We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion. A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. We identify 37 new transition disk (TD) objects, 1 globally depleted disk candidate, and 7 probable young debris disks. We discover an object with a mass of. less than 0.018-0.030 M-circle dot, which harbors a flaring disk. Using the Ha emission line, we characterize the accretion activity of the sources with disks, and confirm that the. fraction of accreting TDs is lower than that of optically thick disks (46% +/- 7% versus 73% +/- 9%, respectively). Using kinematic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of the Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC), we confirm that the foreground population shows similar kinematics to their local molecular clouds and other young stars in the same regions. Using the isochronal ages, we find that the foreground population has a median age of. around 1-2 Myr, which is similar to that of other young stars in Orion. A. Therefore, our results argue against the presence of a large and old foreground cluster in front of Orion. A.
Host star metallicity provides a measure of the conditions in protoplanetary disks at the time of planet formation. Using a sample of over 20,000 Kepler stars with spectroscopic metallicities from the LAMOST survey, we explore how the exoplanet population depends on host star metallicity as a function of orbital period and planet size. We find that exoplanets with orbital periods less than 10 days are preferentially found around metal-rich stars ([Fe/H] similar or equal to 0.15 +/- 0.05 dex). The occurrence rates of these hot exoplanets increases to similar to 30% for super-solar metallicity stars from similar to 10% for stars with a sub-solar metallicity. Cooler exoplanets, which reside at longer orbital periods and constitute the bulk of the exoplanet population with an occurrence rate of greater than or similar to 90%, have host star metallicities consistent with solar. At short orbital periods, P < 10 days, the difference in host star metallicity is largest for hot rocky planets (< 1.7 R-circle plus), where the metallicity difference is [Fe/H] similar or equal to 0.25 +/- 0.07 dex. The excess of hot rocky planets around metal-rich stars implies they either share a formation mechanism with hot Jupiters, or trace a planet trap at the protoplanetary disk inner edge, which is metallicity dependent. We do not find statistically significant evidence for a previously identified trend that small planets toward the habitable zone are preferentially found around low-metallicity stars. Refuting or confirming this trend requires a larger sample of spectroscopic metallicities.
Piskorz, Danielle; Benneke, Björn; Crockett, Nathan R.; Lockwood, Alexandra C.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Barman, Travis S.; Bender, Chad; Carr, John S.; Johnson, John A. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-08-01)
The Upsilon Andromedae system was the first multi-planet system discovered orbiting a main-sequence star. We describe the detection of water vapor in the atmosphere of the innermost non-transiting gas giant ups. And. b by treating the star-planet system as a spectroscopic binary with high-resolution, ground-based spectroscopy. We resolve the signal of the planet's motion and break the mass-inclination degeneracy for this non-transiting planet via deep combined flux observations of the star and the planet. In total, seven epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L band observations, three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC short-wavelength K band observations, and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC long wavelength K band observations of the ups. And. system were obtained. We perform a multi-epoch cross-correlation of the full data set with an atmospheric model. We measure the radial projection of the Keplerian velocity (K-P = 55 +/- 9 km s(-1)), true mass (M-b = 1.7(-0.24)(+0.33)M(J)), and orbital inclination (i(b) 24 degrees +/- 4 degrees), and determine that the planet's opacity structure is dominated by water vapor at the probed wavelengths. Dynamical simulations of the planets in the ups. And. system with these orbital elements for ups. And. b show that stable, long-term (100 Myr) orbital configurations exist. These measurements will inform future studies of the stability and evolution of the ups. And. system, as well as the atmospheric structure and composition of the hot Jupiter.
