Now showing items 1-20 of 15863

    • Vestiges of a lunar ilmenite layer following mantle overturn revealed by gravity data

      Liang, Weigang; Broquet, Adrien; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Min; Evans, Alexander J.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-04-08)
      The lunar crust and mantle formed through the crystallization of a magma ocean, culminating in a solid cumulate mantle with a layer of dense ilmenite-bearing cumulates rich in incompatible elements forming above less dense cumulates. This gravitationally unstable configuration probably resulted in a global mantle overturn, with ilmenite-bearing cumulates sinking into the interior. However, despite abundant geochemical evidence, there has been a lack of physical evidence on the nature of the overturn. Here we combine gravity inversions together with geodynamic models to shed light on this critical stage of lunar evolution. We show that the observed polygonal pattern of linear gravity anomalies that surround the nearside mare region is consistent with the signature of the ilmenite-bearing cumulates that remained after the global mantle overturn at the locations of past sheet-like downwellings. This interpretation is supported by the compelling similarity between the observed pattern, magnitude and dimensions of the gravity anomalies and those predicted by geodynamic models of the ilmenite-bearing cumulate remnants. These features provide physical evidence for the nature of the global mantle overturn, constrain the overturn to have occurred before the Serenitatis and Humorum basin-forming impacts and support a deep Ti-rich mantle source for the high-Ti basalts.
    • Cost-effectiveness analysis of nivolumab-chemotherapy as first-line therapy for locally advanced/metastatic gastric cancer: a United States payer perspective

      Marupuru, Srujitha; Arku, Daniel; Axon, David R; Villa-Zapata, Lorenzo; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Slack, Marion K; Warholak, Terri; Department of Pharmacy Practice, R. Ken Coit College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023-05-31)
      Objectives: Nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug administration as a first-line systemic therapy for locally advanced/metastatic gastric cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab-chemotherapy combination versus chemotherapy alone as a first-line therapy from a US payer perspective. Methods: An economic evaluation was conducted using a partitioned survival model in Microsoft Excel® using data from the CheckMate 649 trial. Three discrete mutually exclusive health states (progression-free, post-progression, and death) were included in the model. The health state occupancy was calculated using the overall survival and progression-free survival curves derived from the CheckMate 649 trial. Cost, resource use, and health utility estimates were estimated from a US payer perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses assessed the uncertainty of the model parameters. Results: Nivolumab-chemotherapy provided additional 0.25 life years compared to chemotherapy alone and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were 0.701 and 0.561, respectively, producing a gain of 0.140 QALYs and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $574,072/QALY. Conclusion: From the US payer perspective, at a willingness to pay threshold of $US150,000/QALY, nivolumab-chemotherapy was not found to be cost-effective as a first-line therapy for locally advanced/metastatic gastric cancer.
    • Identification and characterization of a novel strain of Decapod hepanhamaparvovirus in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from Madagascar that does not cause histological lesions

      Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Siewiora, Halina M.; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Le Groumellec, Marc; Dhar, Arun K.; Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory, School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-04-01)
      Decapod hepanhamaparvovirus (DHPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that primarily affects the early life stages of penaeid shrimp, potentially leading to significant losses in hatchery operations. In an interesting finding, we observed that a small portion Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) originating from Madagascar harbored DHPV even in the absence of any discernible clinical signs. Detailed histopathological analysis of P. monodon post-larvae individuals revealed an absence of distinctive histological lesions typically associated with DHPV infection. However, sensitive molecular techniques, including PCR and real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) confirmed the presence of viral DNA and DHPV encoded transcripts in these specimens. The complete genome sequence of this newfound viral isolate, spanning 6254 nucleotides, showed a 96.9% nucleotide sequence similarity to a previously documented DHPV strain also originating from Madagascar. Moreover, it exhibited a genetic resemblance of 80.7% to 88.2% when compared to DHPV strains from other geographical regions. These findings underscore the unique genomic and histological characteristics of this novel DHPV isolate. This knowledge proves to be of paramount significance for the screening of broodstock and post-larvae in captive breeding programs, as it aids in identifying the presence of DHPV. Furthermore, it paves the way for future investigations into unraveling the precise role of viral-encoded proteins in shaping the clinical and histological manifestations of DHPV infections.
    • Oppositional Courage for Racial and Ethnic Minorities: A Source of White Employees’ Upward Moral Comparison

