Now showing items 1-20 of 8143

    • Spontaneous motor-behavior abnormalities in two models of neurodevelopmental disorders

      Andrew, David R; Moe, Mariah E; Chen, Dailu; Tello, Judith A; Doser, Rachel L; Conner, William E; Ghuman, Jaswinder K; Restifo, Linda L; Univ Arizona Hlth Sci, Dept Neurol; Univ Arizona, Ctr Insect Sci; et al. (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-11-09)
      Mutations in hundreds of genes cause neurodevelopmental disorders with abnormal motor behavior alongside cognitive deficits. Boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading monogenic cause of intellectual disability, often display repetitive behaviors, a core feature of autism. By direct observation and manual analysis, we characterized spontaneous-motor-behavior phenotypes of Drosophila dfmr1 mutants, an established model for FXS. We recorded individual 1-day-old adult flies, with mature nervous systems and prior to the onset of aging, in small arenas. We scored behavior using open-source video-annotation software to generate continuous activity timelines, which were represented graphically and quantitatively. Young dfmr1 mutants spent excessive time grooming, with increased bout number and duration; both were rescued by transgenic wild-type dfmr1+ . By two grooming-pattern measures, dfmr1-mutant flies showed elevated repetitions consistent with perseveration, which is common in FXS. In addition, the mutant flies display a preference for grooming posterior body structures, and an increased rate of grooming transitions from one site to another. We raise the possibility that courtship and circadian rhythm defects, previously reported for dfmr1 mutants, are complicated by excessive grooming. We also observed significantly increased grooming in CASK mutants, despite their dramatically decreased walking phenotype. The mutant flies, a model for human CASK-related neurodevelopmental disorders, displayed consistently elevated grooming indices throughout the assay, but transient locomotory activation immediately after placement in the arena. Based on published data identifying FMRP-target transcripts and functional analyses of mutations causing human genetic neurodevelopmental disorders, we propose the following proteins as candidate mediators of excessive repetitive behaviors in FXS: CaMKIIα, NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B, NLGN3, and SHANK3. Together, these fly-mutant phenotypes and mechanistic insights provide starting points for drug discovery to identify compounds that reduce dysfunctional repetitive behaviors.
    • Gigapixel and 1440-perspective extended-angle display by megapixel MEMS-SLM

      Hellman, Brandon; Lee, Ted; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Takashima, Yuzuru; Univ Arizona (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2020-09-04)
      Orders-of-magnitude increases are desired in the pixel count and density of spatial light modulators (SLMs) for next-gen displays. We present in-plane and simultaneous angular-spatial light modulation by a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based SLM, a digital micromirror device (DMD), to generate gigapixel output by time and angular multiplexing. Pulsed illumination synchronized to the micromirror actuation achieves pixel-implemented and diffraction-based angular modulation, and source multiplexing increases angular selectivity. We demonstrate 1440-perspective image output across a 43.9∘×1.8∘ FOV, 8-bit multi-perspective videos at 30 FPS, and multi-focal-plane image generation. We discuss scalability to terapixels and implications for near-to-eye displays.
    • Beyond ecosystem modeling: A roadmap to community cyberinfrastructure for ecological data‐model integration

      Fer, Istem; Gardella, Anthony K.; Shiklomanov, Alexey N.; Campbell, Eleanor E.; Cowdery, Elizabeth M.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Desai, Ankur; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Haynes, Katherine D.; et al. (Wiley, 2020-10-19)
      In an era of rapid global change, our ability to understand and predict Earth's natural systems is lagging behind our ability to monitor and measure changes in the biosphere. Bottlenecks to informing models with observations have reduced our capacity to fully exploit the growing volume and variety of available data. Here, we take a critical look at the information infrastructure that connects ecosystem modeling and measurement efforts, and propose a roadmap to community cyberinfrastructure development that can reduce the divisions between empirical research and modeling and accelerate the pace of discovery. A new era of data‐model integration requires investment in accessible, scalable, and transparent tools that integrate the expertise of the whole community, including both modelers and empiricists. This roadmap focuses on five key opportunities for community tools: the underlying foundations of community cyberinfrastructure; data ingest; calibration of models to data; model‐data benchmarking; and data assimilation and ecological forecasting. This community‐driven approach is a key to meeting the pressing needs of science and society in the 21st century.
    • High-throughput, image-based phenotyping reveals nutrient-dependent growth facilitation in a grass-legume mixture

