Now showing items 21-40 of 7904

    • Border cell counts of Bollgard3 cotton and extracellular DNA expression levels

      Knox, Oliver G. G.; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Huskey, David A.; Hawes, Martha C.; Univ Arizona, Bio5 Inst, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-19)
      In a world where there is growing pressure to grow more with a smaller environmental footprint, alternative forms of plant protection are needed. The root tips of most plants produce border cells in a mucilage that also contains extracellular DNA (exDNA), which is known to be involved in plant defence. A decade after we first demonstrated that there was varietal difference in the number of border cells in Australian cotton cultivars, we enumerated current commercial cultivars and assessed the level of exDNA produced by individual root tips. The results exposed that there has been a change in the number of border cells per root tip, that cultivar variation still exists and that the recovered levels of exDNA also differs. However, there was no correlation between border cell number and disease resistance to two of the major wilt pathogens and the levels of exDNA did not change when a root tip suspension was incubated with spores of fungal pathogens. The results imply that, while there is potential for border cells and root tip properties to be incorporated into breeding programmes, we still need to develop a better understanding of how root tips are able to influence disease epidemiology if we are to capitalise on this phenotypic property.
    • Modern Ultra-Wideband Communications: Recent Overview and Future Prospects

      Gao, Xin; Huai, Lian; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (Inderscience, 2020-10)
      Regarding the modulation schemes and multiple access techniques, modern ultra-wideband (UWB) communication displays unique features in wideband, high-speed data transmission, low-power consumption and high security comparing to other wireless communication systems. We present a general review of historical development, key features and typical applications on UWB, then briefly discuss its recent progress in IEEE standards, application potentials for broadband wireless access and current benefits. Future development on UWB transmission schemes and challenges of system design, are concisely proposed in contrast to those of several other typical communication systems.
    • Identification of groundwater basin shape and boundary using hydraulic tomography

      Daranond, Kwankwai; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Hao, Yonghong; Wen, Jet-Chau; Wang, Wenke; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier B.V., 2020-05-18)
      Shapes and boundary types of a groundwater basin play essential roles in the analysis of groundwater management and contaminant migration. Hydraulic tomography (HT), a recently developed new approach for high-resolution characterization of aquifers, is not only an inverse method but a logical strategy for collecting non-redundant hydraulic information. In this study, HT was applied to synthetic 2-D aquifers to investigate its feasibility to map the irregular shapes and types of the aquifer boundaries. We first used the forward model of VSAFT2 to simulate hydraulic responses due to HT surveys in the aquifer with irregular geometry and predetermined constant head conditions at some boundaries, and no-flow conditions at others. The SimSLE (Simultaneous Successive Linear Estimator) inverse model in VSAFT2 was then used to interpret the simulated HT data to estimate the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties of the aquifer using a domain with a wrong geometry surrounded by boundaries of a constant head condition. The inverse modeling experiment used steady-state and transient-states data from the HT forward simulations, and it used the same monitoring network as in the aquifer with irregular geometry to assess the ability of HT for detecting types and shapes of the boundary as well as heterogeneity in the aquifer. Results of the experiment show that no-flow boundaries, which were incorrectly treated as constant head boundaries in inverse models, were portrayed as low permeable zones of the aquifer near the boundaries. Overall, the results show that HT could delineate not only the irregular shape of the aquifer in general but also heterogeneity in the aquifer. Improvements of the estimation with prior information of transmissivity and storage coefficient was also investigated. The study shows that using homogeneous initial guess parameters resulted in a slightly better estimate than others. Moreover, this study employs Monte Carlo simulations to ensure statistically meaningful conclusions.
    • Governmentalities, hydrosocial territories & recognition politics: The making of objects and subjects for climate change adaptation in Ecuador

