Now showing items 1-20 of 14041

    • Associations between perceptions of relationship quality and markers of inflammation and insulin resistance among couples coping with cancer

      Skiba, Meghan B.; Dieckmann, Nathan F.; Lyons, Karen S.; Winters-Stone, Kerri M.; College of Nursing, Biobehavioral Health Science Division, University of Arizona; University of Arizona Cancer Center (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-11-26)
      Summary: Among married couples living with breast and prostate cancer, positive perceptions of relationship quality by both survivors and their spouses were associated with lower inflammation or insulin resistance in their partner. Our data support evidence that health within couples is both interdependent and transactional and suggests that one member’s perception of the relationship is associated with biologic changes in one’s partner, leading to better physical health of the couple. These findings may provide a biologic underpinning to observations of an inverse relationship between relational satisfaction and overall mortality and underscore the need for a dyadic approach to health. Purpose: Couples’ health and health behaviors are intertwined, where the health of one partner can influence the health of the other but the biologic underpinnings are not known. We examined the associations between relational health and markers of inflammation and insulin resistance in couples coping with breast or prostate cancer. Methods: Participants (90 cancer survivor-spouse dyads) completed self-report measures of relational health including Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 (relationship quality), Dyadic Coping Inventory (communication), and shared physical activity, as well as Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (individual physical activity). Inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured in serum samples. Structural equation modeling including demographic and clinical covariate controls was used to estimate separate actor and partner effects of relationship quality, communication, and physical activity on CRP and HOMA-IR. Results: Participants were aged 63.1 ± 10.4 years with an average relationship duration of 30.0 ± 1.1 years. Higher survivor perceived relationship quality was associated with lower spouse CRP (b = − 0.07; 95%CI: − 0.13, − 0.01), whereas higher spouse perceived relationship quality was associated with lower survivor HOMA-IR (b = − 0.07; 95%CI: − 0.13, − 0.03). There were no other significant actor or partner effects observed. Conclusions: Among cancer survivor-spouse dyads, how one member of the couple perceives the quality of the relationship impacts disease biomarkers in the other, providing preliminary evidence for biological linkage between relational health and chronic disease risk. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Relationship quality may positively influence biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance in couples coping with breast and prostate cancer. Dyadic approaches to optimize survivorship health may be warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03630354, 08/14/2018; Open Science Framework (https://bit.ly/3S4rUtJ).
    • Large Scale Enrichment and Statistical Cyber Characterization of Network Traffic

      Kawaminami, Ivan; Estrada, Arminda; Elsakkary, Youssef; Jananthan, Hayden; Buluc, Aydin; Davis, Tim; Grant, Daniel; Jones, Michael; Meiners, Chad; Morris, Andrew; et al. (IEEE, 2022-09-19)
      Modern network sensors continuously produce enormous quantities of raw data that are beyond the capacity of human analysts. Cross-correlation of network sensors increases this challenge by enriching every network event with additional metadata. These large volumes of enriched network data present opportunities to statistically characterize network traffic and quickly answer a key question: 'What are the primary cyber characteristics of my network data?' The Python GraphBLAS and PyD4M analysis frameworks enable anonymized statistical analysis to be performed quickly and efficiently on very large network data sets. This approach is tested using billions of anonymized network data samples from the largest Internet observatory (CAIDA Telescope) and tens of millions of anonymized records from the largest commercially available background enrichment capability (GreyNoise). The analysis confirms that most of the enriched variables follow expected heavy-tail distributions and that a large fraction of the network traffic is due to a small number of cyber activities. This information can simplify the cyber analysts' task by enabling prioritization of cyber activities based on statistical prevalence. Los sensores de red modernos producen enormes cantidades de datos sin procesar que están más allá de la capacidad del análisis humano. Una correlación cruzada de sensores de red se convierte en un desafío al enriquecer cada evento de red con metadatos adicionales. Estos grandes volúmenes de datos de red enriquecidos presentan una oportunidad para caracterizar estadísticamente el tráfico de red y responder a la pregunta: "¿Cuáles son las principales características cibernéticas de mis datos de red?" Los esquemas de análisis de Python GraphBLAS y D4M permiten realizar análisis estadísticos anónimos, rápidos y eficientes en conjuntos grandes de datos de red. Este enfoque se prueba utilizando miles de millones de muestras de datos de red anónimos del observatorio de Internet más grande (Telescopio CAIDA) y decenas de millones de registros anónimos del fondo comercial con la mayor capacidad de enriquecimiento (GreyNoise). El análisis confirma que la mayoría de las variables enriquecidas siguen las distribuciones de cola pesada y que una gran fracción del tráfico de red se debe a una pequeña cantidad de actividades cibernéticas. Esta información puede simplificar la tarea de los analistas cibernéticos al permitir la priorización de las actividades cibernéticas en función de la prevalencia estadística.
    • Genome-wide association study of a lipedema phenotype among women in the UK Biobank identifies multiple genetic risk factors