      Thoroughgood, Christian N.; Sawyer, Katina B.; Kong, Dejun Tony; Webster, Jennica R.; University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-03-29)
      When advantaged group employees courageously stand up for the rights of their colleagues with marginalized identities, research suggests that they communicate a powerful, public “message of value” to such individuals. Yet, this beneficiary-focused perspective, while valuable, does not address the self-meanings that third-party observers may derive from such oppositional courage (OC) and the implications for their behavior toward the courageous actor. Drawing on the social comparison literature, we propose that perceptions of OC can be a source of upward moral comparison information for advantaged group observers. Thus, on the one hand, we argue that perceptions of OC can convey to observers that they lack the moral character of the courageous actor, which is associated with feelings of moral inferiority and, in turn, a motivation to negatively gossip about the actor. On the other hand, we suggest that perceptions of OC can also signal to observers their moral capacity to actively contribute to an equitable, inclusive workplace, which is associated with feelings of moral elevation and, in turn, a motivation to positively gossip about the actor. Central to our theory, we argue that these different reactions depend on observers’ own self-confidence to engage in similar courageous action—what we refer to as oppositional courage self-efficacy. Using data from White employees, we conducted one pilot study (i.e., a critical incident analysis) and two main studies (i.e., an experiment and a three-wave survey), on OC for racial and ethnic minorities and found support for our hypotheses. We conclude by discussing the implications of our research.
    • Entrepreneurial community development and the everyday realities of existing enterprises

      Rioux, Revecca; Mars, Matthew M.; Department of Agricultural Education, Technology and Innovation, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-03-25)
      Entrepreneurship and innovation are key inputs to the revitalization and sustainability of rural communities and economies. While compelling, entrepreneurial community development models heavily favor new venture start-up activities and largely overlook the needs and potential of existing enterprises. Drawing on principles of everyday life sociology and organizational culture, we explored how a sample of Southeastern Arizona ranchers confront persistent challenges by way of their daily routines, practices, and interactions. Data were collected through extensive field work involving nearly 100 hours of direct observation and semi-structured interviews with 14 participants across four ranches. The findings show the innovative characteristics of the ranchers’ everyday practices and routines and illustrate how everyday ingenuity among the ranchers drives a problem-driven mindset and immediate, short-term action. We use the insights generated to conceptualize a temporal dynamic that if integrated with entrepreneurial community development models may better foster and support innovation within existing enterprises.
    • Assessment of Mobility Trajectories Using Wearable Inertial Sensors During Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplant

      Skiba, Meghan B; El-Gohary, Mahmoud; Horak, Fay; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Guidarelli, Carolyn; Meyers, Gabrielle; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Advanced Nursing Practice and Science Division, College of Nursing, University of Arizona; University of Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona (W.B. Saunders, 2024-02-12)
      Objective: This study aimed to characterize mobility patterns using wearable inertial sensors and serial assessment across autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) and investigate the relation between mobility and perceived function in patients with hematologic cancer. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Hospital adult transplant clinic followed by discharge. Participants: 78 patients with hematological cancer receiving autoHCT. Main Outcome Measures: Mobility was measured across 3 clinical phases (pretransplant, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment) in using inertial sensors worn during prescribed performance tests in the hospital. Perceived function was assessed using validated provider-reported (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] Performance Status Scale) and patient-reported [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ-C30]) measures. Trajectories of 5 selected mobility characteristics (turn duration, gait speed, stride time variability, double support time, and heel strike angle) across the clinical phases were also evaluated using piecewise linear mixed-effects models. Results: Using Principal Components Analysis, 4 mobility patterns were identified pretransplant: Gait Limitation, Sagittal Sway, Coronal Sway, and Balance Control. Gait Limitation measured pretransplant was significantly inversely associated with perceived function reported by the provider- (β = -0.11; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.02) and patient- (β = -4.85; 95% CI: -7.72, -1.99) post-engraftment in age-adjusted linear regression models. Mobility characteristics demonstrated immediate declines early pre-engraftment with stabilization by late pre-engraftment. Conclusion: Patients with hematological cancer experiencing gait limitations pretransplant are likely to have worse perceived function post-engraftment. Mobility declines in early phases post-transplant and may not fully recover, indicating an opportunity for timely rehabilitation referrals. Wearable inertial sensors can be used to identify early mobility problems and patients who may be at risk for future functional decline who may be candidates for early physical rehabilitation.
    • Drought alters aboveground biomass production efficiency: Insights from two European beech forests

      Wei, Jingshu; von Arx, Georg; Fan, Zexin; Ibrom, Andreas; Mund, Martina; Knohl, Alexander; Peters, Richard L.; Babst, Flurin; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-02-06)
      The fraction of photosynthetically assimilated carbon that trees allocate to long-lasting woody biomass pools (biomass production efficiency – BPE), is a key metric of the forest carbon balance. Its apparent simplicity belies the complex interplay between underlying processes of photosynthesis, respiration, litter and fruit production, and tree growth that respond differently to climate variability. Whereas the magnitude of BPE has been routinely quantified in ecological studies, its temporal dynamics and responses to extreme events such as drought remain less well understood. Here, we combine long-term records of aboveground carbon increment (ACI) obtained from tree rings with stand-level gross primary productivity (GPP) from eddy covariance (EC) records to empirically quantify aboveground BPE (= ACI/GPP) and its interannual variability in two European beech forests (Hainich, DE-Hai, Germany; Sorø, DK-Sor, Denmark). We found significant negative correlations between BPE and a daily-resolved drought index at both sites, indicating that woody growth is de-prioritized under water limitation. During identified extreme years, early-season drought reduced same-year BPE by 29 % (Hainich, 2011), 31 % (Sorø, 2006), and 14 % (Sorø, 2013). By contrast, the 2003 late-summer drought resulted in a 17 % reduction of post-drought year BPE at Hainich. Across the entire EC period, the daily-to-seasonal drought response of BPE resembled that of ACI, rather than that of GPP. This indicates that BPE follows sink dynamics more closely than source dynamics, which appear to be decoupled given the distinctive climate response patterns of GPP and ACI. Based on our observations, we caution against estimating the magnitude and variability of the carbon sink in European beech (and likely other temperate forests) based on carbon fluxes alone. We also encourage comparable studies at other long-term EC measurement sites from different ecosystems to further constrain the BPE response to rare climatic events.
    • Academic and behavior combined support: A single-case practice-based replication study

      Gettinger, Maribeth; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Levin, Joel R.; Eubanks, Abigail; Foy, Alison; University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-04-02)
      The purpose of this research was to conduct a practice-based replication of Academic and Behavior Combined Support (ABC Support), a previously developed and experimentally evaluated supplemental intervention that merges a combined focus on reading fluency and academic engagement. In the present study, a school-based interventionist and data collector had access to implementation resources online and participated in virtual training and coaching. Four Grade 2 students received the ABC Support intervention for 6 weeks in their school. Students' oral fluency on training and non-training reading passages, as well as occurrence of engagement and disruptive behaviors during universal reading instruction, were measured repeatedly across baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases in a multiple-baseline design. In concert with prior empirical findings on ABC Support, analyses revealed improvement from baseline to intervention for both reading and behavior outcomes, as well as from baseline to follow-up assessments. Empirical contributions of the study are offered within the context of replication research and an implementation science perspective. We also emphasize the importance of telecommunication for practice-based research evaluation of interventions.
    • Updated Theory and New Evidence on the Effect of Information System Precision on Managerial Reporting

