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JournalMONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY (3)Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (3)EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C (2)PHYSICAL REVIEW D (2)ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES (1)EPL (Europhysics Letters) (1)PHYSICAL REVIEW A (1)Physical Review D (1)PHYSICS OF THE DARK UNIVERSE (1)Authors

Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (15)

Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (15)

Melia, Fulvio (8)Melia, Fulvio (5)Leaf, Kyle (4)Leaf, Kyle (4)Univ Arizona, Dept Phys, Appl Math Program (4)Melia, Fulvio (3)Univ Arizona, Dept Phys, Program Appl Math (3)Yennapureddy, Manoj K. (3)View MoreTypes
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A two-point diagnostic for the H ii galaxy Hubble diagram

Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-12-01)

A previous analysis of starburst-dominated H II galaxies and H II regions has demonstrated
a statistically significant preference for the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology with
zero active mass, known as the Rh = ct universe, over cold dark matter (CDM) and its
related dark-matter parametrizations. In this paper, we employ a two-point diagnostic with
these data to present a complementary statistical comparison of Rh = ct with Planck CDM.
Our two-point diagnostic compares, in a pairwise fashion, the difference between the distance
modulus measured at two redshifts with that predicted by each cosmology. Our results support
the conclusion drawn by a previous comparative analysis demonstrating that Rh = ct is
statistically preferred over Planck CDM. But we also find that the reported errors in the
H II measurements may not be purely Gaussian, perhaps due to a partial contamination by
non-Gaussian systematic effects. The use of H II galaxies and H II regions as standard candles
may be improved even further with a better handling of the systematics in these sources.

Retrieval of water vapor using ground-based observations from a prototype ATOMMS active centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength occultation instrument

Ward, Dale M.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Otarola, Angel C.; Stovern, Michael; McGhee, Josh; Young, Abe; Hainsworth, Jared; Hagen, Jeff; Sisk, William; Reed, Heather (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2019-03-27)

A fundamental goal of satellite weather and climate observations is profiling the atmosphere with in situ-like precision and resolution with absolute accuracy and unbiased, all-weather, global coverage. While GPS radio occultation (RO) has perhaps come closest in terms of profiling the gas state from orbit, it does not provide sufficient information to simultaneously profile water vapor and temperature. We have been developing the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) RO system that probes the 22 and 183 GHz water vapor absorption lines to simultaneously profile temperature and water vapor from the lower troposphere to the mesopause. Using an ATOMMS instrument prototype between two mountaintops, we have demonstrated its ability to penetrate through water vapor, clouds and rain up to optical depths of 17 (7 orders of magnitude reduction in signal power) and still isolate the vapor absorption line spectrum to retrieve water vapor with a random uncertainty of less than 1 %. This demonstration represents a key step toward an orbiting ATOMMS system for weather, climate and constraining processes. ATOMMS water vapor retrievals from orbit will not be biased by climatological or first-guess constraints and will be capable of capturing nearly the full range of variability through the atmosphere and around the globe, in both clear and cloudy conditions, and will therefore greatly improve our understanding and analysis of water vapor. This information can be used to improve weather and climate models through constraints on and refinement of processes affecting and affected by water vapor.

The H II galaxy Hubble diagram strongly favours R-h = ct over Lambda CDM

Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-12-01)

We continue to build support for the proposal to use H II galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic H II regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission -line luminosity and ionized -gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model Lambda CDM and the R-h = ct universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat Lambda CDM model, the best fit is obtained with Omega(m) = 0.40(-0.09)(+0.09). However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favour R-h = Ct over the standard model with a likelihood of approximate to 94.8-98.8 per cent versus only per cent. For wCDM (the version of ACDM with a dark -energy equation of state wde = Pde/Pde rather than was t WA = 1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Omega(m) = 0.221(-0.14)(+0.16) and wde = 0.511'0'21-5" which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than R-h = Ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that R-h = Ct is strongly favoured over wCDM with a likelihood of approximate to 92.9-99.6 per cent versus only 0.4-7.1 per cent. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ACDM/wCDM in favour of R-h = Ct at a confidence level approaching 3 sigma.