Schneider, Glenn; Grady, Carol A.; Stark, Christopher C.; Gáspár, András; Carson, Joseph; Debes, John H.; Henning, Thomas; Hines, Dean C.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kuchner, Marc J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-08-19)
We present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of three a priori known starlight-scattering circumstellar debris systems (CDSs) viewed at intermediate inclinations around nearby close-solar analog stars: HD 207129, HD 202628, and HD 202917. Each of these CDSs possesses ring-like components that are more massive analogs of our solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt. These systems were chosen for follow-up observations to provide imaging with higher fidelity and better sensitivity for the sparse sample of solar-analog CDSs that range over two decades in systemic ages, with HD 202628 and HD 207129 (both similar to 2.3 Gyr) currently the oldest CDSs imaged in visible or near-IR light. These deep (10-14 ks) observations, made with six-roll point-spread-function template visible-light coronagraphy. using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, were designed to better reveal their angularly large debris rings of diffuse/low surface brightness, and for all targets probe their exo-ring environments for starlight-scattering materials that present observational challenges for current ground-based facilities and instruments. Contemporaneously also observing with a narrower occulter position, these observations additionally probe the CDS endo-ring environments that are seen to be relatively devoid of scatterers. We discuss the morphological, geometrical, and photometric properties of these CDSs also in the context of other CDSs hosted by FGK stars that we have previously imaged as a homogeneously observed ensemble. From this combined sample we report a general decay in quiescent-disk F-disk/F-star optical brightness similar to t(-0.8), similar to what is seen at thermal IR wavelengths, and CDSs with a significant diversity in scattering phase asymmetries, and spatial distributions of their starlight-scattering grains.
Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Luhman, Kevin L.; Marengo, Massimo; Hulsebus, Alan (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-11-29)
Upon its discovery in 2006, the young L7.5 companion to the solar analog HD 203030 was found to be approximate to 200 K cooler than older late-L dwarfs, which is quite unusual. HD. 203030B offered the first clear indication that the effective temperature at the L-to-T spectral type transition depends on surface gravity: now a well-known characteristic of low-gravity ultra-cool dwarfs. An initial age analysis of the G8V primary star indicated that the system was 130-400 Myr old, and so the companion would be between 12 and 31 M-Jup. Using moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra of HD. 203030B, we now find features of very low gravity comparable to those of 10-150 Myr old L7-L8 dwarfs. We also obtained more accurate near-infrared and Spitzer/IRAC photometry, and we find a (J - K) MKO color of 2.56 +/- 0.13 mag-comparable to those observed in other young planetary-mass objects-and a luminosity of log (L-bol/L-circle dot) = -4.75 +/- 0.04 dex. We further re-assess the evidence for the young age of the host star, HD 203030, with a more comprehensive analysis of the photometry and updated stellar activity measurements and age calibrations. Summarizing the age diagnostics for both components of the binary, we adopt an age of 100 Myr for HD 203030B and an age range of 30-150 Myr. Using cloudy evolutionary models, the new companion age range and luminosity result in a mass of 11 M-Jup with a range of 8-15 M-Jup, and an effective temperature of 1040 +/- 50 K.
Schneider, Glenn; Debes, John H.; Grady, Carol A.; Gáspár, András; Henning, Thomas; Hines, Dean C.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Perrin, Marshall; Wisniewski, J. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-01-22)
The optically and IR-bright and starlight-scattering HR 4796A ringlike debris disk is one of the most-(and best-) studied exoplanetary debris systems. The presence of a yet-undetected planet has been inferred (or suggested) from the narrow width and inner/outer truncation radii of its r = 1.'' 05 (77 au) debris ring. We present new, highly sensitive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) visible-light images of the HR 4796A circumstellar debris system and its environment over a very wide range of stellocentric angles from 0.'' 32 (23 au) to approximate to 15 '' (1100 au). These very high-contrast images were obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) using six-roll PSF template-subtracted coronagraphy suppressing the primary light of HR 4796A, with three image-plane occulters, and simultaneously subtracting the background light from its close angular proximity M2.5V companion. The resulting images unambiguously reveal the debris ring embedded within a much larger, morphologically complex, and biaxially asymmetric exo-ring scattering structure. These images at visible wavelengths are sensitive to and map the spatial distribution, brightness, and radial surface density of micron-size particles over 5 dex in surface brightness. These particles in the exo-ring environment may be unbound from the system and interacting with the local ISM. Herein, we present a new morphological and photometric view of the larger-than-prior-seen HR 4796A exoplanetary debris system with sensitivity to small particles at stellocentric distances an order of magnitude greater than has previously been observed.
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