      Klimentidis, Yann C.; Chen, Zhao; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Grigoriadis, Dionysios; Sackey, Ege; Pittman, Alan; Ostergaard, Pia; Herbst, Karen L.; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-11-16)
      Lipedema is a common disorder characterized by excessive deposition of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the legs, hips, and buttocks, mainly occurring in adult women. Although it appears to be heritable, no specific genes have yet been identified. To identify potential genetic risk factors for lipedema, we used bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric data from the UK Biobank to identify women with and without a lipedema phenotype. Specifically, we identified women with both a high percentage of fat in the lower limbs and a relatively small waist, adjusting for hip circumference. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this phenotype, and performed multiple sensitivity GWAS. In an independent case/control study of lipedema based on strict clinical criteria, we attempted to replicate our top hits. We identified 18 significant loci (p < 5 × 10−9), several of which have previously been identified in GWAS of waist-to-hip ratio with larger effects in women. Two loci (VEGFA and GRB14-COBLL1) were significantly associated with lipedema in the independent replication study. Follow-up analyses suggest an enrichment of genes expressed in blood vessels and adipose tissue, among other tissues. Our findings provide a starting point towards better understanding the genetic and physiological basis of lipedema.
    • Plume-Induced Flood Basalts on Hesperian Mars: An Investigation of Hesperia Planum

      Broquet, Adrien; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Elsevier, 2022-11-08)
      Hesperian Mars was characterized by a unique style of geodynamic activity that left crucial volcano-tectonic records in the form of extensive flood lavas covered by wrinkle ridges. Yet, little is known about the context of their formation. Here, we perform a tectonic and geophysical investigation of Hesperia Planum, a 1700-km- diameter volcanic plain covered by wrinkle ridges. Our tectonic analysis reveals that the planum has the highest density of wrinkle ridges on the planet and a characteristic compressional peak strain of about 3.20×10-3, almost 2 times larger than typical Hesperian compressional strains. We invert gravity and topography data and find that simple crustal loading and volcanism cannot explain the tectonic record. An additional source of deformation is thus required. We demonstrate that a loading sequence of plume-induced uplift, volcanism, and subsidence, following an evolutionary path similar to flood basalt provinces on Earth better fits the observations. This plume model is able to explain the peak strain, crustal thinning, and low relief of Hesperia Planum. The inferred plume head size (~1400 km) and temperature anomaly (~320 K) are consistent with large terrestrial plumes. Based on a fit to the tectonic record, we determine a plume center location that correlates with a cluster of wrinkle ridges, local crustal thinning, and a circular magnetic low, where the latter could be the result of a thermal demagnetization of the lithosphere in the presence of the ascending plume. Our analysis suggests that scattered mantle plumes could be at the origin of Hesperia Planum and other late Noachian to early Hesperian volcanic provinces within the highlands.
    • Carpal tunnel mechanics and its relevance to carpal tunnel syndrome

      Li, Zong-Ming; Jordan, David B; Hand Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona; Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona (Elsevier, 2023)
      The carpal tunnel is an elaborate biomechanical structure whose pathomechanics plays an essential role in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this article is to review the movement related biomechanics of the carpal tunnel together with its anatomical and morphological features, and to describe the pathomechanics and pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Topics of discussion include biomechanics of the median nerve, flexor tendons, subsynovial tissue, transverse carpal ligament, carpal tunnel pressure, and morphological properties, as well as mechanisms for biomechanical improvement and physiological restoration. It is our hope that the biomechanical knowledge of the carpal tunnel will improve the understanding and management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
    • Comparative studies of novel biooxidation process to low-grade sulphide gold ores

