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JournalMONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY (5)Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (5)ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS (3)EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C (3)AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS (2)The Astrophysical Journal (2)ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL (1)EPL (1)INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS A (1)PHYSICAL REVIEW D (1)View MoreAuthors

Melia, Fulvio (25)

Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (25)

Univ Arizona, Dept Phys, Appl Math Program (17)Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (8)Melia, Fulvio (7) Univ Arizona, Dept Phys, Program Appl Math (6)Leaf, Kyle (4)Yennapureddy, Manoj K. (4)Ruan, Cheng-Zong (2)Zhang, Tong-Jie (2)View MoreTypes
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The linear growth of structure in the Rh = ct universe

Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-01-11)

We use recently published redshift space distortion measurements of the cosmological growth rate, f sigma(8)(z), to examine whether the linear evolution of perturbations in the R-h = ct cosmology is consistent with the observed development of large-scale structure. We find that these observations favour R-h = ct over the version of Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) optimized with the joint analysis of Planck and linear growth rate data, particularly in the redshift range 0 < z < 1, where a significant curvature in the functional form of f sigma(8)(z) predicted by the standard model-but not by R-h = ct-is absent in the data. When Lambda CDM is optimized using solely the growth rate measurements; however, the two models fit the observations equally well though, in this case, the low-redshift measurements find a lower value for the fluctuation amplitude than is expected in Planck Lambda CDM. Our results strongly affirm the need for more precise measurements of f sigma(8)(z) at all redshifts, but especially at z < 1.

Model-independent Test of the Cosmic Distance Duality Relation

Ruan, Cheng-Zong; Melia, Fulvio; Zhang, Tong-Jie (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-10-08)

A validation of the cosmic distance duality (CDD) relation, h() ( ) () () z zdz dz º+ = 1 A L 1 2 , coupling the
luminosity (dL) and angular-diameter (dA) distances, is crucial because its violation would require exotic new
physics. We present a model-independent test of the CDD, based on strong lensing and a reconstruction of the H II
galaxy Hubble diagram using Gaussian processes, to confirm the validity of the CDD at a very high level
of confidence. Using parameterizations h( )z z = +1 h0 and h( )z zz =+ + 1 h h 1 2
2, our best-fit results are
h = -
+ 0.0147 0 0.066
0.056, and h = -
+ 0.1091 1 0.1568
0.1680 and h = - -
+ 0.0603 2 0.0988
0.0999, respectively. In spite of these strong
constraints, however, we also point out that the analysis of strong lensing using a simplified single isothermal
sphere (SIS) model for the lens produces some irreducible scatter in the inferred CDD data. The use of an extended
SIS approximation, with a power-law density structure, yields very similar results, but does not lessen the scatter
due to its larger number of free parameters, which weakens the best-fit constraints. Future work with these strong
lenses should therefore be based on more detailed ray-tracing calculations to determine the mass distribution more
precisely

A cosmological basis for E = mc2

Melia, Fulvio (WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, 2019-04-10)

The Universe has a gravitational horizon with a radius R-h = c/H coincident with that of the Hubble sphere. This surface separates null geodesics approaching us from those receding, and as free-falling observers within the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time, we see it retreating at proper speed c, giving rise to the eponymously named cosmological model R-h = ct. As of today, this cosmology has passed over 20 observational tests, often better than Lambda CDM. The gravitational radius R-h therefore appears to be highly relevant to cosmological theory, and in this paper we begin to explore its impact on fundamental physics. We calculate the binding energy of a mass m within the horizon and demonstrate that it is equal to mc(2). This energy is stored when the particle is at rest near the observer, transitioning to a purely kinetic form equal to the particle's escape energy when it approaches R-h. In other words, a particle's gravitational coupling to that portion of the Universe with which it is causally connected appears to be the origin of rest-mass energy.

