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JournalASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS (1)ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL (1)EPL (1)The Astrophysical Journal (1)AuthorsMelia, Fulvio (4)

Melia, Fulvio (4)

Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (4)

Univ Arizona, Dept Phys, Appl Math Program (4)

Chen, Yu (1)Fatuzzo, Marco (1)Fatuzzo, Marco (1) López-Corredoira, M. (1)Ruan, Cheng-Zong (1)Zhang, Tong-Jie (1)TypesArticle (4)
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Evidence of a truncated spectrum in the angular correlation function of the cosmic microwave background

Melia, Fulvio; López-Corredoira, M. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018-03-09)

Aim. The lack of large-angle correlations in the fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) conflicts with predictions of slow-roll inflation. But while probabilities (≲0.24%) for the missing correlations disfavour the conventional picture at ≳3σ, factors not associated with the model itself may be contributing to the tension. Here we aim to show that the absence of large-angle correlations is best explained with the introduction of a non-zero minimum wave number kmin for the fluctuation power spectrum P(k).
Methods. We assumed that quantum fluctuations were generated in the early Universe with a well-defined power spectrum P(k), although with a cut-off kmin ≠ 0. We then re-calculated the angular correlation function of the CMB and compared it with Planck observations.
Results. The Planck 2013 data rule out a zero kmin at a confidence level exceeding 8σ. Whereas purely slow-roll inflation would have stretched all fluctuations beyond the horizon, producing a P(k) with kmin = 0 – and therefore strong correlations at all angles – a kmin ≠ 0 would signal the presence of a maximum wavelength at the time (tdec) of decoupling. This argues against the basic inflationary paradigm, and perhaps even suggests non-inflationary alternatives, for the origin and growth of perturbations in the early Universe. In at least one competing cosmology, the Rh = ct universe, the inferred kmin corresponds to the gravitational radius at tdec.

Unseen Progenitors of Luminous High-z Quasars in the Rh = ct Universe

Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-09-11)

Quasars at high redshift provide direct information on the mass growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and, in turn, yield important clues about how the universe evolved since the first (Pop III) stars started forming. Yet even basic questions regarding the seeds of these objects and their growth mechanism remain unanswered. The anticipated launch of eROSITA and ATHENA is expected to facilitate observations of high-redshift quasars needed to resolve these issues. In this paper, we compare accretion-based SMBH growth in the concordance Lambda CDM model with that in the alternative Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology known as the R-h = ct universe. Previous work has shown that the timeline predicted by the latter can account for the origin and growth of the greater than or similar to 10(9) M-circle dot highest redshift quasars better than that of the standard model. Here, we significantly advance this comparison by determining the soft X-ray flux that would be observed for Eddington-limited accretion growth as a function of redshift in both cosmologies. Our results indicate that a clear difference emerges between the two in terms of the number of detectable quasars at redshift z greater than or similar to 7, raising the expectation that the next decade will provide the observational data needed to discriminate between these two models based on the number of detected high-redshift quasar progenitors. For example, while the upcoming ATHENA mission is expected to detect similar to 0.16 (i.e., essentially zero) quasars at z similar to 7 in R-h = ct, it should detect similar to 160 in Lambda CDM-a quantitatively compelling difference.

Model selection based on the angular-diameter distance to the compact structure in radio quasars

Melia, Fulvio (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-09-03)

Of all the distance arid temporal measures in cosmology, the angular-diameter distance, d(A)(z), uniquely reaches a maximum value at some finite redshift z(max )and then decreases to zero towards the Big Bang. This effect has been difficult to observe due to a lack of reliable, standard rulers, though refinements to the identification of the compact structure in radio quasars may have overcome this deficiency. In this letter, we assemble a catalog of 140 such sources with 0 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 3 for model selection and the measurement of z(max). In flat Lambda CDM, we find that Omega(m) = 0.24(-0.09)(+0.1) fully consistent with the Planck optimized value, with z(max) = 1.69. Both of these values are associated with a d(A)(z) indistinguishable from that predicted by the zero active mass condition, rho + 3p = 0, in terms of the total pressure rho and total energy density rho of the cosmic fluid. An expansion driven by this constraint, known as the Rh = ct universe, has z(max )= 1.718, which differs from the Lambda CDM optimized value by less than similar to 1.6%. Indeed, the Bayes Information Criterion favours R-h = ct over flat Lambda CDM with a likelihood of similar to 81% vs. 19%, suggesting that the optimized parameters in Planck Lambda CDM mimic the constraint p = -rho/3.

Using Spatial Curvature with H II Galaxies and Cosmic Chronometers to Explore the Tension in H 0

Ruan, Cheng-Zong; Melia, Fulvio; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Tong-Jie (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-08-21)

We present a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature Omega(k) in the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe, based on observations of the Hubble parameter H(z) using cosmic chronometers, and a Gaussian process (GP) reconstruction of the H II galaxy Hubble diagram. We show that the imposition of spatial flatness (i.e., Omega(k) - 0) easily distinguishes between the Hubble constant measured with Planck and that based on the local distance ladder. We find an optimized curvature parameter Omega(k) = -0.120(-0.147)(+0.168) when using the former (i.e., H-0 = 67.66 +/- 0.42 km s(-1) Mpc(-1)), and Omega(k) = -0.298(-0.088)(+0.122) for the latter (H-0 = 73.24 +/- 1.74 km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The quoted uncertainties are extracted by Monte Carlo sampling, taking into consideration the covariances between the function and its derivative reconstructed by GP. These data therefore reveal that the condition of spatial flatness favors the Planck measurement, while ruling out the locally inferred Hubble constant as a true measure of the large-scale cosmic expansion rate at a confidence level of similar to 3 sigma.

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