      Ball, Kirsten Rae; Power, Sally Anne; Brien, Chris; Woodin, Sarah; Jewell, Nathaniel; Berger, Bettina; Pendall, Elise; Univ Arizona, Environm Sci (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-10-07)
      This study used high throughput, image-based phenotyping (HTP) to distinguish growth patterns, detect facilitation and interpret variations to nutrient uptake in a model mixed-pasture system in response to factorial low and high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application. HTP has not previously been used to examine pasture species in mixture. We used red-green-blue (RGB) imaging to obtain smoothed projected shoot area (sPSA) to predict absolute growth (AG) up to 70 days after planting (sPSA, DAP 70), to identify variation in relative growth rates (RGR, DAP 35-70) and detect overyielding (an increase in yield in mixture compared with monoculture, indicating facilitation) in a grass-legume model pasture. Finally, using principal components analysis we interpreted between species changes to HTP-derived temporal growth dynamics and nutrient uptake in mixtures and monocultures. Overyielding was detected in all treatments and was driven by both grass and legume. Our data supported expectations of more rapid grass growth and augmented nutrient uptake in the presence of a legume. Legumes grew more slowly in mixture and where growth became more reliant on soil P. Relative growth rate in grass was strongly associated with shoot N concentration, whereas legume RGR was not strongly associated with shoot nutrients. High throughput, image-based phenotyping was a useful tool to quantify growth trait variation between contrasting species and to this end is highly useful in understanding nutrient-yield relationships in mixed pasture cultivations.
    • HAZMAT VI: The Evolution of Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation Emitted from Early M Stars

      Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Schneider, Adam C.; Pagano, Isabella; Meadows, Victoria S.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-19)
      Quantifying the evolution of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 100-1000 A) emission is critical for assessing the evolution of planetary atmospheres and the habitability of M dwarf systems. Previous studies from the HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time (HAZMAT) program showed the far- and near-UV (FUV, NUV) emission from M stars at various stages of a stellar lifetime through photometric measurements from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The results revealed increased levels of short-wavelength emission that remain elevated for hundreds of millions of years. The trend for EUV flux as a function of age could not be determined empirically because absorption by the interstellar medium prevents access to the EUV wavelengths for the vast majority of stars. In this paper, we model the evolution of EUV flux from early M stars to address this observational gap. We present synthetic spectra spanning EUV to infrared wavelengths of 0.4 0.05 M-& x2609; stars at five distinct ages between 10 and 5000 Myr, computed with the PHOENIX atmosphere code and guided by the GALEX photometry. We model a range of EUV fluxes spanning two orders of magnitude, consistent with the observed spread in X-ray, FUV, and NUV flux at each epoch. Our results show that the stellar EUV emission from young M stars is 100 times stronger than field age M stars, and decreases as t(-1) after remaining constant for a few hundred million years. This decline stems from changes in the chromospheric temperature structure, which steadily shifts outward with time. Our models reconstruct the full spectrally and temporally resolved history of an M star's UV radiation, including the unobservable EUV radiation, which drives planetary atmospheric escape, directly impacting a planet's potential for habitability.
    • Superparticle Method for Simulating Collisions

      Nesvorný, David; Youdin, Andrew N.; Marschall, Raphael; Richardson, Derek C.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-26)
      For problems in astrophysics, planetary science, and beyond, numerical simulations are often limited to simulating fewer particles than in the real system. To model collisions, the simulated particles (a.k.a. superparticles) need to be inflated to represent a collectively large collisional cross section of real particles. Here we develop a superparticle-based method that replicates the kinetic energy loss during real-world collisions, implement it in an N-body code, and test it. The tests provide interesting insights into dynamics of self-gravitating collisional systems. They show how particle systems evolve over several freefall timescales to form central concentrations and equilibrated outer shells. The superparticle method can be extended to account for the accretional growth of objects during inelastic mergers.
    • Discovery and Rapid Follow-up Observations of the Unusual Type II SN 2018ivc in NGC 1068