      Ahn, Junmo; Wu, Jiajia; Lee, Jaeheon; Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-11-22)
      The Sand Farming is one of novel biooxidation processes suitable for sulphide oxidation of low-grade refractory gold ores. It has been previously proven to be feasible and more efficient compared to other conventional sulphide oxidation processes. In this study, the Sand Farming was compared with conventional tank biooxidation to investigate biooxidation behaviors on ores with different mineralogy and compare the ultimate gold recovery. Ore samples were tested for Sand Farming biooxidation. Conventional tank biooxidation was also compared as the baseline. After each biooxidation was completed, cyanidation was conducted for gold extraction. The Sand Farming achieved the gold recovery of 75% from high grade with higher sulphur content sample (Sample A) and 68% from low grade with lower sulphur content sample (Sample B), slightly lower than tank biooxidation of 83% and 85%, respectively. Sand Farming can be an alternative to several sulphide oxidation processes with better overall economics.
    • Landcover change and habitat quality mediate impacts of temperature and precipitation on population dynamics of a threatened aridland predator

      Flesch, A. D.; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2022-11-23)
      Climate and landcover change can have synergistic impacts on wildlife populations, but the pervasiveness of these threats and factors that buffer them remain unclear despite important implications for conservation. I evaluated the additive and interactive effects of spatiotemporal variation in temperature, precipitation, and landcover change on annual territory occupancy, colonization, and extinction of a threatened top-predator, the ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum), across a vast binational region of the Sonoran Desert over 16 years. I also assessed how local habitat quality and regional population size mediate impacts of these stressors. Despite significant bivariate associations between occupancy and temperature, precipitation, and landcover change, evidence for interactions was much greater than for additive effects. Occupancy of territories imbedded in increasingly disturbed landscapes declined at greater rates with warming winter temperatures, but the temperature had little effect in intact landscapes suggesting they buffer impacts of climate warming. Occupancy increased markedly with precipitation due likely to major positive impacts on prey, but again, interactive effects were stronger given territories of higher quality amplified benefits of precipitation. Impacts of landcover change and habitat quality on extinction depended markedly on regional population sizes. When populations were small and few potential colonists were present, high-quality habitat and low landcover change failed to reduce extinction. When populations were large, however, high-quality habitat and more intact landscapes, which best foster dispersal, reduced extinction. Hence, complex interacting processes linked to the effects of precipitation and habitat quality on carrying capacity, landcover change on habitat connectivity and vulnerability to rising temperatures, and local population sizes simultaneously drove dynamics. Efforts to identify and protect high-quality habitat and limit landcover change can enhance conservation but will be most efficient in intact landscapes. Efforts to enhance local habitat quality and quantity, and directly augment populations should consider broader landscape contexts linked to habitat connectivity and potential source populations.
    • NRF2 and Diabetes: The Good, the Bad, and the Complex

      Dodson, Matthew; Shakya, Aryatara; Anandhan, Annadurai; Chen, Jinjing; Garcia, Joe G N; Zhang, Donna D; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona; Department of Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences, University of Arizona; Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona (American Diabetes Association, 2022)
      Despite decades of scientific effort, diabetes continues to represent an incredibly complex and difficult disease to treat. This is due in large part to the multifactorial nature of disease onset and progression and the multiple organ systems affected. An increasing body of scientific evidence indicates that a key mediator of diabetes progression is NRF2, a critical transcription factor that regulates redox, protein, and metabolic homeostasis. Importantly, while experimental studies have confirmed the critical nature of proper NRF2 function in preventing the onset of diabetic outcomes, we have only just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the mechanisms by which NRF2 modulates diabetes progression, particularly across different causative contexts. One reason for this is the contradictory nature of the current literature, which can often be accredited to model discrepancies, as well as whether NRF2 is activated in an acute or chronic manner. Furthermore, despite therapeutic promise, there are no current NRF2 activators in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with diabetes. In this review, we briefly introduce the transcriptional programs regulated by NRF2 as well as how NRF2 itself is regulated. We also review the current literature regarding NRF2 modulation of diabetic phenotypes across the different diabetes subtypes, including a brief discussion of contradictory results, as well as what is needed to progress the NRF2 diabetes field forward.
    • Clinical and Socioeconomic Determinants of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor Prescription at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