J1342+0928 supports the timeline in the R-h = ct cosmology

Melia, Fulvio (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018-07-24)

Aims. The discovery of quasar J1342+0928 (z = 7.54) reinforces the time compression problem associated with the premature formation of structure in A cold dark matter (ACDM). Adopting the Planck parameters, we see this quasar barely 690 Myr after the big bang, no more than several hundred Myr after the transition from Pop III to Pop II star formation. Yet conventional astrophysics would tell us that a 10 M-circle dot seed, created by a Pop II/III supernova, should have taken at least 820 Myr to grow via Eddington-limited accretion. This failure by ACDM constitutes one of its most serious challenges, requiring exotic "fixes", such as anomalously high accretion rates, or the creation of enormously massive (similar to 10(5) M-circle dot) seeds, neither of which is ever seen in the local Universe, or anywhere else for that matter. Indeed, to emphasize this point, J1342+0928 is seen to be accreting at about the Eddington rate, negating any attempt at explaining its unusually high mass due to such exotic means. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate that the discovery of this quasar instead strongly confirms the cosmological timeline predicted by the R-h = Ct Universe. Methods. We assume conventional Eddington-limited accretion and the time versus redshift relation in this model to calculate when a seed needed to start growing as a function of its mass in order to reach the observed mass of J1342+0928 at z = 7.54. Results. Contrary to the tension created in the standard model by the appearance of this massive quasar so early in its history, we find that in the R-h = Ct cosmology, a 10 M-circle dot seed at z similar to 15 (the start of the Epoch of Reionization at t similar to 878 Myr) would have easily grown into an 8 x 10(8) M-circle dot black hole at z = 7.54 (t similar to 1.65 Gyr) via conventional Eddington-limited accretion.

The apparent (gravitational) horizon in cosmology

Melia, Fulvio (AMER ASSOC PHYSICS TEACHERS, 2018-08)

In general relativity, a gravitational horizon (more commonly known as the "apparent horizon") an imaginary surface beyond which all null geodesics recede from the observer. The Universe has an apparent (gravitational) horizon, but unlike its counterpart in the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics, it is not static. It may eventually turn into an event horizon-an asymptotically defined membrane that forever separates causally connected events from those that are not-depending on the equation of state of the cosmic fluid. In this paper, we examine how and why an apparent (gravitational) horizon is manifested in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, and why it is becoming so pivotal to our correct interpretation of the cosmological data. We discuss its observational signature and demonstrate how it alone defines the proper size of our visible Universe. In so doing, we affirm its physical reality and its impact on cosmological models. (C) 2018 American Association of Physics Teachers.

A two-point diagnostic for the H ii galaxy Hubble diagram

Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-12-01)

A previous analysis of starburst-dominated H II galaxies and H II regions has demonstrated
a statistically significant preference for the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology with
zero active mass, known as the Rh = ct universe, over cold dark matter (CDM) and its
related dark-matter parametrizations. In this paper, we employ a two-point diagnostic with
these data to present a complementary statistical comparison of Rh = ct with Planck CDM.
Our two-point diagnostic compares, in a pairwise fashion, the difference between the distance
modulus measured at two redshifts with that predicted by each cosmology. Our results support
the conclusion drawn by a previous comparative analysis demonstrating that Rh = ct is
statistically preferred over Planck CDM. But we also find that the reported errors in the
H II measurements may not be purely Gaussian, perhaps due to a partial contamination by
non-Gaussian systematic effects. The use of H II galaxies and H II regions as standard candles
may be improved even further with a better handling of the systematics in these sources.

The H II galaxy Hubble diagram strongly favours R-h = ct over Lambda CDM

Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-12-01)

We continue to build support for the proposal to use H II galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic H II regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission -line luminosity and ionized -gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model Lambda CDM and the R-h = ct universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat Lambda CDM model, the best fit is obtained with Omega(m) = 0.40(-0.09)(+0.09). However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favour R-h = Ct over the standard model with a likelihood of approximate to 94.8-98.8 per cent versus only per cent. For wCDM (the version of ACDM with a dark -energy equation of state wde = Pde/Pde rather than was t WA = 1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Omega(m) = 0.221(-0.14)(+0.16) and wde = 0.511'0'21-5" which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than R-h = Ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that R-h = Ct is strongly favoured over wCDM with a likelihood of approximate to 92.9-99.6 per cent versus only 0.4-7.1 per cent. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ACDM/wCDM in favour of R-h = Ct at a confidence level approaching 3 sigma.

