Lin, Min-Kai; Youdin, Andrew N. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-11-08)
Small solids embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks are subject to strong dust-gas friction. Consequently, tightly coupled dust particles almost follow the gas flow. This near conservation of the dust-to-gas ratio along streamlines is analogous to the near conservation of entropy along flows of (dust-free) gas with weak heating and cooling. We develop this thermodynamic analogy into a framework to study dusty gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks. We show that an isothermal dusty gas behaves like an adiabatic pure gas, and that finite dust-gas coupling may be regarded as effective heating/cooling. We exploit this correspondence to deduce that (1) perfectly coupled, thin dust layers cannot cause axisymmetric instabilities; (2) radial dust edges are unstable if the dust is vertically well-mixed; (3) the streaming instability necessarily involves a gas pressure response that lags behind dust density; and (4) dust-loading introduces buoyancy forces that generally stabilize the vertical shear instability associated with global radial temperature gradients. We also discuss dusty analogs of other hydrodynamic processes (e.g., Rossby wave instability, convective overstability, and zombie vortices) and how to simulate dusty protoplanetary disks with minor tweaks to existing codes for pure gas dynamics.
Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects may play a significant role in determining the dynamics, thermal properties, and observational signatures of radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In particular, particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection events may influence black hole spectra and flaring properties. We use representative general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of black hole accretion flows to identify and explore the structures and properties of current sheets as potential sites of magnetic reconnection. In the case of standard and normal evolution (SANE) disks, we find that in the reconnection sites, the plasma beta ranges from 0.1 to 1000, the magnetization ranges from 10(-4) to 1, and the guide fields are weak compared with the reconnecting fields. In magnetically arrested (MAD) disks, we find typical values for plasma beta from 10(-2) to 10(3), magnetizations from 10(-3) to 10, and typically stronger guide fields, with strengths comparable to or greater than the reconnecting fields. These are critical parameters that govern the electron energy distribution resulting from magnetic reconnection and can be used in the context of plasma simulations to provide microphysics inputs to global simulations. We also find that ample magnetic energy is available in the reconnection regions to power the fluence of bright X-ray flares observed from the black hole in the center of the Milky Way.
Schmidt, D. R.; Ziurys, L. M. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-01-19)
New detections of HNC have been made toward 11 planetary nebulae (PNe), including K4-47, K3-58, K3-17, M3-28, and M4-14. These sources, which represent a wide range of ages and morphologies, had previously been observed in HCN by Schmidt & Ziurys. Measurements of the J = 1 -> 0 and J = 3 -> 2 transitions of HNC near 90 and 271 GHz were conducted using the new 12 m and the Sub-Millimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. HCN and HNC were also identified via their J = 1 -> 0 lines toward eight positions across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293). Column densities for HNC, determined from radiative transfer modeling, were N-tot(HNC) similar to (0.06-4.0) x 10(13) cm(-2), corresponding to fractional abundances with respect to H-2 of f similar to (0.02-1.4) x 10(-7). The HCN and HNC column densities across the Helix were found to be N-tot (HCN) similar to (0.2-2.4). x. 10(12) cm(-2) and Ntot (HNC) similar to (0.07-1.6). x. 1012 cm(-2), with fractional abundances of (0.2-3.2) x 10(-7) and (0.09-2.2) x 10(-7). The [ HCN]/[ HNC] ratio varied between similar to 1-8 for all PNe, with [ HCN]/[ HNC] similar to 1-4 across the Helix. These values are greatly reduced from what has been found in asymptotic giant branch stars, where the ratio is typically > 100. Both the abundance of HNC and the [ HCN]/[ HNC] ratio do not appear to vary significantly with nebular age across a time span of similar to 10,000 years, in contrast to predictions of chemical models. The increase in HNC appears to arise in the proto-planetary stage, but becomes " frozen" once the PN phase is reached.
MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, D.; Czekala, I.; Andrews, S. M.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Ricci, Luca; Testi, L. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-01-16)
We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar-mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 mu m continuum and CO J = 3-2 line emission with beam size similar to 0."3 (similar to 45 au) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The circumprimary dust disk is compact with an FWHM of 59 +/- 12 au, while the gas has a larger extent with a characteristic radius of 46.5 +/- 1.8 au. By forward-modeling the velocity field of the circumprimary disk based on the CO emission, we constrain the mass of GQ Lup. A to be M-* = (1.03 +/- 0.05) * (d/156 pc) M-circle dot, where d is a known distance, and determine that we view the disk at an inclination angle of 60 degrees 5 +/- 0 degrees 5 and a position angle of 346 degrees +/- 1 degrees. The 3s upper limit on the 870 mu m flux density of any circumplanetary disk associated with GQ Lup b of <0.15 mJy implies an upper limit on the dust disk mass of <0.04M(circle dot) for standard assumptions about optically thin emission. We discuss proposed mechanisms for the formation of wide-separation substellar companions given the non-detection of circumplanetary disks around GQ Lup b and other similar systems.
A validation of the cosmic distance duality (CDD) relation, h() ( ) () () z zdz dz º+ = 1 A L 1 2 , coupling the
luminosity (dL) and angular-diameter (dA) distances, is crucial because its violation would require exotic new
physics. We present a model-independent test of the CDD, based on strong lensing and a reconstruction of the H II
galaxy Hubble diagram using Gaussian processes, to confirm the validity of the CDD at a very high level
of confidence. Using parameterizations h( )z z = +1 h0 and h( )z zz =+ + 1 h h 1 2
2, our best-fit results are
h = -
+ 0.0147 0 0.066
0.056, and h = -
+ 0.1091 1 0.1568
0.1680 and h = - -
+ 0.0603 2 0.0988
0.0999, respectively. In spite of these strong
constraints, however, we also point out that the analysis of strong lensing using a simplified single isothermal
sphere (SIS) model for the lens produces some irreducible scatter in the inferred CDD data. The use of an extended
SIS approximation, with a power-law density structure, yields very similar results, but does not lessen the scatter
due to its larger number of free parameters, which weakens the best-fit constraints. Future work with these strong
lenses should therefore be based on more detailed ray-tracing calculations to determine the mass distribution more
Meng, Huan Y. A.; Plavchan, Peter; Rieke, George H.; Cody, Ann Marie; Güth, Tina; Stauffer, John; Covey, Kevin R.; Carey, Sean; Ciardi, David; Duran-Rojas, Maria C.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-05-23)
Theoretical models and spectroscopic observations of newborn stars suggest that protoplantary disks have an inner "wall" at a distance set by the disk interaction with the star. Around T Tauri stars, the size of this disk hole is expected to be on a 0.1 au scale that is unresolved by current adaptive optics imaging, though some model-dependent constraints have been obtained by near-infrared interferometry. Here we report the first measurement of the inner disk wall around a solar-mass young stellar object, YLW 16B in the rho Ophiuchi star-forming region, by detecting the light-travel time of the variable radiation from the stellar surface to the disk. Consistent time lags were detected on two nights, when the time series in H (1.6 mu m) and K (2.2 mu m) bands were synchronized while the 4.5 mu m emission lagged by 74.5 +/- 3.2 s. Considering the nearly edge-on geometry of the disk, the inner rim should be 0.084 au from the protostar on average, with an error of order 0.01 au. This size is likely larger than the range of magnetospheric truncations and consistent with an optically and geometrically thick disk front at the dust sublimation radius at similar to 1500 K. The widths of the cross-correlation functions between the data in different wavebands place possible new constraints on the geometry of the disk.
We target the thermal emission spectrum of the non-transiting gas giant HD 88133 b with high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, by treating the planet and its host star as a spectroscopic binary. For sufficiently deep summed flux observations of the star and planet across multiple epochs, it is possible to resolve the signal of the hot gas giant's atmosphere compared to the brighter stellar spectrum, at a level consistent with the aggregate shot noise of the full data set. To do this, we first perform a principal component analysis to remove the contribution of the Earth's atmosphere to the observed spectra. Then, we use a cross-correlation analysis to tease out the spectra of the host star and HD 88133 b to determine its orbit and identify key sources of atmospheric opacity. In total, six epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L-band observations and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC K-band observations of the HD 88133 system were obtained. Based on an analysis of the maximum likelihood curves calculated from the multi-epoch cross-correlation of the full data set with two atmospheric models, we report the direct detection of the emission spectrum of the non-transiting exoplanet HD 88133 b and measure a radial projection of the Keplerian orbital velocity of 40 +/- 15 km s(-1), a true mass of 1.02(-0.28)(+0.61) M-J, a nearly face-on orbital inclination of 15(-5)(+60), and an atmosphere opacity structure at high dispersion dominated by water vapor. This, combined with 11 years of radial velocity measurements of the system, provides the most up-to-date ephemeris for HD 88133.
