• Food Insecurity in Tucson, Arizona: An Analysis of the Potential Impact of Food Distribution Resources to Combat Food Deserts

      Pennington, Georgia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Sanderford, Drew; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05-03)
      This research paper aims to examine the food insecurity in Tucson, Arizona and how the use of surplus food distribution markets could be a factor in relieving some of that insecurity. The resources that will be included in this study will be community gardens, farmers markets, and Market on the Move (MOM)/Produce on Wheels Without Waste (POWWOW) projects. After surveying 140 users of MOM/POWWOW, there was no clear demographic of the users. Additionally, less than 10% of the markets were located in food deserts, which emphasizes that there is room to expand markets to these areas to serve vulnerable populations.
    • The Impacts of Energy Efficient Window Retrofits

      Monshizadeh, Iman; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05-01)
      This study set out to find the benefit of high efficiency window retrofits to a medium income Arizona home and specifically how these retrofits impact energy use and cost. To simulate these retrofits an energy modeling software (Energy-10) was used to create a base case home that mirrored the actual home in both design and efficiency. The software was used to create 3 different iterations that only upgraded the windows of the home, each iteration serving as a simulation of a retrofit to the base case home. Energy-10 then generated reports and data that were used to show the benefits, shortcomings, and cost of each iteration
    • Hot Water: Sustainable production and residential applications

      Iuliano, Joey; Lopez, David; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The purpose of the study is to identify how the energy of the sun can be harnessed to heat water in a residential setting. Solar thermal water heaters are used extensively throughout the world to provide a carbon dioxide free solution to an energy rich process. The negative impact of energy production to the health and environment disproportionately affects minorities and working poor. The question of how free sunlight can be used to heat water, reduce energy consumption, and energy insecurity was explored. Greece was used as a case study to determine what the possible implications could be to a town like Tucson, Arizona. Energy production in America by fossil fuels was also looked at geographically to determine where the highest potential, for the most people existed. The study found high incidences of poverty and extreme poverty close to pollution emitting power plants. The study also shows that there is high potential for transition from traditional water heating methods to solar thermal heated water in highly populated areas throughout the American southwest.
    • WALKABILITY IN TUCSON: AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT TRENDS AND GROWTH POTENTIAL

      Iuliano, Joseph; Abou-Zeid, Gabriella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Currans, Kristina; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      In the United States, the transportation sector was responsible for 28% of 2016 GHG emissions—the largest contribution of any industry (U.S. EPA, 2018). To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate their effects, active modes of transportation, like walking, need be planned for. This study provides an overview of walking in Tucson, AZ and subsequent guidance for future development through a) an assessment of walk-mode splits, b) a survey on residential preferences for walking, and c) a built environment case study analysis. It found that walking constituted 11% of all trips, compared to motorized vehicles, which accounted for more than 80% of all trips. Percentage of respondent walk and car trips varied significantly by income and trip purpose. Both Tucson residents and existing literature identified destination proximity as the most important built environment factor considered in deciding to walk. A complete streets project that incorporated many built environment features found to improve walkability (e.g., street connectivity, accessibility, walking infrastructure) but failed to account for destination proximity had little impact of walking behavior. To better promote walkability in Tucson, emphasis on coordination between transportation and land use planning and connection of walkability to social and cultural values is necessary.
    • The Negative Impacts of Solar Power

      Wang, Lujia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      With the urban development, more and more environment problems are showing in people’s life. The air pollution causes human health problem and the global warming impact the rise of sea level. To solve the environment problems and reduce the negative effect of environment to the future generation, people start to protect environment and one of the method is using renewable energy. Solar energy is the more popular renewable energy that people use to save energy, because it was clean and the solar resources is abundant. The electricity that transfer from solar energy can improve the energy efficiency use. However, the solar energy is zero pollution and completely clean for several reasons. The following content will discuss the negative impacts of solar power and the strategy to improve the solar energy use.
    • A Comparison Between Chinese Construction and U.S. Construction: From a Sustainability Angle

      Iuliano, Joseph; Wang, Katherine; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zhang, Lingling; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      This paper will be examining the cause of some problems in the Chinese building industry in comparison to the American construction industry from a sustainability standpoint. The differences between the Chinese and American Construction industries are affected by many factors. As a fast-growing economy, China is experiencing rapid growth in its construction industry. Growth leads to prosperity but also sometimes expose problems.
    • LEED Needs to Reevaluate Demolition to Stay Relevant

