass-inclination degeneracy for this non-transiting planet via deep combined flux observations of the star and the planet. In total, seven epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L band observations, three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC short-wavelength K band observations, and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC long wavelength K band observations of the ups. And. system were obtained. We perform a multi-epoch cross-correlation of the full data set with an atmospheric model. We measure the radial projection of the Keplerian velocity (K-P = 55 +/- 9 km s(-1)), true mass (M-b = 1.7(-0.24)(+0.33)M(J)), and orbital inclination (i(b) 24 degrees +/- 4 degrees), and determine that the planet's opacity structure is dominated by water vapor at the probed wavelengths. Dynamical simulations of the planets in the ups. And. system with these orbital elements for ups. And. b show that stable, long-term (100 Myr) orbital configurations exist. These measurements will inform future studies of the stability and evolution of the ups. And. system, as well as the atmospheric structure and composition of the hot Jupiter.
Yoo, Hyunju; Kim, Kee-Tae; Cho, Jungyeon; Choi, Minho; Wu, Jingwen; Evans, Neal J., II; Ziurys, L. M. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-04-02)
We performed a molecular line survey of 82 high-mass protostellar objects in a search for inflow signatures associated with high-mass star formation. Using the (HCO+)-C-13 (1-0) line as an optically thin tracer, we detected a statistically significant excess of blue asymmetric line profiles in the HCO+ (1-0) transition, but nonsignificant excesses in the HCO+ (3-2) and H2CO (2(12)-1(11)) transitions. The negative blue excess for the HCN (3-2) transition suggests that the line profiles are affected by dynamics other than inflow motion. The HCO+ (1-0) transition thus seems to be the suitable tracer of inflow motions in high-mass star-forming regions, as previously suggested. We found 27 inflow candidates that have at least 1 blue asymmetric profile and no red asymmetric profile, and derived the inflow velocities to be 0.23-2.00 km s(-1) for 20 of them using a simple two-layer radiative transfer model. Our sample is divided into two groups in different evolutionary stages. The blue excess of the group in relatively earlier evolutionary stages was estimated to be slightly higher than that of the other in the HCO+ (1-0) transition.
Perrotta, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cristiani, S.; Cupani, G.; Ellison, S.; López, S.; Becker, G. D.; Berg, T. A. M.; Christensen, L.; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-11-01)
We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyse the spectra of 100 quasars with 3.5 < z(em) < 4.5, observed with X-shooter/Very Large Telescope in the context of the XQ-100 Legacy Survey. We detect an similar to 8 sigma excess in the CIV number density within 10 000 km s(-1) of the quasar emission redshift with respect to the random occurrence of NALs. This excess does not show a dependence on the quasar bolometric luminosity and it is not due to the redshift evolution of NALs. It extends far beyond the standard 5000 km s(-1) cutoff traditionally defined for associated absorption lines. We propose to modify this definition, extending the threshold to 10 000 km s(-1) when weak absorbers (equivalent width < 0.2 angstrom) are also considered. We infer NV is the ion that better traces the effects of the quasar ionization field, offering the best statistical tool to identify intrinsic systems. Following this criterion, we estimate that the fraction of quasars in our sample hosting an intrinsic NAL system is 33 per cent. Lastly, we compare the properties of the material along the quasar line of sight, derived from our sample, with results based on close quasar pairs investigating the transverse direction. We find a deficiency of cool gas (traced by C II) along the line of sight connected to the quasar host galaxy, in contrast with what is observed in the transverse direction.
The mass distribution of compact objects provides a fossil record that can be studied to uncover information on the late stages of massive star evolution, the supernova explosion mechanism, and the dense matter equation of state. Observations of neutron star masses indicate a bimodal Gaussian distribution, while the observed black hole mass distribution decays exponentially for stellar-mass black holes. We use these observed distributions to directly confront the predictions of stellar evolution models and the neutrino-driven supernova simulations of Sukhbold et al. We find strong agreement between the black hole and low-mass neutron star distributions created by these simulations and the observations. We show that a large fraction of the stellar envelope must be ejected, either during the formation of stellar-mass black holes or prior to the implosion through tidal stripping due to a binary companion, in order to reproduce the observed black hole mass distribution. We also determine the origins of the bimodal peaks of the neutron star mass distribution, finding that the low-mass peak (centered at similar to 1.4 M-circle dot) originates from progenitors with M-ZAMS approximate to 9-18 M-circle dot. The simulations fail to reproduce the observed peak of high-mass neutron stars (centered at similar to 1.8 M-circle dot) and we explore several possible explanations. We argue that the close agreement between the observed and predicted black hole and low-mass neutron star mass distributions provides new, promising evidence that these stellar evolution and explosion models capture the majority of relevant stellar, nuclear, and explosion physics involved in the formation of compact objects.
Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Youdin, Andrew N. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-07-26)
Hot Jupiters receive strong stellar irradiation, producing equilibrium temperatures of 1000-2500 K. Incoming irradiation directly heats just their thin outer layer, down to pressures of similar to 0.1 bars. In standard irradiated evolution models of hot Jupiters, predicted transit radii are too small. Previous studies have shown that deeper heating-at a small fraction of the heating rate from irradiation-can explain observed radii. Here we present a suite of evolution models for HD 209458b, where we systematically vary both the depth and intensity of internal heating, without specifying the uncertain heating mechanism(s). Our models start with a hot, high-entropy planet whose radius decreases as the convective interior cools. The applied heating suppresses this cooling. We find that very shallow heating-at pressures of 1-10 bars-does not significantly suppress cooling, unless the total heating rate is greater than or similar to 10% of the incident stellar power. Deeper heating, at 100 bars, requires heating at only 1% of the stellar irradiation to explain the observed transit radius of 1.4R(Jup) after 5 Gyr of cooling. In general, more intense and deeper heating results in larger hot-Jupiter radii. Surprisingly, we find that heat deposited at 10(4) bars-which is exterior to approximate to 99% of the planet's mass-suppresses planetary cooling as effectively as heating at the center. In summary, we find that relatively shallow heating is required to explain the radii of most hot Jupiters, provided that this heat is applied early and persists throughout their evolution.
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