      Tran, Jeffrey S; Loveland, Macklin G; Alamer, Ahmad; Piña, Ileana L; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Department of Medicine, University of Arizona (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2022-11-15)
      Of the 136 144 patients included in analysis, 12.6% were prescribed an ARNI at discharge. The dominant determinants of ARNI prescription were ARNI use while inpatient (odds ratio [OR], 72 [95% CI, 58-89]; P<0.001) and taking an ARNI before hospitalization (OR 9 [95% CI, 7-13]; P<0.001). Having an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)/ARNI contraindication was associated with lower likelihood of ARNI prescription at discharge (OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.10-0.12]; P<0.001). Socioeconomic factors associated with lower likelihood of ARNI prescription included having no insurance (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.50-0.72]; P<0.001) and living in a ZIP Code identified as distressed (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.70-0.93]; P=0.010). The rate of ARNI prescription is increasing with time (OR, 2 [95% CI, 1.8-2.3]; P<0.001 for patients discharged in 2020 as opposed to 2017), but the disparity in prescription rates between distressed and prosperous communities appears to be increasing.
    • Trade‐Off between Second‐ and Third‐Order Nonlinearities, Ultrafast Free Carrier Absorption and Material Damage in Silicon Nanoparticles

      Rudenko, Anton; Han, Aoxue; Moloney, Jerome V.; Arizona Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Arizona; Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2022-11-15)
      Reaching the optimal second- and third-order nonlinear conversion efficiencies while avoiding undesirable free carrier absorption losses and material damage in ultrashort laser-excited nanostructures is a challenging obstacle in all-dielectric ultrafast nanophotonics. In order to elucidate the main aspects of this problem, a multi-physical model is developed, coupling nonlinear Maxwell equations supplied by surface and bulk nonlinearities with free carrier hydrodynamic equations for electron–hole plasma kinetics and electron-ion transfer for silicon. The maximum feasible efficiencies for a single spherical particle supporting different electric and magnetic resonances are compared, and the harmonic yields are further optimized by tuning lattice resonances in a periodic arrangement of nanoparticles. Results support the dominant role of magnetic dipole and quadrupole contributions in the enhancement of the third harmonic and the electric dipole for the second harmonic, as well as the possibility to further improve the conversion of both harmonics simultaneously at least by two orders of magnitude by designing properly the resonant metasurface.
    • Mitigating pseudoreplication and bias in resource selection functions with autocorrelation‐informed weighting

      Alston, Jesse M.; Fleming, Christen H.; Kays, Roland; Streicher, Jarryd P.; Downs, Colleen T.; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Reineking, Björn; Calabrese, Justin M.; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2022-11-20)
      Resource selection functions (RSFs) are among the most commonly used statistical tools in both basic and applied animal ecology. They are typically parameterized using animal tracking data, and advances in animal tracking technology have led to increasing levels of autocorrelation between locations in such data sets. Because RSFs assume that data are independent and identically distributed, such autocorrelation can cause misleadingly narrow confidence intervals and biased parameter estimates. Data thinning, generalized estimating equations and step selection functions (SSFs) have been suggested as techniques for mitigating the statistical problems posed by autocorrelation, but these approaches have notable limitations that include statistical inefficiency, unclear or arbitrary targets for adequate levels of statistical independence, constraints in input data and (in the case of SSFs) scale-dependent inference. To remedy these problems, we introduce a method for likelihood weighting of animal locations to mitigate the negative consequences of autocorrelation on RSFs. In this study, we demonstrate that this method weights each observed location in an animal's movement track according to its level of non-independence, expanding confidence intervals and reducing bias that can arise when there are missing data in the movement track. Ecologists and conservation biologists can use this method to improve the quality of inferences derived from RSFs. We also provide a complete, annotated analytical workflow to help new users apply our method to their own animal tracking data using the ctmm R package.
    • Subtask analysis of process data through a predictive model

      Wang, Zhi; Tang, Xueying; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2022-11)
      Response process data collected from human–computer interactive items contain detailed information about respondents' behavioural patterns and cognitive processes. Such data are valuable sources for analysing respondents' problem-solving strategies. However, the irregular data format and the complex structure make standard statistical tools difficult to apply. This article develops a computationally efficient method for exploratory analysis of such process data. The new approach segments a lengthy individual process into a sequence of short subprocesses to achieve complexity reduction, easy clustering and meaningful interpretation. Each subprocess is considered a subtask. The segmentation is based on sequential action predictability using a parsimonious predictive model combined with the Shannon entropy. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of the new method. We use a case study of PIAAC 2012 to demonstrate how exploratory analysis for process data can be carried out with the new approach.
    • Orientation Optimization in Additive Manufacturing: Evaluation of Recent Trends