      Mills-Novoa, Megan; Boelens, Rutgerd; Hoogesteger, Jaime; Vos, Jeroen; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-10)
      Adaptation to climate change has become a major policy and project focus for donors and governments globally. In this article, we provide insight into how adaptation projects mobilize distinct imaginaries and knowledge claims that create territories for intervention (the objects) as well as targeted populations (the subjects) to sustain them. Drawing on two emblematic climate change adaptation projects in Ecuador, we show how these objects and subjects are created through a knowledge production process that (a) creates a discursive climate change rationale; (b) sidesteps uncertainty related to climate change impacts; (c) fosters a circular citational practice that (self-)reinforces the project's expert knowledge; and (d) makes complex social variables commensurable based on the project's rationality, interests, and quantifiable indicators. The emerging hydrosocial territories 'in need of intervention' require subjects that inhabit, produce and reproduce these territories, in accordance with specific climate change discourses and practices. To manufacture and align these subjects, projects employ participatory practices that are informed by recognition politics aimed at disciplining participants toward particular identities and ways of thinking and acting. We analyze these distinct strategies as multiple governmentalities enacted through participatory adaptation projects seeking to produce specific climate change resilient hydrosocial territories and corresponding subjects.
    • Cultivating Crisis: Coffee, Smallholder Vulnerability, and the Uneven Sociomaterial Consequences of the Leaf Rust Epidemic in Jamaica

      Rhiney, Kevon; Knudson, Chris; Guido, Zack; Univ Arizona, Arizona Inst Resilience; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-14)
      Since September 2012, the Jamaican coffee industry has been grappling with the coffee leaf rust (CLR) epidemic caused by the fungal pathogen Hemileia vastatrix. The first widespread outbreak affected more than one third of coffee plants across the island, resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenues for the sector. The emergence and spread of the disease have been linked to a confluence of factors ranging from changing climatic conditions to impacts from extreme weather events, improper farm management practices, and institutional and market constraints that restrict control measures. In this article, we use the case of the CLR epidemic to illustrate how its emergence and continued presence in the Jamaican Blue Mountains is inextricably tied to the wider political-economic and ecological conditions under which coffee production takes place and how H. vastatrix's complex pathogenesis makes the disease difficult to control. Drawing on an empirical study comprising household surveys, focus groups, archival research, and interviews, we demonstrate how smallholder farmers' ability to manage rust impacts was severely compromised by ecological pressures, resource constraints, bounded knowledge systems, and market and regulatory limitations.
    • Planning and Development Challenges in Western Gateway Communities

      Stoker, Philip; Rumore, Danya; Romaniello, Lindsey; Levine, Zacharia; Univ Arizona, Planning & Landscape Architecture (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-27)
      Problem, research strategy, and findings Small towns and cities outside of national parks, scenic public lands, and other natural amenities throughout the western United States are becoming increasingly popular places to live and visit. As a result, many of these gateway communities appear to be experiencing a range of pressures and challenges. In this study we draw on the results of in-depth interviews with 33 public officials and a survey of more than 300 public officials to shed light on the planning and development concerns across western gateway communities. Our results indicate that gateway communities throughout the western United States are experiencing a range of planning and development challenges, many of which seem atypical for small rural communities, such as challenges associated with housing affordability, cost of living, and congestion. These challenges seem to be more related to population growth than increasing tourism and stand out in stark contrast against the fact that these communities strongly value and identify with their small-town character. Our findings suggest gateway communities are doing a variety of things, some quite innovative, to address their planning and development challenges but often feel overwhelmed, behind the curve, and in need of additional capacity and planning support. Takeaway for practice Our study highlights the importance of effective and proactive planning in gateway communities. It also suggests that to do forward-looking planning and to respond to the challenges they face, many gateway communities will need additional planning support and tools. We highlight gateway communities here to provide a platform for future efforts aimed at assisting these small, rural communities in protecting the qualities that make them such special places to live and visit amid the planning and development pressures and challenges they face.
    • Flood-fragility analysis of instream bridges – consideration of flow hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties, and variable scour depth

      Ahamed, Touhid; Duan, Jennifer G.; Jo, Hongki; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-08)
      Floods, bridge scour, and flood-associated loads have caused over sixty percent of bridge failures in the U.S. Current practices for the vulnerability assessment of instream bridges under the effect of such flood largely rely on qualitative methods, such as visual inspection, without considering uncertainties associated with structural behaviors and flood loads. Recently, numerical methods have been investigated to quantitatively consider such uncertainty effects by adapting fragility analysis concept that has been well established in the earthquake engineering area. However, river hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties of foundation, variable scour-depth effects, and their significance in structural fragility of bridges have rarely been systematically investigated. This study proposes a comprehensive fragility analysis framework that can effectively incorporate both flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties, in addition to commonly considered components in flood-fragility analysis of bridges. The significance of flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties has been demonstrated through a real-bridge case study. Conventional fragility curves with maximum scour depth may not represent actual vulnerability during floods, as the scour may not reach to the maximum in many cases. Therefore, fragility surface with two intensity measures, i.e. flow discharges and scour depths, is introduced for real-time vulnerability assessment during floods in this study.
    • Defining the Relationship: An Examination of Sexual Behaviors and Relational Contexts across Tween, Teen, and Young Adult U.S. Television