      Douthit, Jeremy; Majerczyk, Michael; McLuckie Thain, Lisa; Eller College of Management, The University of Arizona (American Accounting Association, 2024-01-31)
      Information asymmetry is fundamental to participative budgeting. Hannan, Rankin, and Towry (2006, “HRT”) develop a nuanced theory regarding the effect of information asymmetry on slack. The authors provide evidence that suggests increasing the precision of a superior’s information system, thereby reducing information asymmetry, can increase slack. We develop a refined version of HRT’s theory by incorporating evidence of how nonpecuniary incentives affect subordinates’ reporting slack from research subsequent to HRT. Our updated theory predicts that slack decreases as information system precision increases, opposite to the results in HRT. To test our refined theory, we replicate HRT’s experiment and find results consistent with our theory. Our results support HRT’s general theory but highlight the importance of establishing regularities of how nonpecuniary incentives affect behavior in accounting. Specifically, our updated theory and new evidence suggest that improving information system precision decreases budgetary slack, contrary to the results suggested in HRT.
    • Beyond words: L2 writing teachers’ visual conceptualizations of ChatGPT in teaching and learning

      Xu, Wei; Tan, Xiao; Second Language Acquisition and Teaching, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-03-29)
      Since its inception, ChatGPT has been characterized by L2 writing teachers with various metaphors, such as a tool and a collaborator. Complemented with text-based metaphorical conceptualizations, this research brief contributes ten visual conceptualizations of ChatGPT in L2 writing pedagogy from L2 writing teachers who teach in US higher education. Four themes emerged from our analysis of these visual conceptualizations: ChatGPT as a (1) tool, (2) resource, (3) threat, and an (4) unknown entity. The visualizations help tease out the intricacies involved in the use of metaphorical representations of ChatGPT and provide a multidimensional picture of L2 writing teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards the use of ChatGPT in L2 writing classrooms. This report concludes with an overview of the potential implications of applying visual metaphorical conceptualizations of ChatGPT to educational settings, such as raising L2 student writers’ awareness and fostering the development of their critical digital literacy.
    • Quantifying methane emissions from United States landfills

      Cusworth, Daniel H; Duren, Riley M; Ayasse, Alana K; Jiorle, Ralph; Howell, Katherine; Aubrey, Andrew; Green, Robert O; Eastwood, Michael L; Chapman, John W; Thorpe, Andrew K; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2024-03-28)
      Methane emissions from solid waste may represent a substantial fraction of the global anthropogenic budget, but few comprehensive studies exist to assess inventory assumptions. We quantified emissions at hundreds of large landfills across 18 states in the United States between 2016 and 2022 using airborne imaging spectrometers. Spanning 20% of open United States landfills, this represents the most systematic measurement-based study of methane point sources of the waste sector. We detected significant point source emissions at a majority (52%) of these sites, many with emissions persisting over multiple revisits (weeks to years). We compared these against independent contemporaneous in situ airborne observations at 15 landfills and established good agreement. Our findings indicate a need for long-term, synoptic-scale monitoring of landfill emissions in the context of climate change mitigation policy.
    • Latinx Youth's Mental Health Needs and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Service Utilization

      Giraldo-Santiago, Natalia; Bjugstad, Arlene; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Chen, Tzuan A.; Brabeck, Kalina; López, Ruth M.; College of Education, Department of Educational Policy Studies and Practice, University of Arizona (Project MUSE, 2024-02-01)
      This study examined mental health needs and risk factors associated with service use among Latinx high school students in two cities in the United States. We explored how socioeconomic characteristics, school location, youth and parental nativity, and self-perceived clinical needs were associated with the odds of youths seeing a mental health provider. Data were collected from 306 Latinx youths during the 2018–19 school year. Most youths (78%) self-reported symptoms of anxiety, trauma, or depression above the clinical range. None of these clinical needs predicted service utilization. Youth experiencing less economic hardship and having a mother from South America were almost five times more likely to use services than their counterparts. Similarly, males and older respondents were more likely to be underserved than females and younger respondents. Implications to ensure equitable access to services among older, low-income Latinx youth, particularly those from Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico, are discussed.
    • The Civic Education of Ignacio Bonillas: Revising Ambient Notions of Citizenship in the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands

      McMartin, Charles; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-03-27)
      This article details the experiences of Ignacio Bonillas, one of the first Mexican students to graduate from Arizona’s territorial schools and explicates how those experiences impacted his perceptions of U.S. and Mexican citizenship. Bonillas’s story illustrates how definitions of citizenship in the Arizona-Sonora borderlands were permeable and dynamic before the era of Americanization and encourages teachers and students to interrogate the ways restrictive notions of citizenship are reproduced in public schools. This article goes on to argue for inviting students to access local archives and create case studies of figures whose experiences challenge the Americanized histories of their region.
    • Does auditor assurance of client prosocial activities affect subsequent reporter-auditor negotiations?

      Douthit, Jeremy D.; Kachelmeier, Steven J.; Van Landuyt, Ben W.; Dhaliwal-Reidy School of Accountancy, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-04-10)
      In two incentivized experiments, we investigate the potential for auditor assurance of prosocial activities akin to Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) initiatives to bias the initial positions and final outcomes of subsequent reporter-auditor negotiations. This possibility arises from the psychological theory of licensing, with a prosocial activity providing the motivation for licensing, while auditor assurance provides a perceived opportunity for licensing. We find that the combination of a preliminary prosocial activity by the reporter with auditor assurance of that activity leads reporters to specify more aggressive initial negotiation positions, although it does not result in more lenient initial positions by the auditor. The final outcomes of reporter-auditor negotiations are biased in the reporter's favor in our first experiment, in which auditor assurance of a prosocial reporter activity is of a social and collaborative nature. This result does not extend to our second experiment in which auditor assurance is not collaborative, although we still observe more aggressive reporters. Overall, our research identifies aggressive reporting as a potential unintended consequence of ESG assurance, especially when that assurance is of a more collaborative variety.
    • Braiding together Critical Race Feminista participatory action research: conceptual and methodological considerations

      López, Ruth M.; The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-02-23)
      In this article, I discuss conceptual and methodological considerations for the design and implementation of Critical Race Feminista Participatory Action Research (Critical Race Feminista-PAR) projects in higher education. I share some theoretical considerations of Critical Race Feminista praxis and methodologies that have been made by scholars who bridge critical race theories and Chicana feminist epistemology and then offer considerations for areas of expansion for Critical Race Feminista methodology. I also provide an overview of the social justice and liberatory origins of PAR and examples of other “braided” approaches of PAR that help inform Critical Race Feminista-PAR. To illustrate the application of this methodology, I provide an example from a previous study I co-constructed along with Latina higher education staff, administrators, and students that had elements of Critical Race Feminista-PAR. This article has implications for how Critical Race Feminista-PAR can be used to address social problems in higher education and beyond.
    • Radical cyberfeminists as language planners: South Korea’s Womad