      Bostroem, K. A.; Valenti, S.; Sand, D. J.; Andrews, J. E.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Galbany, L.; Pooley, D.; Amaro, R. C.; Smith, N.; Yang, S.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-21)
      We present the discovery and high-cadence follow-up observations of SN 2018ivc, an unusual SNe II that exploded in NGC 1068 (D = 10.1 Mpc). The light curve of SN 2018ivc declines piecewise-linearly, changing slope frequently, with four clear slope changes in the first 30 days of evolution. This rapidly changing light curve indicates that interaction between the circumstellar material and ejecta plays a significant role in the evolution. Circumstellar interaction is further supported by a strong X-ray detection. The spectra are rapidly evolving and dominated by hydrogen, helium, and calcium emission lines. We identify a rare high-velocity emission-line feature blueshifted at similar to 7800 (in H alpha, H beta, P beta, P gamma, He i, and Ca ii), which is visible from day 18 until at least day 78 and could be evidence of an asymmetric progenitor or explosion. From the overall similarity between SN 2018ivc and SN 1996al, the H alpha equivalent width of its parent H ii region, and constraints from pre-explosion archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we find that the progenitor of SN 2018ivc could be as massive as 52 but is more likely <12. SN 2018ivc demonstrates the importance of the early discovery and rapid follow-up observations of nearby supernovae to study the physics and progenitors of these cosmic explosions.
    • Tuning the Exospace Weather Radio for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

      Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Fraschetti, Federico; Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer; Vocks, Christian; Poppenhäger, Katja; Moschou, Sofia P.; Yadav, Rakesh K.; Manchester, Ward B. IV; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-22)
      Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on stars other than the Sun have proven very difficult to detect. One promising pathway lies in the detection of type II radio bursts. Their appearance and distinctive properties are associated with the development of an outward propagating CME-driven shock. However, dedicated radio searches have not been able to identify these transient features in other stars. Large Alfven speeds and the magnetic suppression of CMEs in active stars have been proposed to render stellar eruptions "radio-quiet." Employing 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we study the distribution of the coronal Alfven speed, focusing on two cases representative of a young Sun-like star and a mid-activity M-dwarf (Proxima Centauri). These results are compared with a standard solar simulation and used to characterize the shock-prone regions in the stellar corona and wind. Furthermore, using a flux-rope eruption model, we drive realistic CME events within our M-dwarf simulation. We consider eruptions with different energies to probe the regimes of weak and partial CME magnetic confinement. While these CMEs are able to generate shocks in the corona, those are pushed much farther out compared to their solar counterparts. This drastically reduces the resulting type II radio burst frequencies down to the ionospheric cutoff, which impedes their detection with ground-based instrumentation.
    • The Lazy Giants: APOGEE Abundances Reveal Low Star Formation Efficiencies in the Magellanic Clouds

      Nidever, David L.; Hasselquist, Sten; Hayes, Christian R.; Hawkins, Keith; Povick, Joshua; Majewski, Steven R.; Smith, Verne V.; Anguiano, Borja; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-28)
      We report the first APOGEE metallicities and alpha-element abundances measured for 3600 red giant stars spanning a large radial range of both the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds, the largest Milky Way (MW) dwarf galaxies. Our sample is an order of magnitude larger than that of previous studies and extends to much larger radial distances. These are the first results presented that make use of the newly installed southern APOGEE instrument on the du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Our unbiased sample of the LMC spans a large range in metallicity, from [Fe/H] = -0.2 to very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] -2.5, the most metal-poor Magellanic Cloud (MC) stars detected to date. The LMC [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution is very flat over a large metallicity range but rises by similar to 0.1 dex at -1.0 < [Fe/H] less than or similar to -0.5. We interpret this as a sign of the known recent increase in MC star formation activity and are able to reproduce the pattern with a chemical evolution model that includes a recent "starburst." At the metal-poor end, we capture the increase of [alpha/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] and constrain the "alpha-knee" to [Fe/H] less than or similar to -2.2 in both MCs, implying a low star formation efficiency of similar to 0.01 Gyr(-1). The MC knees are more metal-poor than those of less massive MW dwarf galaxies such as Fornax, Sculptor, or Sagittarius. One possible interpretation is that the MCs formed in a lower-density environment than the MW, a hypothesis that is consistent with the paradigm that the MCs fell into the MW's gravitational potential only recently.
    • Keck/NIRC2 L’-band Imaging of Jovian-mass Accreting Protoplanets around PDS 70