      Dajches, Leah; Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-25)
      Although content analytic research has examined casual sexual scripts in television programming, less is known about how the relational context of sexual behaviors is depicted by age. Using a sample of U.S. tween, teen, and young-adult television programs from 2016, we analyzed how relational status varies by type of sexual behavior and presumed age of the target audience. Results show sexual intercourse behaviors are most frequently depicted within the context of a hookup or casual sex interaction, whereas precursory sexual behaviors (flirting, kissing, and touching) are more commonly portrayed in committed relationships. Findings further suggest tween shows exclusively depicted sexual behaviors in the context of committed relationships, hookups are just as frequent in teen shows as they are in young-adult shows, and casual sex relationships are more likely to occur in young-adult shows than in teen shows.
    • 21 years of research for the twenty-first century: revisiting the journal of environmental policy and planning

      Ellis, Geraint; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.; Metze, Tamara; Wu, Xun; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-10)
    • COVID-19 and Avoiding Ibuprofen. How Good Is the Evidence?

      Kutti Sridharan, Gurusaravanan; Kotagiri, Rajesh; Chandiramani, Vijay H; Mohan, Babu P; Vegunta, Rathnamitreyee; Vegunta, Radhakrishna; Rokkam, Venkata R P; Univ Arizona, Banner Univ Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-07)
      Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter medication that is used widely for the treatment of pain and fever during COVID-19 pandemic. A concern was raised regarding the safety of ibuprofen use because of its role in increasing ACE2 levels within the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system. ACE2 is the coreceptor for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, and so, a potential increased risk of contracting COVID-19 disease and/or worsening of COVID-19 infection was feared with ibuprofen use. However, available data from limited studies show administration of recombinant ACE2 improves lung damage caused by respiratory viruses, suggesting ibuprofen use may be beneficial in COVID-19 disease. At this time, there is no supporting evidence to discourage the use of ibuprofen.
    • Optimal Defense Theory in an ant–plant mutualism: Extrafloral nectar as an induced defence is maximized in the most valuable plant structures

      Calixto, Eduardo Soares; Lange, Denise; Bronstein, Judith; Torezan‐Silingardi, Helena Maura; Del‐Claro, Kleber; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2020-08-03)
      Plants allocate defences in order to decrease costs and maximize benefits against herbivores. The Optimal Defense Theory (ODT) predicts that continuously expressed (i.e. constitutive) defences are expected in structures of high value, whereas defences that are expressed or that increase their expression only after damage or upon risk of damage (i.e. induced defences) are expected in structures of low value. Although there are several studies evaluating ODT predictions, few studies have successfully tested them as a way of measuring ecological investment in extrafloral nectary (EFN)-mediated ant-plant interactions. Here we compared extrafloral nectar production and ant attractiveness to EFNs located on vegetative versus reproductive plant structures onQualea multifloraplants subjected to different levels of simulated herbivory. We then addressed the following predictions emerging from the ODT: (a) extrafloral nectar produced in inflorescence EFNs will have higher volumes and calories and will attract more ants than extrafloral nectar produced in leaf EFNs; (b) extrafloral nectar production (volume and calories) and ant attendance will increase after simulated herbivory in leaf EFNs but not in inflorescence EFNs; (c) higher simulated leaf herbivory will induce higher extrafloral nectar production in EFNs on leaves and (d) more attractive extrafloral nectar (higher volume and calories) will attract more ants. Extrafloral nectar volume and calorie content, as well as ant abundance, were higher in EFNs of inflorescences compared to EFNs of leaves both before and after simulated herbivory, consistent with one of our predictions. However, EFNs on both leaves and inflorescences, not on leaves only, were induced by simulated herbivory, a pattern opposite to our prediction. Plants subjected to higher levels of leaf damage produced more and higher calorie extrafloral nectar, but showed similar ant abundance. Finally, more attractive extrafloral nectar attracted more ants. Synthesis. Our results show that extrafloral nectar production before and after simulated herbivory, as well as ant recruitment, varies according to the plant structure on which EFNs are located. Our study is the first to show that ant recruitment via extrafloral nectar follows predictions from Optimal Defense Theory, and that the ant foraging patterns may be shaped by the plant part attacked and the level of damage it receives.
    • A preference for power: Willingness to pay for energy reliability versus fuel type in Vietnam