      Lee, Kathy; Yang, Sunyoung; Department of East Asian Studies, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-03-13)
      In response to tumultuous gender relations in South Korea, many feminist and anti-feminist communities have increased their online presence since the 2010s. At the extreme end of this spectrum is the radical cyberfeminist community Womad. In this paper, we examine Womad’s online dictionary, which prescribes specific language to be used on their platform, which we interpret as an example of micro language planning. Our analysis of their dictionary reveals that similar to previous feminist language reforms around the world, Womad’s new words correct lexical asymmetries that present men as the norm and eliminate words that invoke patriarchal connotations. However, what distinguishes Womad’s language reform are their words that denigrate men, which sharply contrasts with linguistic anti-sexism. Womad’s separatist and consciousness-raising agenda is distinctly evident in their dictionary, and as a radical group, they are not motivated by widespread acceptance of their reform. Instead, their intention is to combat patriarchy by challenging existing gender norms and expanding the space for diverse feminisms through their radical approach. Specifically, Womad’s transgressive language serves as an important tool in achieving their goals. Due to policing by other users and administrators, Womad can ensure that their language planning efforts are maintained within their community.
    • Perceptions of Postsecondary Experiences and Supports That Advance the Personal Goals of Students With Extensive Support Needs

      Lansey, Kirsten R.; MacFarland, Stephanie Z. C.; Antia, Shirin D.; The University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-03-13)
      Inclusive postsecondary education (PSE) programs at institutions of higher education are emerging as opportunities for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), including those with extensive support needs (ESN), to progress toward their desired outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to understand the experiences and supports that current and recently graduated students in a dual enrollment nonresidential PSE program perceive as contributing to their self-directed employment, education, and social goals. Furthermore, this study explored how students’ perceived PSE affected their goal achievement and future lives. Findings from interviews with 10 participants with IDD, including eight with ESN, revealed that obtaining and maintaining competitive employment was negatively impacted by COVID-19, paid employment during PSE was not aligned with participants’ employment goals, internship experiences led to participants learning about their work preferences and changing their employment goals, and peer mentors impacted the achievement of participant’s employment, education, and social goals. Implications for practice and research and study limitations are described.
    • A novel computational platform to analyze left atrial voltage acquired from electroanatomic mapping

      Indik, Julia H; Altamirano Ufion, Alvaro; Whitaker, Bradford; Geyer, Travis; Balakrishnan, Mahesh; Butt, Khurram; Klewer, Jacob; Indik, Robert A; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona; et al. (Elsevier B.V., 2024-02-13)
    • Transcatheter Treatment of Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Compression by a Pseudoaneurysm in Tetralogy of Fallot

      Takamatsu, Chelsea; Ibrahim, Ramzi; Corban, Michel T; Klewer, Scott E; Seckeler, Michael D; Department of Medicine, University of Arizona Tucson; Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona; Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), University of Arizona (Elsevier Inc., 2023-07-05)
    • Glucocorticoid response to naturalistic interactions between children and dogs

      Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; Carranza, Elizabeth; King, Katherine M; Flyer, Abigail C; Ossello, Gianna; Smith, Paige G; Steklis, Netzin G; Steklis, H Dieter; Connelly, Jessica J; Barnett, Melissa; et al. (Academic Press Inc., 2024-03-13)
      Although research has shown that pets appear to provide certain types of social support to children, little is known about the physiological bases of these effects, especially in naturalistic contexts. In this study, we investigated the effect of free-form interactions between children (ages 8–10 years) and dogs on salivary cortisol concentrations in both species. We further investigated the role of the child-dog relationship by comparing interactions with the child's pet dog to interactions with an unfamiliar dog or a nonsocial control condition, and modeled associations between survey measures of the human-animal bond and children's physiological responses. In both children and dogs, salivary cortisol decreased from pre- to post-interaction; the effect was strongest for children interacting with an unfamiliar dog (compared to their pet dog) and for the pet dogs (compared to the unfamiliar dog). We found minimal evidence for associations between cortisol output and behaviors coded from video, but children scoring higher on survey measures of the human-animal bond exhibited the greatest reductions in cortisol when interacting with dogs. Self-reported loneliness was not related to cortisol or the human-animal bond, but measures of both loneliness and the human-animal bond were higher among children who participated after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, relative to those who participated before the pandemic. This study builds on previous work that investigated potential stress-buffering effects of human-animal interaction during explicit stressors and demonstrates important physiological correlates of naturalistic interactions between children and dogs, similar to those that occur in daily life.