Model selection based on the angular-diameter distance to the compact structure in radio quasars

Melia, Fulvio (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-09-03)

Of all the distance arid temporal measures in cosmology, the angular-diameter distance, d(A)(z), uniquely reaches a maximum value at some finite redshift z(max )and then decreases to zero towards the Big Bang. This effect has been difficult to observe due to a lack of reliable, standard rulers, though refinements to the identification of the compact structure in radio quasars may have overcome this deficiency. In this letter, we assemble a catalog of 140 such sources with 0 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 3 for model selection and the measurement of z(max). In flat Lambda CDM, we find that Omega(m) = 0.24(-0.09)(+0.1) fully consistent with the Planck optimized value, with z(max) = 1.69. Both of these values are associated with a d(A)(z) indistinguishable from that predicted by the zero active mass condition, rho + 3p = 0, in terms of the total pressure rho and total energy density rho of the cosmic fluid. An expansion driven by this constraint, known as the Rh = ct universe, has z(max )= 1.718, which differs from the Lambda CDM optimized value by less than similar to 1.6%. Indeed, the Bayes Information Criterion favours R-h = ct over flat Lambda CDM with a likelihood of similar to 81% vs. 19%, suggesting that the optimized parameters in Planck Lambda CDM mimic the constraint p = -rho/3.

A cosmological solution to the Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

Yennapureddy, Manoj K.; Melia, Fulvio (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-03-26)

To understand the formation and evolution of galaxies at redshifts 0 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 10, one must invariably introduce specific models (e.g., for the star formation) in order to fully interpret the data. Unfortunately, this tends to render the analysis compliant to the theory and its assumptions, so consensus is still some-what elusive. Nonetheless, the surprisingly early appearance of massive galaxies challenges the standard model, and the halo mass function estimated from galaxy surveys at z greater than or similar to 4 appears to be inconsistent with the predictions of Lambda CDM, giving rise to what has been termed "The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem" by some workers in the field. A simple resolution to this question may not be forthcoming. The situation with the halos themselves, however, is more straightforward and, in this paper, we use linear perturbation theory to derive the halo mass function over the redshift range 0 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 10 for the R-h = ct universe. We use this predicted halo distribution to demonstrate that both its dependence on mass and its very weak dependence on redshift are compatible with the data. The difficulties with Lambda CDM may eventually be overcome with refinements to the underlying theory of star formation and galaxy evolution within the halos. For now, however, we demonstrate that the unexpected early formation of structure may also simply be due to an incorrect choice of the cosmology, rather than to yet unknown astrophysical issues associated with the condensation of mass fluctuations and subsequent galaxy formation.

Analysing H(z) data using two-point diagnostics

Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-09)

Measurements of the Hubble constantH(z) are increasingly being used to test the expansion rate predicted by various cosmological models. But the recent application of two-point diagnostics, such as Om(zi, zj) and Omh(2)(zi, zj), has produced considerable tension between Lambda CDM's predictions and several observations, with other models faring even worse. Part of this problem is attributable to the continued mixing of truly model-independent measurements using the cosmic-chronometer approach, and model-dependent data extracted from baryon acoustic oscillations. In this paper, we advance the use of two-point diagnostics beyond their current status, and introduce new variations, which we call Delta h(zi, zj), that are more useful for model comparisons. But we restrict our analysis exclusively to cosmic-chronometer data, which are truly model independent. Even for these measurements, however, we confirm the conclusions drawn by earlier workers that the data have strongly non-Gaussian uncertainties, requiring the use of both 'median' and 'mean' statistical approaches. Our results reveal that previous analyses using two-point diagnostics greatly underestimated the errors, thereby misinterpreting the level of tension between theoretical predictions and H(z) data. Instead, we demonstrate that as of today, only Einstein-de Sitter is ruled out by the two-point diagnostics at a level of significance exceeding similar to 3s. The R-h = ct universe is slightly favoured over the remaining models, including Lambda cold dark matter and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder, though all of them (other than Einstein-de Sitter) are consistent to within 1 sigma with the measured mean of the Delta h(zi, zj) diagnostics.

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