      Bushra, Jannatul; Budinoff, Hannah D.; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2021-11-17)
      Build orientation in additive manufacturing influences the mechanical properties, surface quality, build time, and cost of the product. Rather than relying on trial-and-error or prior experience, the choice of build orientation can be formulated as an optimization problem. Consequently, orientation optimization has been a popular research topic for several decades, with new optimization methods being proposed each year. However, despite the rapid pace of research in additive manufacturing, there has not been a critical comparison of different orientation optimization methods. In this study, we present a critical review of 50 articles published since 2015 that proposes a method for orientation optimization for additive manufacturing. We classify included papers by optimization methods used, AM process modeled, and objective functions considered. While the pace of research in recent years has been rapid, most approaches we identified utilized similar objective functions and computational optimization techniques to research from the early 2000s. The most common optimization method in the included research was exhaustive search. Most methods focused on broad applicability to all additive manufacturing processes, rather than a specific process, but a few works focused on powder bed fusion and material extrusion. We also identified several areas for future work including integration with other design and process planning tasks such as topology optimization, more focus on practical implementation with users, testing of computational efficiency, and experimental validation of utilized objective functions.
    • Minding the manner: Attention to motion events in Turkish–Dutch early bilinguals

      Kamenetski, Anna; Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Flecken, Monique; Department of Psychology, The University of Arizona; Cognitive Science Program, The University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022-05-18)
      Languages differ in the way motion events are encoded. In satellite-framed languages, motion verbs typically encode manner, while in verb-framed languages, path. We investigated the ways in which satellite-framed Dutch and verb-framed Turkish co-determine one's attention to motion events in early bilinguals. In an EEG oddball paradigm, Turkish-Dutch bilinguals (n = 25) and Dutch controls (n = 27) watched short video clips of motion events, followed by a still picture that matched the preceding video in four ways (oddball design: 10% full match, 10% manner match, 10% endpoint match, and 70% full mismatch). We found that both groups showed similar oddball P300 effects, associated with task-related attention. Group differences were revealed in a late positivity (LP): The endpoint-match elicited a larger LP than the manner-match in the bilinguals, which may reflect language-driven attention. Our results indicate that cross-linguistic manner encoding difference impacts attention at a later stage.
    • Association between PTPN1 polymorphisms and obesity-related phenotypes in European adolescents: Influence of physical activity

      Salazar-Tortosa, Diego F.; Labayen, Idoia; González-Gross, Marcela; Seral-Cortes, Miguel; Moreno, Luis A.; Zapico, Augusto G.; Widhalm, Kurt; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Enard, David; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-11-11)
      Background: To study the associations of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-N1 (PTPN1) polymorphisms with obesity-related phenotypes in European adolescents, and the influence of physical activity on these relationships. Methods: Five polymorphisms of PTPN1 were genotyped in 1057 European adolescents (12–18 years old). We measured several phenotypes related to obesity, such as adiposity markers, and biochemical and clinical parameters. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry. Results: The T, A, T, T and G alleles of the rs6067472, rs10485614, rs2143511, rs6020608 and rs968701 polymorphisms, respectively, were associated with lower levels of obesity-related phenotypes (i.e., body mass index, body fat percentage, hip circumference, fat mass index, systolic blood pressure and leptin) in European adolescents. In addition, the TATTG haplotype was associated with lower body fat percentage and fat mass index compared to the AACCA haplotype. Finally, when physical activity levels were considered, alleles of the rs6067472, rs2143511, rs6020608 and rs968701 polymorphisms were only associated with lower adiposity in active adolescents. Conclusions: PTPN1 polymorphisms were associated with adiposity in European adolescents. Specifically, alleles of these polymorphisms were associated with lower adiposity only in physically active adolescents. Therefore, meeting the recommendations of daily physical activity may reduce obesity risk by modulating the genetic predisposition to obesity. Impact: Using gene-phenotype and gene*environment analyses, we detected associations between polymorphisms of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-N1 (PTPN1) gene and obesity-related phenotypes, suggesting a mechanism that can be modulated by physical activity. This study shows that genetic variability of PTPN1 is associated with adiposity, while physical activity seems to modulate the genetic predisposition. This brings insights about the mechanisms by which physical activity positively influences obesity.
    • Plasma proteoforms of apolipoproteins C-I and C-II are associated with plasma lipids in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