      Kramer, Sean; Holliday, Tyler; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Almanza, Gabi; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The LEED accreditation process is recognized as the benchmark for ranking sustainable buildings in the United States. LEED certification provides building owners and operators with the tools they need to have an actionable and quantifiable effect on their site’s environmental impact (GenFlex Roofing Systems). By promoting a whole-building approach to sustainability, LEED recognizes performance in site planning, site development, water efficiency, energy efficiency, building materials, waste reduction/division, indoor air quality, and attention to regional concerns (GenFlex Roofing Systems).
    • Creating Sustainable Spaces: A School Garden Case Study

      Iuliano, Joseph; Howell, Jacqueline Ariel; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Marston, Sallie; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify elements of school gardens that promote well-being in students. Many schools are starting school garden programs around the country, and while it is common knowledge that gardens can promote well-being, the causal relationships are not well understood. To better understand what makes school gardens good for students, I spent 4 months working as a garden intern at Manzo Elementary where I observed students and interviewed teachers and other garden interns. This paper also contains a thorough review of available literature that connects human well-being and green spaces. This research found that students appear to be feel a strong connection to their school garden and a sense of ownership of it, and that kids are more excited to use these spaces than other spaces in their schools. These factors appear to promote well-being in Manzo Elementary students by increasing students’ enthusiasm for learning and teaching responsibility.
    • Learning for the Future: Education for Sustainable Development

      Rice, Jenny; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Herrera, Yvette; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      This capstone outlines the climate crisis that is currently perpetuated by the burning of fossil fuels. It addresses the need for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) within established curricula in a traditional and non-traditional school setting. Observations through multiple interviews (N=9) and online surveys (N=54) of University of Arizona students suggest that sustainability concepts in the primary and secondary schools need improvement. Systemic hindrances such as a heavy focus on standardized testing and lack of access to school gardens prevent the mainstreaming of ESD into the regular curriculum. Schools generally associate ESD with outdoor or environmental activities and limit the scope of lesson plans with science as the main subject to connect with. Sustainability is an interdisciplinary concept that can be addressed through nearly all subjects. Continued denial of climate science while politicizing ESD is preventing progressive action toward minimizing the negative effects of climate change. ESD, when thoroughly integrated into the education system could strengthen the opposition to policymakers who insist upon continued subsidies of fossil fuels.
    • Brick & Mortar vs. Traditional Adobe Housing in Southwest

      Virgen, Christian; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04-29)
    • Adopting Geothermal Heat Pumps

      Camarena, Paul; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Global climate change is a major problem we are facing. Thirty percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions are being produced by electricity production, while six percent is produced by buildings. Climate change is happening now. This capstone examines the way in which the use of the earth’s natural properties can help combat climate change through the use of Geothermal heat pumps in the residential sector.
    • A Study of Electrochromic Glass Applied to CAPLA East’s Northern Façade

      Kelly-Jones, Alec; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Nader; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      I conducted a cost-benefit analysis on electrochromic film as an energy saving strategy at the University of Arizona’s College of Architecture, Planning & Landscape Architecture East building. Using eQUEST, I created a whole building energy model to simulate electrochromic film on its Northern façade, quantifying the effect on the building’s heating and cooling demands. The film proved to be so effective, saving 19,220kWh a year, that I designed a second iteration with only half of the northern façade retrofitted. This also proved to be a viable energy saving strategy, reducing consumption by 15,090kWh.
    • Identification of Historic Streetscape Features in Three of Tucson's National Register of Historic Places Districts: Barrio Anita, Winterhaven, and Colonia Solana

      Berger, Wyatt; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Erickson, Helen; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Historic preservation is often at odds with new development in the United States because of individuals’ and developers’ belief that “newer is better.” Part of the historic built environment includes historic streetscapes features such as sidewalks, utilities, heritage trees, fences and walls, driveways, and views and vistas. While Tucson, Arizona does have support for preservation via Certified Local Governments, zoning ordinances, and community involvement, there is no programming for historic streetscape preservation. With the destruction of historic buildings and other features to make way for wider streets and large-scale housing and office spaces, cultural resources are threatened. Though new development may be good in creating a stronger infrastructure, historic preservation supports the idea of a “sense of place” as well as sustainable benefits most individuals fail to see. This study aims to analyze the importance of historic streetscapes in three of Tucson’s National Register of Historic Places districts by using personal observations, community participation, and digital mapping techniques.
    • Sustainable Building Industry in Phoenix, Arizona

