Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; De Rosa, Robert J.; Marley, Mark S.; Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Morley, Caroline V.; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-06-16)
We present spectrophotometry spanning 1-5 mu m of 51 Eridani b, a 2-10 M-Jup planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90-2.19 mu m) and K2 (2.10-2.40 mu m) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L-P (3.76 mu m) and new M-S (4.67 mu m) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13-1.35 mu m) and H (1.50-1.80 mu m) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri. b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5-4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of -5.83 to -5.93 (logL/L circle dot),leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 M-circle plus.
Johnson-Groh, Mara; Marois, Christian; De Rosa, Robert J.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Rameau, Julien; Blunt, Sarah; Vargas, Jeffrey; Ammons, S. Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis S.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-03-31)
We present new observations of the low-mass companion to HD 984 taken with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) as a part of the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign. Images of HD 984 B were obtained in the J (1.12-1.3 mu m) and H (1.50-1.80 mu m) bands. Combined with archival epochs from 2012 and 2014, we fit the first orbit to the companion to find an 18 au (70-year) orbit with a 68% confidence interval between 14 and 28 au, an eccentricity of 0.18 with a 68% confidence interval between 0.05 and 0.47, and an inclination of 119 degrees with a 68% confidence interval between 114 degrees and 125 degrees. To address the considerable spectral covariance in both spectra, we present a method of splitting the spectra into low and high frequencies to analyze the spectral structure at different spatial frequencies with the proper spectral noise correlation. Using the split spectra, we compare them to known spectral types using field brown dwarf and low-mass star spectra and find a best-fit match of a field gravity M6.5 +/- 1.5 spectral type with a corresponding temperature of 2730(-180)(+120)K. Photometry of the companion yields a luminosity of log(L-bol/L-circle dot) = -2.88 +/- 0.07 dex with DUSTY models. Mass estimates, again from DUSTY models, find an age-dependent mass of 34 +/- 1 to 95 +/- 4 M-Jup. These results are consistent with previous measurements of the object.
Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Rameau, Julien; Wang, Jason J.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Marois, Christian; Vigan, Arthur; Ammons, S. Mark; Artigau, Etienne; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-11-07)
We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L' photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr(-1). When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.
Follette, Katherine B.; Rameau, Julien; Dong, Ruobing; Pueyo, Laurent; Close, Laird M.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fung, Jeffrey; Leonard, Clare; Macintosh, Bruce; Males, Jared R.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-05-19)
We present optical and near-infrared high-contrast images of the transitional disk HD 100546 taken with the Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI data include both polarized intensity and total intensity imagery, and MagAO data are taken in Simultaneous Differential Imaging mode at Ha. The new GPI H-band total intensity data represent a significant enhancement in sensitivity and field rotation compared to previous data sets and enable a detailed exploration of substructure in the disk. The data are processed with a variety of differential imaging techniques (polarized, angular, reference, and simultaneous differential imaging) in an attempt to identify the disk structures that are most consistent across wavelengths, processing techniques, and algorithmic parameters. The inner disk cavity at 15 au is clearly resolved in multiple data sets, as are a variety of spiral features. While the cavity and spiral structures are identified at levels significantly distinct from the neighboring regions of the disk under several algorithms and with a range of algorithmic parameters, emission at the location of HD 100546 "c" varies from point-like under aggressive algorithmic parameters to a smooth continuous structure with conservative parameters, and is consistent with disk emission. Features identified in the HD 100546 disk bear qualitative similarity to computational models of a moderately inclined two-armed spiral disk, where projection effects and wrapping of the spiral arms around the star result in a number of truncated spiral features in forward-modeled images.
Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; De Rosa, Robert J.; Ammons, S. Mark; Arriaga, Pauline; Bailey, Vanessa P.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-03)
A principal scientific goal of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is obtaining milliarcsecond astrometry to constrain exoplanet orbits. However, astrometry of directly imaged exoplanets is subject to biases, systematic errors, and speckle noise. Here, we describe an analytical procedure to forward model the signal of an exoplanet that accounts for both the observing strategy (angular and spectral differential imaging) and the data reduction method (Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection algorithm). We use this forward model to measure the position of an exoplanet in a Bayesian framework employing Gaussian processes and Markov-chain Monte Carlo to account for correlated noise. In the case of GPI data on beta Pic b, this technique, which we call Bayesian KLIP-FM Astrometry (BKA), outperforms previous techniques and yields 1 sigma errors at or below the one milliarcsecond level. We validate BKA by fitting a Keplerian orbit to 12 GPI observations along with previous astrometry from other instruments. The statistical properties of the residuals confirm that BKA is accurate and correctly estimates astrometric errors. Our constraints on the orbit of beta Pic b firmly rule out the possibility of a transit of the planet at 10-sigma significance. However, we confirm that the Hill sphere of beta Pic b will transit, giving us a rare chance to probe the circumplanetary environment of a young, evolving exoplanet. We provide an ephemeris for photometric monitoring of the Hill sphere transit event, which will begin at the start of April in 2017 and finish at the end of January in 2018.
Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Wang, Jason J.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Nielsen, Eric L.; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Padgett, Deborah; Metchev, Stanimir A.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-20)
We present H-band near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations of the F5V star HD 157587 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) that reveal the debris disk as a bright ring structure at a separation of similar to 80-100 au. The new GPI data complement recent Hubble Space Telescope/STIS observations that show the disk extending out to over 500 au. The GPI image displays a strong asymmetry along the projected minor axis as well as a fainter asymmetry along the projected major axis. We associate the minor and major axis asymmetries with polarized forward scattering and a possible stellocentric offset, respectively. To constrain the disk geometry, we fit two separate disk models to the polarized image, each using a different scattering phase function. Both models favor a disk inclination of similar to 70 degrees and a 1.5 +/- 0.6 au stellar offset in the plane of the sky along the projected major axis of the disk. We find that the stellar offset in the disk plane, perpendicular to the projected major axis is degenerate with the form of the scattering phase function and remains poorly constrained. The disk is not recovered in total intensity due in part to strong adaptive optics residuals, but we recover three point sources. Considering the system's proximity to the galactic plane and the point sources' positions relative to the disk, we consider it likely that they are background objects and unrelated to the disk's offset from the star.
We present H band spectroscopic and H alpha photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2 sigma level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A nondetection at the 5 sigma level of HD 100546 b in differential H alpha imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 x 10(-4) L-circle dot and M(M) over dot < 6.3 x 10(-7) M-Jup(2) yr(-1) for 1 R-Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K. band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.
Chilcote, Jeffrey; Pueyo, Laurent; De Rosa, Robert J.; Vargas, Jeffrey; Macintosh, Bruce; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis S.; Bauman, Brian; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Bulger, Joanna; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-03-28)
Using the Gemini Planet Imager located at Gemini South, we measured the near-infrared (1.0-2.4 mu m) spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby, young star beta. Pictoris. We compare the spectrum obtained with currently published model grids and with known substellar objects and present the best matching models as well as the best matching observed objects. Comparing the empirical measurement of the bolometric luminosity to evolutionary models, we find a mass of 12.9. +/- 0.2. M-Jup, an effective temperature of 1724. +/- 15 K, a radius of 1.46. +/- 0.01. R-Jup, and a surface gravity of log g = 4.18. 0.01 [dex] (cgs). The stated uncertainties are statistical errors only, and do not incorporate any uncertainty on the evolutionary models. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1700-1800 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.5-4.0 [dex] depending upon the model. These values agree well with other publications and with "hot-start" predictions from planetary evolution models. Further, we find that the spectrum of beta Pic. b best matches a low surface gravity L2. +/- 1 brown dwarf. Finally, comparing the spectrum to field brown dwarfs, we find the the spectrum best matches 2MASS J04062677- 381210 and 2MASS J03552337 + 1133437.
Nielsen, Eric L.; Rosa, Robert J. De; Wang, Jason; Rameau, Julien; Song, Inseok; Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Ammons, Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis S.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-11-22)
We present new spatially resolved astrometry and photometry from the Gemini Planet Imager of the inner binary of the young multiple star system V343 Normae, which is a member of the beta Pictoris (beta Pic) moving group. V343 Normae comprises a K0 and mid-M star in a similar to 4.5 year orbit (AaAb) and a wide 10 '' M5 companion (B). By combining these data with archival astrometry and radial velocities we fit the orbit and measure individual masses for both components of M-Aa = 1.10 +/- 0.10M(circle dot) and M-Ab= 0.290 +/- 0.018 M-circle dot. Comparing to theoretical isochrones, we find good agreement for the measured masses and JHK band magnitudes of the two components consistent with the age of the beta Pic moving group. We derive a model-dependent age for the beta Pic moving group of 26 +/- 3 Myr by combining our results for V343 Normae with literature measurements for GJ. 3305, which is another group member with resolved binary components and dynamical masses.
Schneider, Glenn; Grady, Carol A.; Stark, Christopher C.; Gáspár, András; Carson, Joseph; Debes, John H.; Henning, Thomas; Hines, Dean C.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kuchner, Marc J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-08-19)
We present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of three a priori known starlight-scattering circumstellar debris systems (CDSs) viewed at intermediate inclinations around nearby close-solar analog stars: HD 207129, HD 202628, and HD 202917. Each of these CDSs possesses ring-like components that are more massive analogs of our solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt. These systems were chosen for follow-up observations to provide imaging with higher fidelity and better sensitivity for the sparse sample of solar-analog CDSs that range over two decades in systemic ages, with HD 202628 and HD 207129 (both similar to 2.3 Gyr) currently the oldest CDSs imaged in visible or near-IR light. These deep (10-14 ks) observations, made with six-roll point-spread-function template visible-light coronagraphy. using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, were designed to better reveal their angularly large debris rings of diffuse/low surface brightness, and for all targets probe their exo-ring environments for starlight-scattering materials that present observational challenges for current ground-based facilities and instruments. Contemporaneously also observing with a narrower occulter position, these observations additionally probe the CDS endo-ring environments that are seen to be relatively devoid of scatterers. We discuss the morphological, geometrical, and photometric properties of these CDSs also in the context of other CDSs hosted by FGK stars that we have previously imaged as a homogeneously observed ensemble. From this combined sample we report a general decay in quiescent-disk F-disk/F-star optical brightness similar to t(-0.8), similar to what is seen at thermal IR wavelengths, and CDSs with a significant diversity in scattering phase asymmetries, and spatial distributions of their starlight-scattering grains.
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