Analysing H(z) data using two-point diagnostics

Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-09)

Measurements of the Hubble constantH(z) are increasingly being used to test the expansion rate predicted by various cosmological models. But the recent application of two-point diagnostics, such as Om(zi, zj) and Omh(2)(zi, zj), has produced considerable tension between Lambda CDM's predictions and several observations, with other models faring even worse. Part of this problem is attributable to the continued mixing of truly model-independent measurements using the cosmic-chronometer approach, and model-dependent data extracted from baryon acoustic oscillations. In this paper, we advance the use of two-point diagnostics beyond their current status, and introduce new variations, which we call Delta h(zi, zj), that are more useful for model comparisons. But we restrict our analysis exclusively to cosmic-chronometer data, which are truly model independent. Even for these measurements, however, we confirm the conclusions drawn by earlier workers that the data have strongly non-Gaussian uncertainties, requiring the use of both 'median' and 'mean' statistical approaches. Our results reveal that previous analyses using two-point diagnostics greatly underestimated the errors, thereby misinterpreting the level of tension between theoretical predictions and H(z) data. Instead, we demonstrate that as of today, only Einstein-de Sitter is ruled out by the two-point diagnostics at a level of significance exceeding similar to 3s. The R-h = ct universe is slightly favoured over the remaining models, including Lambda cold dark matter and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder, though all of them (other than Einstein-de Sitter) are consistent to within 1 sigma with the measured mean of the Delta h(zi, zj) diagnostics.

A cosmological solution to the Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

Yennapureddy, Manoj K.; Melia, Fulvio (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-03-26)

To understand the formation and evolution of galaxies at redshifts 0 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 10, one must invariably introduce specific models (e.g., for the star formation) in order to fully interpret the data. Unfortunately, this tends to render the analysis compliant to the theory and its assumptions, so consensus is still some-what elusive. Nonetheless, the surprisingly early appearance of massive galaxies challenges the standard model, and the halo mass function estimated from galaxy surveys at z greater than or similar to 4 appears to be inconsistent with the predictions of Lambda CDM, giving rise to what has been termed "The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem" by some workers in the field. A simple resolution to this question may not be forthcoming. The situation with the halos themselves, however, is more straightforward and, in this paper, we use linear perturbation theory to derive the halo mass function over the redshift range 0 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 10 for the R-h = ct universe. We use this predicted halo distribution to demonstrate that both its dependence on mass and its very weak dependence on redshift are compatible with the data. The difficulties with Lambda CDM may eventually be overcome with refinements to the underlying theory of star formation and galaxy evolution within the halos. For now, however, we demonstrate that the unexpected early formation of structure may also simply be due to an incorrect choice of the cosmology, rather than to yet unknown astrophysical issues associated with the condensation of mass fluctuations and subsequent galaxy formation.

Cosmological tests with strong gravitational lenses using Gaussian processes

Yennapureddy, Manoj K.; Melia, Fulvio (SPRINGER, 2018-03-24)

Strong gravitational lenses provide source/lens distance ratios D-obs useful in cosmological tests. Previously, a catalog of 69 such systems was used in a one-on-one comparison between the standard model, Lambda CDM, and the R-h = ct universe, which has thus far been favored by the application of model selection tools to many other kinds of data. But in that work, the use of model parametric fits to the observations could not easily distinguish between these two cosmologies, in part due to the limited measurement precision. Here, we instead use recently developed methods based on Gaussian Processes (GP), in which D-obs may be reconstructed directly from the data without assuming any parametric form. This approach not only smooths out the reconstructed function representing the data, but also reduces the size of the 1 sigma confidence regions, thereby providing greater power to discern between different models. With the current sample size, we show that analyzing strong lenses with a GP approach can definitely improve the model comparisons, producing probability differences in the range similar to 10-30%. These results are still marginal, however, given the relatively small sample. Nonetheless, we conclude that the probability of R-h = ct being the correct cosmology is somewhat higher than that of Lambda CDM, with a degree of significance that grows with the number of sources in the subsamples we consider. Future surveys will significantly grow the catalog of strong lenses and will therefore benefit considerably from the GP method we describe here. In addition, we point out that if the R-h = ct universe is eventually shown to be the correct cosmology, the lack of free parameters in the study of strong lenses should provide a remarkably powerful tool for uncovering the mass structure in lensing galaxies.

Effects of spin on magnetized binary neutron star mergers and jet launching

Ruiz, Milton; Tsokaros, Antonios; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L. (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-04-17)