      Koska, J.; Furtado, J.; Hu, Y.; Sinari, S.; Budoff, M.J.; Billheimer, D.; Nedelkov, D.; McClelland, R.L.; Reaven, P.D.; Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2022)
      Apolipoproteins (apo) C-I and C-II are key regulators of triglyceride and HDL metabolism. Both exist as full-size native and truncated (apoC-I'; apoC-II') posttranslational proteoforms. However, the determinants and the role of these proteoforms in lipid metabolism are unknown. Here, we measured apoC-I and apoC-II proteoforms by mass spectrometry immunoassay in baseline and 10-year follow-up plasma samples from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We found that baseline total apoC-I (mean = 9.2 mg/dl) was lower in African Americans (AA), Chinese Americans (CA), and Hispanics (by 1.8; 1.0; 1.0 mg/dl vs. whites), higher in women (by 1.2 mg/dl), and positively associated with plasma triglycerides and HDL. Furthermore, we observed that the truncated-to-native apoC-I ratio (apoC-I'/C-I) was lower in CA, negatively associated with triglycerides, and positively associated with HDL. We determined that total apoC-II (8.8 mg/dl) was lower in AA (by 0.8 mg/dl) and higher in CA and Hispanics (by 0.5 and 0.4 mg/dl), positively associated with triglycerides, and negatively associated with HDL. In addition, apoC-II'/C-II was higher in AA and women, negatively associated with triglycerides, and positively associated with HDL. We showed that the change in triglycerides was positively associated with changes in total apoC-I and apoC-II and negatively associated with changes in apoC-I'/C-I and apoC-II'/C-II, whereas the change in HDL was positively associated with changes in total apoC-I and apoC-II'/C-II and negatively associated with change in total apoC-II. This study documents racial/ethnic variation in apoC-I and apoC-II plasma levels and highlights apolipoprotein posttranslational modification as a potential regulator of plasma lipids. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    • Evaluating a Conditional Cash Transfer Scheme in a Maternal Health Care Utilization Program Among Rural Pregnant Women in Mysore District, India

      Kiplagat, S.; Coudray, M.S.; Ravi, K.; Jayakrishna, P.; Krupp, K.; Arun, A.; Madhivanan, P.; Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona; Division of Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine, University of Arizona; Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2020)
      Background: According to the World Bank report in 2015, the maternal death rate in India was 174 per 100,000, which is among the highest in the world. The Indian Government launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program in 2005 to curb the adverse birth outcomes by promoting institutional delivery and providing antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women. This study evaluates the factors associated with JSY conditional cash transfer program in rural Mysore, India. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, a prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the feasibility and acceptability of integrated ANC and HIV testing using mobile clinics in rural Mysore. Pregnant women in the Mysore Taluk provided an informed consent and answered an interviewer-administered questionnaire in local language, Kannada. All women underwent routine ANC services and were followed-up immediately after delivery, and 6 months and 12 months after delivery. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with JSY benefits. Results: The mean age of the 1,806 mothers was 21.2 ± 2.2 years and 58.9% of the mothers had primary education. Nearly half (51.6%) of the women reported having received JSY benefits. Factors associated with receiving JSY benefits included pregnant woman's partner not having any formal education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.80), having income ≤4,000 Indian Rupees (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.04-2.09), rare visits (once in 3 months visit) with Accredited Social Health Activists (AOR: 3.55; 95% CI: 1.55-8.51), and delivery in a public institution (AOR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.01-1.51). Conclusions: While JSY has been operational in India since 2005, there continue to remain major gaps in the receipt of JSY services in rural India. Future interventions should include targeted services and expansion of JSY scheme, specifically among rural pregnant women, who are most at need of these services. © 2020 Sandra Kiplagat et al. Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
    • What Are the Plant Reproductive Consequences of Losing a Nectar Robber?