Miles-Paez, Paulo A.; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Heinze, Aren; Apai, Daniel (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-05-10)
Recent photometric studies have revealed that surface spots that produce flux variations are present on virtually all L and T dwarfs. Their likely magnetic or dusty nature has been a much-debated problem, the resolution to which has been hindered by paucity of diagnostic multi-wavelength observations. To test for a correlation between magnetic activity and photometric variability, we searched for Ha emission among eight L3-T2 ultra-cool dwarfs with extensive previous photometric monitoring, some of which are known to be variable at 3.6 mu m or 4.5 mu m. We detected Ha only in the non-variable T2 dwarf 2MASS J12545393-0122474. The remaining seven objects do not show Ha emission, even though six of them are known to vary photometrically. Combining our results with those for 86 other L and T dwarfs from the literature show that the detection rate of Ha emission is very high (94%) for spectral types between L0 and L3.5 and much smaller (20%) for spectral types. >= L4, while the detection rate of photometric variability is approximately constant (30%-55%) from L0 to T8 dwarfs. We conclude that chromospheric activity, as evidenced by H alpha emission, and large-amplitude photometric variability are not correlated. Consequently, dust clouds are the dominant driver of the observed variability of ultra-cool dwarfs at spectral types, at least as early as L0.
Imara, Nia; Loeb, Abraham; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Conroy, Charlie; Behroozi, Peter (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-02-08)
We investigate the evolution of dust content in galaxies from redshifts z = 0 to z = 9.5. Using empirically motivated prescriptions, we model galactic-scale properties-including halo mass, stellar mass, star formation rate, gas mass, and metallicity-to make predictions for the galactic evolution of dust mass and dust temperature in main-sequence galaxies. Our simple analytic model, which predicts that galaxies in the early universe had greater quantities of dust than their low-redshift counterparts, does a good job of reproducing observed trends between galaxy dust and stellar mass out to z approximate to 6. We find that for fixed galaxy stellar mass, the dust temperature increases from z = 0 to z = 6. Our model forecasts a population of low-mass, high-redshift galaxies with interstellar dust as hot as, or hotter than, their more massive counterparts; but this prediction needs to be constrained by observations. Finally, we make predictions for observing 1.1 mm flux density arising from interstellar dust emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.
Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Youdin, Andrew N. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-07-26)
Hot Jupiters receive strong stellar irradiation, producing equilibrium temperatures of 1000-2500 K. Incoming irradiation directly heats just their thin outer layer, down to pressures of similar to 0.1 bars. In standard irradiated evolution models of hot Jupiters, predicted transit radii are too small. Previous studies have shown that deeper heating-at a small fraction of the heating rate from irradiation-can explain observed radii. Here we present a suite of evolution models for HD 209458b, where we systematically vary both the depth and intensity of internal heating, without specifying the uncertain heating mechanism(s). Our models start with a hot, high-entropy planet whose radius decreases as the convective interior cools. The applied heating suppresses this cooling. We find that very shallow heating-at pressures of 1-10 bars-does not significantly suppress cooling, unless the total heating rate is greater than or similar to 10% of the incident stellar power. Deeper heating, at 100 bars, requires heating at only 1% of the stellar irradiation to explain the observed transit radius of 1.4R(Jup) after 5 Gyr of cooling. In general, more intense and deeper heating results in larger hot-Jupiter radii. Surprisingly, we find that heat deposited at 10(4) bars-which is exterior to approximate to 99% of the planet's mass-suppresses planetary cooling as effectively as heating at the center. In summary, we find that relatively shallow heating is required to explain the radii of most hot Jupiters, provided that this heat is applied early and persists throughout their evolution.
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