      Kramer-Lazar, Sean; Kilpatrick, Timothy; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Pivo, Gary; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      This article serves as a brief analysis of the sustainable building industry in Phoenix, Arizona. The process begins by illustrating the need for this type of development by discussing the benefits, the financial feasibility, and the overall need for these types of buildings in the larger context of our world. Phoenix, Arizona’s market, environment, and population are then briefly introduced and discussed. The project incorporates both qualitative and quantitative components; including case studies of a diverse set of green buildings in Phoenix from several different asset classes, as well as in-depth discussions with industry professionals who played roles in these projects. The study aims to discern what works with regards to sustainable building in Phoenix and what does not. Quantitative data is used to understand building features, compare resulting energy savings, discuss the economics of each of the projects, and justify their overall success from a financial perspective. Qualitative data is used to understand and discuss the motivations of each of these projects as well as any additional information that industry professionals bring up. The understanding of the success of these projects is meant to inspire future developers in Phoenix, Arizona, and perhaps other markets, to pursue sustainable building as a means of producing higher quality, more prosperous development projects.
    • The Importance of Sustainable Animal Education: A Study in Participation in Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Desert Tortoise Program

      Kramer, Sean; Lorenz, Emily; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Dimond, Kirk; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (ASDM) has a Tortoise Adoption Program to help rehome the surplus of desert tortoises to Sonora Desert locals. Also, it has been proven that there are many benefits to early childhood learning and adopting practices at a young age. There could be many benefits to integrating a younger population into the Tortoise Adoption Program (TAP) at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
    • BLOOMING & DYING: AGAVE WITHIN TUCSON’S BUILT ENVIRONMENT

      Livingston, Margaret; McGuire, Grace; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Smith, Steve; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      This study examines one plant species in order to reveal the historical, biological, and social attachments the plant brings to the public and private landscapes in the city of Tucson, Arizona. The life cycle history, cultural attachment, and biological characteristics of the Agave genus are evaluated in terms the relationship between a native, Sonoran Desert adapted species and its use within the urban matrix. The succulent, rosette form is a characteristic that makes the agave species distinct from all other desert plants. Six particular agave species are mentioned within this writing, and are connected to the Tucson area’s cultural history, and current application of agave as a landscaping material. Agaves symbolize a rich history of human utilization and reliance, especially in the cultures of central/northern Mexico. As the industry within the U.S. for mescal products grows, agave on the landscape become distinctly agriculture based. The practices of wild harvesting agave for distillation and not allowing cultivated agaves to bloom impacts the ecosystem functions of northern Sonora, Mexico, and the southwestern United States, and severely limits the populations of wild agaves. It is estimated that in the coming years it will be almost impossible to find certain populations of wild agaves.
    • Adapting a Green Roof in Tucson, Arizona

      Iuliano, Joseph; Cutter, Shea; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Gilette, Heather (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Buildings that implement a green roof on their rooftop generate economic and environmental benefits throughout its lifetime than a conventional roof cannot. A space that would normally not be utilized is transformed to benefit the building's operations and occupants. However, there is little research on green roof applications in hot and arid urban climates. This paper is based on an extensive literature review on the current capabilities of green roofs to generate enough savings and benefits to a building to combat the initial installation fee. Finding the Net Present Value (NPV) of the cost of installation and benefits of a green roof is used to create a benefit analysis. In order for more research to be done in hot and air urban green roofs there needs to be a market for it. This research paper uses a benefit analysis to break down the economic feasibility of the investment based on the savings and benefits received after construction. The site location used to generate the data for this proposal is on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape East building (CAPLA East). The analysis demonstrated that a 5,000 square foot extensive green roof would be economically feasible based off of the NPV of the savings and benefits created after construction. Furthermore, the research identified that the plants best fit for the weather conditions of a green roof are the drought-resistant plants found in the Sonoran Desert that Tucson is a part of.
    • iMicrobe: Tools and Data-Driven Discovery Platform for the Microbiome Sciences