Events GW170817 and GRB 170817A provide the best confirmation so far that compact binary mergers where at least one of the companions is a neutron star can be the progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs). An open question for GW170817 remains the values and impact of the initial neutron star spins. The initial spins could possibly affect the remnant black hole mass and spin, the remnant disk, and the formation and lifetime of a jet and its outgoing electromagnetic Poynting luminosity. Here we summarize our general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of spinning, neutron star binaries undergoing merger, and delayed collapse to a black hole. The binaries consist of two identical stars, modeled as Gamma = 2 polytropes, in quasicircular orbit, each with spins chi(Ns) = -0.053, 0, 0.24, or 0.36. The stars arc endowed initially with a dipolar magnetic field extending from the interior into the exterior, as in a radio pulsar. Following the merger, the redistribution of angular momentum by magnetic braking and magnetic turbulent viscosity in the hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) remnant, along with the loss of angular momentum due to gravitational radiation, induces the formation of a massive, nearly uniformly rotating inner core surrounded by a magnetized Keplerian disklike envelope. The HMNS eventually collapses to a black hole, with spin a/M-BH similar or equal to 0.78 independent of the initial spin of the neutron stars, surrounded by a magnetized accretion disk. The larger the initial neutron star spin the heavier the disk. After Delta t similar to 3000M - 4000M similar to 45(M-Ns /1.625 M-circle dot) ms - 60(M-Ns /1.625 M-circle dot) ms following merger, a mildly relativistic jet is launched. The lifetime of the jet [Delta t similar to 100(M-Ns 11.625 M-circle dot) ms - 140(M-Ns /1.625 M-circle dot) ms] and its outgoing Poynting luminosity [L-Em similar to 10(51.5 +/- 1)erg /s] are consistent with typical sGRBs, as well as with the Blandford-Znajek mechanism for launching jets and their associated Poynting luminosities.

Revisiting the maximum mass of differentially rotating neutron stars in general relativity with realistic equations of state

Espino, Pedro L.; Paschalidis, Vasileios (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-04-30)

We study the solution space of general relativistic, axisymmetric, equilibria of differentially rotating neutron stars with realistic, nuclear equations of state. We find that different types of stars, which were identified by earlier works for polytropic equations of state, arise for realistic equations of state, too. Scanning the solution space for the sample of realistic equations of state we treat, we find lower limits on the maximum rest masses supported by cold, differentially rotating stars for each type of stars. We often discover equilibrium configurations that can support more than 2 times the mass of a static star. We call these equilibria "overmassive," and in our survey we find overmassive stars that can support up to 2.5 times the maximum rest mass that can be supported by a cold, nonrotating star with the same equation of state. This is nearly 2 times larger than what previous studies employing realistic equations of state had found, and which did not uncover overmassive neutron stars. Moreover, we find that the increase in the maximum rest mass with respect to the nonspinning stellar counterpart is larger for moderately stiff equations of state. These results may have implications for the lifetime and the gravitational wave and electromagnetic counterparts of hypermassive neutron stars formed following binary neutron star mergers.

Cosmological tests with the joint lightcurve analysis

Melia, F.; Wei, J.-J.; Maier, R.S.; Wu, X.-F. (EPL ASSOCIATION, 2018-10-05)

We examine whether a comparison between wCDM and $R_{\textrm{h}}=ct$ using merged Type-Ia SN catalogs produces results consistent with those based on a single homogeneous sample. Using the Betoule et al. (Astron. Astrophys., 568 (2014) 22). Joint Lightcurve Analysis (JLA) of a combined sample of 613 events from SNLS and SDSS-II, we estimate the parameters of the two models and compare them. We find that the improved statistics can alter the model selection in some cases, but not others. In addition, based on the model fits, we find that there appears to be a lingering systematic offset of ~0.04–0.08 mag between the SNLS and SDSS-II sources, in spite of the cross-calibration in the JLA. Treating wCDM, ΛCDM and $R_{\textrm{h}}=ct$ as separate models, we find in an unbiased pairwise statistical comparison that the Bayes Information Criterion (BIC) favors the $R_{\textrm{h}}=ct$ Universe with a likelihood of $82.8\%$ vs. $17.2\%$ for wCDM, but the ratio of likelihoods is reversed ($16.2\%$ vs. $83.8\%$ ) when $w_{\textrm{de}}=-1$ (i.e., ΛCDM) and strongly reversed ($1.0\%$ vs. $99.0\%$ ) if in addition k = 0 (i.e., flat ΛCDM). We point out, however, that the value of k is a measure of the net energy (kinetic plus gravitational) in the Universe and is not constrained theoretically, though some models of inflation would drive $k\rightarrow 0$ due to an expansion-enforced dilution. Since we here consider only the basic ΛCDM model, the value of k needs to be measured and, therefore, the pre-assumption of flatness introduces a significant bias into the BIC.

Symmetry in the diffraction of beams carrying orbital angular momentum

Ambuj, Anindya; Walla, Emily; Andaloro, Sophia; Nomoto, Sean; Vyas, Reeta; Singh, Surendra (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-01-24)

Diffraction of orbital-angular-momentum-carrying Laguerre-Gauss vortex (LGV) beams by N-fold rotationally symmetric regular polygons is studied analytically and experimentally. The structure, symmetry, and dependence of the diffraction pattern on the angular momentum index of the LGV beam and the number of sides in the polygon are systematically investigated, and features and trends are identified. The evolution of the diffraction pattern and its symmetry with the aperture position relative to the waist is also studied, leading to a generalized Friedel's law for diffraction of LGV beams.

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