      Ledbetter, T.A.; Richman, S.K.; Irwin, R.E.; Bronstein, J.L.; Office of Sustainability, University of Arizona; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona (Enviroquest Ltd, 2022)
      Pollinator declines worldwide are having strong negative consequences for plants. In many communities, antagonistic flower visitors, including nectar robbers, have likely declined in abundance as well. Given the negative effects that these visitors can sometimes inflict, might declines in their populations benefit plants? During the 1970s, the floral visitor community of the Colorado columbine, Aquilegia caerulea (Ranunculaceae), was documented near Gothic, Colorado. At that time, Bombus occidentalis, the Western Bumble bee, was one of its many pollinators, but more commonly acted as its only known nectar robber. Bombus occidentalis abundance has declined precipitously throughout the Western USA since the 1970s. In 2016, we documented the floral visitor community in sites near to those used in the original survey. We then experimentally quantified the effects of nectar robbing, allowing us to estimate the reproductive consequences of losing B. occidentalis. We also quantified the potential pollination services of muscid flies (Muscidae, Diptera). The floral visitor community was dramatically different in 2016 compared to the 1970s. Bombus occidentalis, a frequent A. caerulea visitor from 1969-1976, was infrequently observed visiting the plant, and nectar robbing was negligible. Our experiments suggested that a high level of nectar robbing would lead to significantly reduced fruit set, although not seeds per fruit. Fly visits to flowers were dramatically higher in 2016 compared to the 1970s. We show that, in the absence of bumble bee pollinators, muscid flies significantly reduced fruit set below the self-pollination rate. The negative effect of the increase in these flies likely outweighed any positive effects A. caerulea experienced from the absence of its nectar robber. Although the field observations were conducted in a single year, when they are interpreted in combination with our manipulative experiments, they suggest how A. caerulea may fare in a changing visitation landscape. © 2022 Enviroquest Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
    • Single breath nitrogen test as predictor of lung function decline and COPD over an 8-year follow-up

      Pistelli, F.; Sherrill, D.L.; Di Pede, F.; Baldacci, S.; Simoni, M.; Maio, S.; Carrozzi, L.; Viegi, G.; Asthma and Airway Disease Research Center, University of Arizona (Elsevier Espana S.L.U, 2022)
      Background: The single breath nitrogen (SBN2) test was proposed for early detection of “small airways disease” in the seventies. Few longitudinal studies have subsequently evaluated the relationships between SBN2 test measurements and lung function decline or COPD incidence. Aim: This study evaluates whether SBN2 test abnormalities may be significant predictors of lung function decline and COPD incidence over an 8-year follow-up. Study Design and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 907 adults (20+ years old; 56% males) from the prospective Po River Delta epidemiological study underwent SBN2 test at baseline and spirometry testing at both baseline and follow-up 8-year apart. Multinomial and multiple regression models were used to assess associations of SBN2 indexes and rates of FEV1 decline or risk of COPD incidence over time, after adjusting for sex, height and baseline age, FEV1 and smoking status. COPD was defined according to either GOLD or ATS-ERS criteria. Results: Among SBN2 indexes, only the slope of alveolar plateau (N2-slope) was significantly associated with rates of FEV1 decline (7.93 mL/year for a one-unit change in N2-slope, p&lt;0.0001), and with an increased risk of developing COPD as defined by GOLD (RR 1.81, 95%CI 1.29-2.52, mild; RR 2.78, 95%CI 1.70-4.53, moderate or severe obstruction) and ATS-ERS criteria (RR 1.62, 95%CI 1.14-2.29, mild; RR 3.40, 95%CI 1.72-6.73, moderate or severe obstruction). Conclusion: In this population-based study, N2-slope from SBN2 test is a significant predictor of lung function decline and COPD incidence over an 8-year follow-up, confirming the role of the “small airways disease” in the natural history of COPD. © 2022 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia
    • Predicting eastern equine encephalitis spread in North America: An ecological study

      Tang, X.; Sedda, L.; Brown, H.E.; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (Elsevier B.V., 2021)
      Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but lethal mosquito-borne zoonotic disease. Recent years have seen incursion into new areas of the USA, and in 2019 the highest number of human cases in decades. Due to the low detection rate of EEE, previous studies were unable to quantify large-scale and recent EEE ecological dynamics. We used Bayesian spatial generalized-linear mixed model to quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of human EEE incidence in the northeastern USA. In addition, we assessed whether equine EEE incidence has predictive power for human cases, independently from other environmental variables. The predictors of the model were selected based on variable importance. Human incidence increased with temperature seasonality, but decreased with summer temperature, summer, fall, and winter precipitation. We also found EEE transmission in equines strongly associated with human infection (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.52–1.60) and latitudes above 41.9°N after 2018. The study designed for sparse dataset described new and known relationships between human and animal EEE and environmental factors, including geographical directionality. Future models must include equine cases as a risk factor when predicting human EEE risks. Future work is still necessary to ascertain the establishment of EEE in northern latitudes and the robustness of the available data. © 2021 The Author(s)