      Wang, Jason J.; Ginzburg, Sivan; Ren, Bin; Wallack, Nicole; Gao, Peter; Mawet, Dimitri; Bond, Charlotte Z.; Cetre, Sylvain; Wizinowich, Peter; De Rosa, Robert J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-18)
      We present L'-band imaging of the PDS 70 planetary system with Keck/NIRC2 using the new infrared pyramid wave front sensor. We detected both PDS 70 b and c in our images, as well as the front rim of the circumstellar disk. After subtracting off a model of the disk, we measured the astrometry and photometry of both planets. Placing priors based on the dynamics of the system, we estimated PDS 70 b to have a semimajor axis of 20(-4)(+3) au and PDS 70 c to have a semimajor axis of 34(-6)(+12) au (95% credible interval). We fit the spectral energy distribution (SED) of both planets. For PDS 70 b, we were able to place better constraints on the red half of its SED than previous studies and inferred the radius of the photosphere to be 2-3 R-Jup. The SED of PDS 70 c is less well constrained, with a range of total luminosities spanning an order of magnitude. With our inferred radii and luminosities, we used evolutionary models of accreting protoplanets to derive a mass of PDS 70 b between 2 and 4 M-Jup and a mean mass accretion rate between 3 x 10(-7) and 8 x 10(-7) M-Jup/yr. For PDS 70 c, we computed a mass between 1 and 3 M-Jup and mean mass accretion rate between 1 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7) M-Jup/yr. The mass accretion rates imply dust accretion timescales short enough to hide strong molecular absorption features in both planets' SEDs.
    • A Wide-orbit Exoplanet OGLE-2012-BLG-0838Lb

      Poleski, R.; Suzuki, Daisuke; Udalski, A.; Xie, Xiaojia; Yee, J. C.; Koshimoto, Naoki; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-14)
      We present the discovery of a planet on a very wide orbit in the microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0838. The signal of the planet is well separated from the main peak of the event and the planet-star projected separation is found to be twice the Einstein ring radius, which corresponds to a projected separation of 4 au. Similar planets around low-mass stars are very hard to find using any technique other than microlensing. We discuss microlensing model fitting in detail and discuss the prospects for measuring the mass and distance of the lens system directly.
    • A Comparative Analysis of Tumors and Plasma Circulating Tumor DNA in 145 Advanced Cancer Patients Annotated by 3 Core Cellular Processes

      Larson, Kristian; Kannaiyan, Radhamani; Pandey, Ritu; Chen, Yuliang; Babiker, Hani M; Mahadevan, Daruka; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Cellular & Mol Med, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Early Phase Clin Trials Program, Canc Ctr (MDPI, 2020-03-16)
      Matched-targeted and immune checkpoint therapies have improved survival in cancer patients, but tumor heterogeneity contributes to drug resistance. Our study categorized gene mutations from next generation sequencing (NGS) into three core processes. This annotation helps decipher complex biologic interactions to guide therapy. We collected NGS data on 145 patients who have failed standard therapy (2016 to 2018). One hundred and forty two patients had data for tissue (Caris MI/X) and plasma cell-free circulating tumor DNA (Guardant360) platforms. The mutated genes were categorized into cell fate (CF), cell survival (CS), and genome maintenance (GM). Comparative analysis was performed for concordance and discordance, unclassified mutations, trends in TP53 alterations, and PD-L1 expression. Two gene mutation maps were generated to compare each NGS platform. Mutated genes predominantly matched to CS with concordance between Guardant360 (64.4%) and Caris (51.5%). TP53 alterations comprised a significant proportion of the mutation pool in Caris and Guardant360, 14.7% and 13.1%, respectively. Twenty-six potentially actionable gene alterations were detected from matching ctDNA to Caris unclassified alterations. The CS core cellular process was the most prevalent in our study population. Clinical trials are warranted to investigate biomarkers for the three core cellular processes in advanced cancer patients to define the next best therapies.
    • Maternal Bonding Predicts Actigraphy-Measured Sleep Parameters in Depressed and Nondepressed Adults