      Bakkensen, Laura; Schuler, Paul; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt & Publ Policy (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-09)
      Developing countries are projected to experience the greatest increases in per capita energy use, motivating enormous investment in government-led energy projects. As energy fuel choices have large implications for pollution, a critical question surrounds citizens' preferences for renewable energy versus coal. While a robust literature suggests that citizens are willing to pay for renewables, the applicability of these findings to developing countries remains limited as many studies do not benchmark findings against preferences for increased capacity with dirtier fuels. We estimate citizens' willingness to pay for improved electricity reliability from coal versus renewable technologies using a contingent valuation experiment embedded in a nationally-representative survey of 14,000 respondents across Vietnam, the country with the greatest recent increase in coal consumption. We find that while households are willing to pay 95% more in their monthly electricity bill for renewables (USD 7.5 billion per year in aggregate), they are also willing to pay 62% more for coal plants (USD 4 billion per year). Additionally, income and satisfaction with governance drive support both for renewables and coal, suggesting that agenda setting by policymakers is critical. If citizens are not offered alternatives, a majority will support coal even as governance improves or citizens become wealthier.
    • Characterization of the Complete Genome and P0 Protein for a Previously Unreported Genotype of Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus, an Introduced Polerovirus in the United States

      Avelar, Sofia; Ramos-Sobrinho, Roberto; Conner, Kassie; Nichols, Robert L; Lawrence, Kathy; Brown, Judith K; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (AMER PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC, 2020-01-20)
      Virus-like disease symptoms consisting of leaf cupping, shortened internodes, and overall stunting were observed in commercial cotton fields in Alabama in 2017 to 2018. To determine the complete genome sequence of the suspected causal polerovirus, symptomatic leaf samples were collected in Macon County, Alabama, and subjected to Illumina RNA sequencing. Based on BLASTn analysis, the Illumina contig of 5,771 nt shared the highest nucleotide identity (approximately 95%) with members of the species Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) (genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) from Argentina and Brazil. The full-length viral genome sequence was verified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR amplification, cloning, and Sanger sequencing. The complete CLRDV genome of 5,865 nt in length shared 94.8 to 95.2% nucleotide identity with six previously reported CLRDV isolates. The genome of the CLRDV isolate amplified from Alabama samples (CLRDV-AL) has seven predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Viral proteins 1 to 5 (P1 to P5) shared 91.9 to 99.5% amino acid identity with the six CLRDV isolates from Argentina and Brazil. However, P0, the suppressor of host gene silencing, shared 82.4 to 88.5% pairwise amino acid identity with the latter CLRDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the seven full-length CLRDV genomes resolved three sister clades: CLRDV-AL, CLRDV-typical, and CLRDV-atypical, respectively. Three recombination events were detected by the recombination detection program among the seven CLRDV isolates with breakpoints occurring along the genome. Pairwise nucleotide identity comparisons of ORF0 sequences for the three CLRDV-AL field isolates indicated that they were >99% identical, suggesting that this previously unknown CLRDV genotype represents a single introduction to Alabama.
    • Different Processes, Different Outcomes? Assessing the Individual‐Level Impacts of Public Participation

      Jo, Suyeon; Nabatchi, Tina; Univ Arizona, Publ Management, Sch Govt & Publ Policy (WILEY, 2020-08-30)
      This article empirically investigates the relative efficacy of different direct participation processes.Specifically,it compares the effects of three types of participatory processes (public meetings,focus groups,and citizen juries) on participants' issue awareness,competence,empowerment,and trust in service professionals.The authors hypothesize that all three participatory processes will positively affect these individual outcomes but that the magnitudes of effects will differ across the three processes.Using data from field experiments,the authors test and find general support for the hypotheses.This study contributes to understanding of public participation,particularly in terms of the relationship between participatory design and outcomes.
    • Biogeographic patterns of microbial co-occurrence ecological networks in six American forests