      Hurwitz, Bonnie; Youens-Clark, Charles Kenneth; U'Ren, Jana; Hartman, John (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Scientists have amassed a wealth of microbiome datasets making it possible to study microbes in biotic and abiotic systems on a population- or planetary-scale; however, this potential hasn’t been fully realized given that the tools, data sets, and computation are available in diverse repositories and locations. To address this challenge, we developed iMicrobe.us, a community-driven microbiome data marketplace and tool exchange for users to integrate their own data and tools with those from the broader community. Findings: The iMicrobe platform brings together analysis tools and microbiome data sets by leveraging National Science Foundation-supported cyberinfrastructure and computing resources from CyVerse, Agave, and XSEDE. The primary purpose of iMicrobe is to provide users with a freely available, web-based platform to (1) maintain and share project data, metadata, and analysis products, (2) search for related public datasets, and (3) use and publish bioinformatics tools that run on highly-scalable computing resources. Analysis tools are implemented in containers that encapsulate complex software dependencies and run on freely available XSEDE resources via the Agave API which can retrieve datasets from the CyVerse Data Store or any web-accessible location (e.g., FTP, HTTP). Conclusions: iMicrobe promotes data integration, sharing, and community-driven tool development by making open source data and tools accessible to the research community in a web-based platform.
    • Populus Fremontii Tree Ring Analysis and Semi-Arid River Water Source Variability over Time, San Pedro River, Arizona

      Meixner, Thomas; Stolar, Rebecca Ann; Hu, Jia; Niu, Guo-Yue (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Summer floods are an important source of sustained streamflow in arid and semi-arid rivers of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico. The degree to which natural function versus human alterations influence the system is subject to debate. Environmental information in the tree ring cellulose of Populus can be used to investigate the variation in water sources over time in these areas. Past research has shown that streamflow sources in the San Pedro Basin of Arizona vary isotopically between a source water of basin ground water and a summer flood water source. This study uses isotopic analyses of Populus fremontii and atmospheric data in the San Pedro Basin to estimate the water source of the trees and the river water source condition. After analyzing weather data within the basin, an inversion of the Barbour oxygen isotope model using tree ring cellulose isotopes was used to obtain the water source isotopic composition. The variation in water source composition inferred from the model was then compared to the river composition over time. It was initially found that each site’s water source isotopic composition was significantly different from the source water. However, several water source isotopic compositions were found to be more negative than the known basin groundwater signature in each of the study sites. Following sensitivity analyses on various parameters within the model, it was seen that relative humidity has a strong influence on the determination of source water. Therefore, relative humidity must be an accurate measurement and is not considered to be so in this study. Furthermore, in order to understand the degree to which natural function versus human alterations influence the system, older Populus fremontii tree ring isotopes are needed, posing a question regarding the reliability of the species.
    • Alveolar Lung Recruitment Maneuver Utilization among Transplant Clinicians in Arizona

      Piotrowski, Kathleen; Bergstrom, Benjamin Scott; Herring, Christopher; Pace, Thaddeus (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The reservation of lung transplant procedures as a final treatment measure for patients with acquired end-stage pulmonary disease is partly due to the lack of supply, which mostly comes from brain dead donors. Separate from the other life-saving transplantable organs that have progressively increased in transplant rates over the last decade, the national ratio of lung transplantation has remained stagnant (Bergstrom, 2018). Transplant clinicians medically manage authorized brain dead organ donors in Arizona (AZ) according to their clinical judgment that is supplemented by the Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). The goal is to maximize the gift of donation by increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) sets the benchmark for the Expected (E) OTPD, and in AZ the Observed (O) OTPD ratio (i.e., O: E) has been below that benchmark. Meeting the organ-specific diagnostic endpoints of the Donor Management Goals (DMG) demonstrate organ system recovery and suitability for transplant. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers were at the forefront of the pulmonary management regimes of potential lung donors, and there were three in the CPGs at Donor Network of Arizona (DNAZ), the federally designated OPO of AZ. Each of the three methods have been tested at DNAZ in the past years and each has shown some ability to improve lung transplant rates but, clear superiority of one method has not been definitively established. Despite the prior utilization of these measures, according to an analysis of CPGs utilized and DMGs met, the use of the techniques has waned in the last year. Underutilization of alveolar recruitment maneuvers was the suspected reasoning behind the O: E gap. This project used theoretical foundations that aimed to improve utilization of the DNAZ CPGs by; (1) exploring the reasoning behind why they are avoided, (2) creating and presenting a learning lesson based on that assessment (3) evaluating the learning lesson and (4) closing the O: E gap by improving transplant metrics.