A previous analysis of starburst-dominated H II galaxies and H II regions has demonstrated
a statistically significant preference for the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology with
zero active mass, known as the Rh = ct universe, over cold dark matter (CDM) and its
related dark-matter parametrizations. In this paper, we employ a two-point diagnostic with
these data to present a complementary statistical comparison of Rh = ct with Planck CDM.
Our two-point diagnostic compares, in a pairwise fashion, the difference between the distance
modulus measured at two redshifts with that predicted by each cosmology. Our results support
the conclusion drawn by a previous comparative analysis demonstrating that Rh = ct is
statistically preferred over Planck CDM. But we also find that the reported errors in the
H II measurements may not be purely Gaussian, perhaps due to a partial contamination by
non-Gaussian systematic effects. The use of H II galaxies and H II regions as standard candles
may be improved even further with a better handling of the systematics in these sources.
In this paper, we use an unprecedentedly large sample (158) of confirmed strong lens systems for model selection, comparing five well-studied Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies: ΛCDM, wCDM (the standard model with a variable dark-energy equation of state), the Rh = ct universe, the (empty) Milne cosmology, and the classical Einstein-de Sitter (matter-dominated) universe. We first use these sources to optimize the parameters in the standard model and show that they are consistent with Planck, though the quality of the best fit is not satisfactory. We demonstrate that this is likely due to underreported errors, or to errors yet to be included in this kind of analysis. We suggest that the missing dispersion may be due to scatter about a pure single isothermal sphere (SIS) model that is often assumed for the mass distribution in these lenses. We then use the Bayes information criterion, with the inclusion of a suggested SIS dispersion, to calculate the relative likelihoods and ranking of these models, showing that Milne and Einstein-de Sitter are completely ruled out, while Rh = ct is preferred over ΛCDM/wCDM with a relative probability of ∼73percent versus ∼24percent. The recently reported sample of new strong lens candidates by the Dark Energy Survey, if confirmed, may be able to demonstrate which of these two models is favoured over the other at a level exceeding 3σ.
Melia, Fulvio; Yennapureddy, Manoj K. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-07-23)
Unlike other observational signatures in cosmology, the angular-diameter distance dA(z) uniquely reaches a maximum (at zmax) and then shrinks to zero towards the big bang. The location of this turning point depends sensitively on the model, but has been difficult to measure. In this paper, we estimate and use zmax inferred from quasar cores: (1) by employing a sample of 140 objects yielding a much reduced dispersion due to pre-constrained limits on their spectral index and luminosity, (2) by reconstructing dA(z) using Gaussian processes, and (3) comparing the predictions of seven different cosmologies and showing that the measured value of zmax can effectively discriminate between them. We find that zmax = 1.70 ± 0.20 – an important new probe of the Universe’s geometry. The most strongly favoured model is Rh = ct, followed by PlanckΛCDM. Several others, including Milne, Einstein-de Sitter, and Static tired light are strongly rejected. According to these results, the Rh = ct universe, which predicts zmax = 1.718, has a ∼92.8 per cent probability of being the correct cosmology. For consistency, we also carry out model selection based on dA(z) itself. This test confirms that Rh = ct and PlanckΛCDM are among the few models that account for angular-size data better than those that are disfavoured by zmax. The dA(z) comparison, however, is less discerning than that with zmax, due to the additional free parameter, H0. We find that H0 = 63.4 ± 1.2 km s−1 Mpc−1 for Rh = ct, and 69.9 ± 1.5 km s−1 Mpc−1 for ΛCDM. Both are consistent with previously measured values in each model, though they differ from each other by over 4σ. In contrast, model selection based on zmax is independent of H0.
The cosmic distance duality (CDD) relation (based on the Etherington reciprocity theorem) plays a crucial role in a wide assortment of cosmological measurements. Attempts at confirming it observationally have met with mixed results, though the general consensus appears to be that the data do support its existence in nature. A common limitation with past approaches has been their reliance on a specific cosmological model, or on measurements of the luminosity distance to Type Ia SNe, which introduces a dependence on the presumed cosmology in spite of beliefs to the contrary. Confirming that the CDD is actually realized in nature is crucial because its violation would require exotic new physics. In this paper, we study the CDD using the observed angular size of compact quasar cores and a Gaussian Process reconstruction of the H II galaxy Hubble diagram – without pre-assuming any particular background cosmology. In so doing, we confirm at a very high level of confidence that the angular-diameter and luminosity distances do indeed satisfy the CDD. We then demonstrate the potential power of this result by utilizing it in a comparative test of two competing cosmological models – the Rh = ct universe and ΛCDM – and show that Rh = ct is favoured by the CDD data with a likelihood ∼82.3 per cent compared with ∼17.7 per cent for the standard model.
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