      Tu, Qichao; Yan, Qingyun; Deng, Ye; Michaletz, Sean T.; Buzzard, Vanessa; Weiser, Michael D.; Waide, Robert; Ning, Daliang; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; et al. (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-09)
      Rather than simple accumulation of individual populations, microorganisms in natural ecosystems form complex ecological networks that are critical to maintain ecosystem functions and services. Although various studies have examined the patterns of microbial community diversity and composition across spatial gradients, whether microbial co-occurrence relationships follow similar patterns remains an open question. In this study, we determined the biogeographic patterns of microbial co-occurrence networks of bacteria, fungi and nitrogen (N) fixer via analyses of high throughput amplicon sequencing data of 16S rRNA, ITS, and nifH genes from 126 forest soil samples across six forests in America. Microbial co-occurrence networks were constructed using a Random Matrix Theory based approach. Network parameters were calculated and correlated with biogeographic parameters. Gradient patterns along with biogeographic parameters were observed for network topologies. Significantly different network topologies were observed between microbial co-occurrence networks in tropical and temperate forest ecosystems. Among various biogeographic parameters potentially related with network topology indices, temperature seemed to be the strongest one. These results suggest that biogeographic variables like temperature not only mediate microbial community diversity and composition, but also the co-occurrence ecological networks among microbial species.
    • Anxiety reduction after pre-procedure meetings in patients with CHD

      Boyer, Preston J; Yell, Joshua A; Andrews, Jennifer G; Seckeler, Michael D; Univ Arizona, Dept Pediat; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Pediat, Div Cardiol (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2020-06-05)
      Background: Cardiac catheterisations for CHD produce anxiety for patients and families. Current strategies to mitigate anxiety and explain complex anatomy include pre-procedure meetings and educational tools (cardiac diagrams, echocardiograms, imaging, and angiography). More recently, three-dimensionally printed patient-specific models can be added to the armamentarium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-procedure meetings and of different educational tools to reduce patient and parent anxiety before a catheterisation. Methods: Prospective study of patients >= 18 and parents of patients <18 scheduled for clinically indicated catheterisations. Patients completed online surveys before and after meeting with the interventional cardiologist, who was blinded to study participation. Both the pre- and post-meeting surveys measured anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In addition, the post-meeting survey evaluated the subjective value (from 1 to 4) of individual educational tools: physician discussion, cardiac diagrams, echocardiograms, prior imaging, angiograms and three-dimensionally printed cardiac models. Data were compared using paired t-tests. Results: Twenty-three patients consented to participate, 16 had complete data for evaluation. Mean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were abnormally elevated at baseline and decreased into the normal range after the pre-procedure meeting (39.8 versus 31, p = 0.008). Physician discussion, angiograms, and three-dimensional models were reported to be most effective at increasing understanding and reducing anxiety. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we have found that pre-catheterisation meetings produce a measurable decrease in patient and family anxiety before a procedure. Discussions of the procedure, angiograms, and three-dimensionally printed cardiac models were the most effective educational tools.
    • Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and Risk of Metachronous Colorectal Adenoma

      Florea, Ana; Harris, Robin B; Klimentidis, Yann C; Kohler, Lindsay N; Jurutka, Peter W; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Div Nephrol, Dept Med, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot Sci; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Basic Med Sci (SPRINGER, 2020-09-12)
      Purpose Prior work has shown that higher circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) are associated with an increased likelihood of developing colorectal cancer. We conducted a prospective study to assess the relationship between circulating FGF-21 and odds of developing early neoplastic lesions in the colorectum. Methods A total of 94 study participants were included from the ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) trial, a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effect of 8-10 mg/kg of body weight UDCA vs. placebo. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between baseline FGF-21 concentrations and odds of developing a metachronous adenoma. Results Of the characteristics compared across tertiles of FGF-21 concentrations, including age, race, sex, BMI, and other variables, only a previous personal history of colorectal polyps prior to entry into the UDCA trial was statistically significantly related to FGF-21 levels, with a proportion of 26.7%, 56.7%, and 50.0% across the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively (p < 0.05). Higher circulating concentrations of FGF-21 were statistically significantly associated with greater odds of developing a metachronous colorectal adenoma. After adjusting for potential confounders and when compared with the lowest tertile of FGF-21, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for metachronous colorectal adenoma in the second and third tertiles were 4.72 (95% CI, 1.42-15.72) and 3.82 (95% CI, 1.15-12.68), respectively (ptrend < 0.05). Conclusion Our results reveal for the first time that, in addition to a recently discovered association with colorectal cancer, circulating FGF-21 concentrations are significantly and directly associated with odds of developing metachronous colorectal adenoma.
    • Readthrough Errors Purge Deleterious Cryptic Sequences, Facilitating the Birth of Coding Sequences