      Rojo-Wissar, Darlynn M; McQuaid, John R; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Gengler, Devan N; Haynes, Patricia L; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc., 2020)
      Associations between subjective maternal bonding recalled from the first 16 years of life and current sleep indices were investigated in a clinical sample of 34 adults with major depressive disorder and 36 normal controls (n = 70) using the self-report parental bonding instrument and wrist actigraphy. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated that reports of maternal bonding indices were associated with several sleep indices in adulthood independent of depression status. Higher levels of maternal care were associated with greater time in bed and total sleep time. Higher levels of maternal overprotection were associated with fewer awakenings. Findings indicate that reported maternal bonding characteristics in childhood are related to objectively measured sleep characteristics in adulthood, independent of mood state.
    • High-Resolution Computed Tomography Evaluation of Interstitial Lung Disease for the Pulmonologist

      Nyquist, Alan; Mushtaq, Raza; Gill, Faryal; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Univ Arizona, Banner Univ, Med Ctr, Div Pulm & Crit Care, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Radiol, Banner Univ, Div Diagnost Radiol, Med Ctr (SPRINGER, 2020-10-20)
      Purpose of Review Interstitial lung disease encompasses variety of entities that have diverse clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment options. It is imperative to identify the specific disease early as delays in diagnosis can lead to irreversible damage. Studies demonstrate that treatment with certain medications and avoidance of exposures that potentiate injury can reduce disease progression. Recent Findings The use of high-resolution computed tomography has become essential for the evaluation of interstitial lung disease. Being able to accurately identify the characteristic patterns of abnormalities can lead to expedited diagnosis and has obviated the need of other diagnostic studies such as lung biopsy. High-resolution computed tomography imaging of the chest has changed the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung diseases. Given the numerous entities that compose this group and options for individualized treatment plans, it is imperative for pulmonologists to recognize the defining imaging characteristics.
    • Targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in fibrosis

      AlQudah, Mohammad; Hale, Taben M; Czubryt, Michael P; Univ Arizona, Dept Basic Med Sci, Coll Med Phoenix (ELSEVIER, 2020-05-16)
      Fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components such as collagen in tis-sues or organs. Fibrosis can develop in the heart, kidneys, liver, skin or any other body organ in response to injury or maladaptive reparative processes, reducing overall function and leading eventually to organ failure. A variety of cellular and molecular signaling mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) interacts with the potent Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF beta) pro-fibrotic pathway to mediate fibrosis in many cell and tissue types. RAAS consists of both classical and alternative pathways, which act to potentiate or antagonize fibrotic signaling mechanisms, respectively. This review provides an overview of recent literature describing the roles of RAAS in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and skin, and with a focus on RAAS interactions with TGF beta sig-naling. Targeting RAAS to combat fibrosis represents a promising therapeutic approach, particularly given the lack of strategies for treating fibrosis as its own entity, thus animal and clinical studies to examine the impact of natural and synthetic substances to alter RAAS signaling as a means to treat fibrosis are reviewed as well. (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Empirical evidence for resilience of tropical forest photosynthesis in a warmer world

      Smith, Marielle N; Taylor, Tyeen C; van Haren, Joost; Rosolem, Rafael; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Adams, John; Wu, Jin; de Oliveira, Raimundo C; da Silva, Rodrigo; de Araujo, Alessandro C; et al. (NATURE RESEARCH, 2020-10-12)
      Tropical forests may be vulnerable to climate change1-3 if photosynthetic carbon uptake currently operates near a high temperature limit4-6. Predicting tropical forest function requires understanding the relative contributions of two mechanisms of high-temperature photosynthetic declines: stomatal limitation (H1), an indirect response due to temperature-associated changes in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD)7, and biochemical restrictions (H2), a direct temperature response8,9. Their relative control predicts different outcomes-H1 is expected to diminish with stomatal responses to future co-occurring elevated atmospheric [CO2], whereas H2 portends declining photosynthesis with increasing temperatures. Distinguishing the two mechanisms at high temperatures is therefore critical, but difficult because VPD is highly correlated with temperature in natural settings. We used a forest mesocosm to quantify the sensitivity of tropical gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) to future temperature regimes while constraining VPD by controlling humidity. We then analytically decoupled temperature and VPD effects under current climate with flux-tower-derived GEP trends in situ from four tropical forest sites. Both approaches showed consistent, negative sensitivity of GEP to VPD but little direct response to temperature. Importantly, in the mesocosm at low VPD, GEP persisted up to 38 °C, a temperature exceeding projections for tropical forests in 2100 (ref. 10). If elevated [CO2] mitigates VPD-induced stomatal limitation through enhanced water-use efficiency as hypothesized9,11, tropical forest photosynthesis may have a margin of resilience to future warming.
    • Earth-Like: An education & outreach tool for exploring the diversity of planets like our own

      Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Ishimaru, Kana; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Foriel, Julien; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2020-01-13)
      Earth-Like is an interactive website and twitter bot that allows users to explore changes in the average global surface temperature of an Earth-like planet due to variations in the surface oceans and emerged land coverage, rate of volcanism (degassing) and the level of the received solar radiation. The temperature is calculated using a simple carbon-silicate cycle model to change the level of CO(2)in the atmosphere based on the chosen parameters. The model can achieve a temperature range exceeding -100 degrees C to 100 degrees C by varying all three parameters, including freeze-thaw cycles for a planet with our present-day volcanism rate and emerged land fraction situated at the outer edge of the habitable zone. To increase engagement, the planet is visualized by using a neural network to render an animated globe, based on the calculated average surface temperature and chosen values for land fraction and volcanism. The website and bot can be found at and on twitter as @earthlikeworld. Initial feedback via a user survey suggested that Earth-Like is effective at demonstrating that minor changes in planetary properties can strongly impact the surface environment. The goal of the project is to increase understanding of the challenges we face in finding another habitable planet due to the likely diversity of conditions on rocky worlds within our Galaxy.
    • A Cognitive Uncoupling: Masculinity Threats and the Rejection of Relationship Interdependence

      Lamarche, Veronica M.; Atkinson, Ciara; Croft, Alyssa; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2020-10-12)
      What happens when a primary resource people draw from in times of need is at odds with maintaining a threatened, yet valued, identity? Four studies (N-total= 806) examined whether men cognitively disengage from romantic relationships following masculinity threats. As hypothesized, romantically attached men reported less closeness, commitment, and interdependence in their romantic relationships (Study 1), and both single and romantically attached men expressed less positive commitment beliefs (Study 2) following masculinity threats. Supporting a strategy of distancing from interdependence to protect masculinity, perceivers evaluated men who used more interdependent language to describe their relationships as less masculine and more feminine (Studies 3a and 3b). However, exhibiting less interdependence did not restore third-party evaluations of masculinity following a public masculinity threat (Study 3b). Thus, subverting relationship interdependence to protect perceptions of masculinity is an ineffective strategy for restoring masculinity in the eyes of others and may cause unnecessary strain on relationships.
    • Influences of Parent Engagement in Early Childhood Education Centers and the Home on Kindergarten School Readiness

      Barnett, Melissa A.; Paschall, Katherine W.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Cutshaw, Christina A.; Warren, Shannon M.; Univ Arizona (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-06-05)
      This study examined how practices used by early childhood education (ECE) providers to engage parents (e.g., sending home information about the child), parent school involvement in ECE centers (e.g., volunteering, attending meetings) and parent engagement in home learning activities (e.g., reading, stimulating cognitive development) were linked to children's kindergarten academic readiness. Data were from four-year-old children enrolled in center-based ECE settings in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N=2250). Path analyses indicated that ECE parent engagement practices were linked to greater parent engagement in home and school settings. Further, ECE parent engagement practices were indirectly associated with kindergarten academic readiness through increases in the quantity of parent engagement in home learning activities. Connections between ECE and home engagement were strongest for families with low household incomes. These results suggest that facilitating ECE practices to promote parent engagement and increasing home learning activities may bolster children's school readiness. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Self-generating lower bounds and continuation for the Boltzmann equation

      Henderson, Christopher; Snelson, Stanley; Tarfulea, Andrei; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-10-13)
      For the spatially inhomogeneous, non-cutoff Boltzmann equation posed in the whole space R-x(3), we establish pointwise lower bounds that appear instantaneously even if the initial data contains vacuum regions. Our lower bounds depend only on the initial data and upper bounds for the mass and energy densities of the solution. As an application, we improve the weakest known continuation criterion for large-data solutions, by removing the assumptions of mass bounded below and entropy bounded above.