      Kosinski, Luke J; Masel, Joanna; Univ Arizona, Mol & Cellular Biol; Univ Arizona, Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-06)
      De novo protein-coding innovations sometimes emerge from ancestrally noncoding DNA, despite the expectation that translating random sequences is overwhelmingly likely to be deleterious. The "preadapting selection" hypothesis claims that emergence is facilitated by prior, low-level translation of noncoding sequences via molecular errors. It predicts that selection on polypeptides translated only in error is strong enough to matter and is strongest when erroneous expression is high. To test this hypothesis, we examined noncoding sequences located downstream of stop codons (i.e., those potentially translated by readthrough errors) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. We identified a class of "fragile" proteins under strong selection to reduce readthrough, which are unlikely substrates for co-option. Among the remainder, sequences showing evidence of readthrough translation, as assessed by ribosome profiling, encoded C-terminal extensions with higher intrinsic structural disorder, supporting the preadapting selection hypothesis. The cryptic sequences beyond the stop codon, rather than spillover effects from the regular C-termini, are primarily responsible for the higher disorder. Results are robust to controlling for the fact that stronger selection also reduces the length of C-terminal extensions. These findings indicate that selection acts on 30 UTRs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to purge potentially deleterious variants of cryptic polypeptides, acting more strongly in genes that experience more readthrough errors.
    • The second ID: critical race counterstories of campus police interactions with black men at historically white institutions

      Jenkins, DeMarcus A.; Tichavakunda, Antar A.; Coles, Justin A.; Univ Arizona, Educ Policy Studies & Practice (Informa UK Limited, 2020-04-15)
      Although campus racial climate on colleges and universities has been scrutinized in research on higher education, scholarship focused on Black male collegians' interactions with campus police remains limited. Considering how the logics of white supremacy and anti-Black racism have characterized policing across the nation, we assert that a critical examination of how those practices are mirrored on college campuses can illuminate the challenges Black students face when navigating white campus spaces. Drawing on Critical Race Theory, this study reports on the encounters between three Black male students and campus police officers at three distinct historically white institutions. We posit that for Black college students, the student identification (ID) evokes a legacy of surveillance that can be traced to the freedom papers that freed slaves were required to carry while traversing white spaces as a means to affirm rights to freely belong. We conclude with implications and directions for future research.
    • General attributes and practice of ecological restoration in Arizona and California, U.S.A., revealed by restoration stakeholder surveys

      Li, Yue M.; Gornish, Elise S.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Wiley, 2020-09-02)
      Ecological restoration has become increasingly important in conservation. Yet, synthesized statistics are scarce with respect to essential characteristics of restoration activities. We surveyed restoration stakeholders in the U.S. states of Arizona and California to evaluate key attributes in restoration activities including ecosystems of focus, goals, size, cost, duration, and the prevalence of recommended restoration practices. We also examined how some of the attributes varied with size of restoration, ecosystem type, and state identity. While enhancing biodiversity and increasing plant cover were common goals in the two states, restoration in California also focused more on wildlife habitat re-establishment and weed control. Restoration in Arizona was implemented more in arid/semiarid systems, larger in size, shorter in duration, used more passive restoration, spent more on equipment, and was less likely to source plants from native plant nurseries. Labor was the most expensive restoration component regardless of state identity and ecosystem type. Per unit area cost of restoration decreased with increasing size of restoration. Yet, the decline in this cost was more strongly explained by moving from mesic to arid/semiarid ecosystems. Duration of restoration projects increased with size of restoration and in more mesic ecosystems. Overall, restoration in mesic ecosystems, compared to arid/semiarid systems, was smaller in size, higher in cost, and longer in duration. These results confirmed that ecological and socio-political conditions impact restoration goals and practice, with implications of how research can further support practitioners to achieve restoration success under practical constraints revealed by these results.