• A Comparative Study of Broadcast and Print Coverage in Three Criminal Cases

      Hudson, Lisa Rae (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • Liberation: The Story of a French Daily

      Herrera Cruz, Ignacio (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • Formative Assessment: Documenting Motor Vehicle Crashes and Local Perceptions with the Hualapai Tribe to Inform Injury Prevention Recommendations

      Mahal, Zeenat (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Background: This research was designed to understand factors influencing Motor Vehicle Crashes (MVCs) on or near the Hualapai Tribe’s reservation in northwestern Arizona. The goal is to enable the Tribe to develop and implement a locally relevant MVC intervention program. The specific aims were to: i) compile and analyze 2010-2016 MVC data from Hualapai and federal sources to assess distributions of frequency, rates, high risk-locales, causes, days, times, age and sex of the drivers, in addition to assessing related conditions; ii) document local perceptions of environmental, social, and behavioral barriers to safe driving practices, and knowledge of MVC risk factors and existing tribal laws; and iii) provide evidence-based recommendations using the results from quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Approach/Methods: The research process applied a Community-Based Participatory Research approach and mixed methods using: a) secondary data analyses of records from six tribal programs and Indian Health Service (IHS), and b) qualitative analyses of data from two focus groups and field documents. Sensitivity analyses were conducted of IHS and Tribal Driving Under the Influence (DUI) data, using the 2010 U.S. Census as the denominator after adjusting for an undercount of up to 25%. Descriptive statistics, Fisher’s Exact Test, and linear and logistic regressions were used to examine significance. MVCs per 10 miles per year were estimated for State Route 66 and Diamond Bar Road/Grand Canyon West on or near the reservation due to higher numbers of crashes. Statistical process control charts, especially g-charts monitoring time between events, were plotted to examine the stability in the number of MVCs over time for each road. NVivo11Pro© was used to code and analyze the focus group data, guided by both inductive and deductive theories. Results: Driver’s seatbelt use in the Hualapai community increased from 2010 to 2012 (p < .0005), and reported DUIs decreased from 2010 to 2016 (p = .027). Similarly, car/booster seat use improved from 2014 to 2015 (p < .0005). Two hundred and fifty (N = 250) MVC-related injuries were registered at IHS facilities for Hualapai community members between 2006 and 2015. The highest rate, 22.4%, was observed in 15- to 24-year-olds, followed by 21.6% in 55- to 64-year-olds. For several combinations of numerators and denominators, sensitivity analysis of the IHS data shows a clear disparity between the Tribe’s MVC rate compared to the 2008 U.S. rate of 771.4 nonfatal injuries per 100,000 persons and the national goal for Healthy People 2020 (694.3 nonfatal injuries/100,000 persons). The major themes emerged from qualitative analyses of the focus groups were: i) unsafe traffic infrastructures, ii) DUI, iii) repeated DUI offenders driving on the reservation, and iv) a perception of lenient tribal traffic laws and enforcement on the reservation. Using study results, five Public Service Announcements were co-developed to inspire community-members to continue the trends noted from 2010-2016 and be aware of continued risks. Conclusions: MVCs are a multidimensional issue needing communitywide awareness of the range of risk factors. An intervention that addresses human and structural risks requires an alliance of tribal programs and external partners (e.g., IHS, university, federal, and state). Recommendations: Local recommendations include providing school- and institution-based education about alcohol/alcoholism and DUI consequences, and ongoing culturally and locally relevant communitywide education through the local newsletter and radio station.
    • A Highly Modular Router Microarchitecture for Networks-on-Chip

      Wu, Wo-Tak (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Advances in semiconductor process technology in the past several decades have brought about an abundance of transistors that can be fabricated on a single silicon die. Microprocessor designers have been integrating more and more processing cores on-chip by taking advantage of such abundance. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become a popular choice for connecting a large number of processing cores in chip multiprocessor designs. NoC provides many advantages over the traditional bus-based approach in terms of bandwidth, scalability, latency, etc. The central part of an NoC is the router. In a conventional NoC design, most of the router area is occupied by the buffers and the crossbar switch. Not surprisingly, these two components also consume the majority of the router’s power. Most of NoC research has been based on the conventional router microarchitecture in the areas of routing algorithm, resource allocation/arbitration, buffer design, etc. There has not been much work done on drastic router microarchitecture redesign. In this dissertation, a novel router microarchitecture design is proposed, which we call Omega, that treats the router itself as a small network of a ring topology. Omega is highly modular and much simpler than the conventional design. It does not use a large crossbar switch as in the conventional design; packet switching is done with simple muxes. Furthermore, the network packet latency is greatly reduced. Simulation and circuit synthesis show that the Omega microarchitecture can reduce latency, area and power by 53%, 34% and 27%, respectively, compared to the conventional design. The Omega microarchitecture design also provides opportunities to implement features that do not exist or are difficult to be realized in the conventional design. To demonstrate this, we implement a new feature on the Omega router to merge packets together in the buffer. The merged packets traverse the network together as long as their routes to destinations do not diverge. This greatly improves the buffer and link utilization. As a result, the effective network capacity can be substantially increased. This dissertation presents one of the first efforts on the new microarchitecture for router considering packet merging. Additional characterizations can be done to better understand its potentials for various applications, and perhaps its shortcomings, in future work to push performance even further.
    • Exploring Non-Psychiatric Nurse Attitudes, Knowledge Base and Comfort Level in Caring for Patients with Mental Illness

      Gutierrez, Christina (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Mental health disorders can be perceived as threatening and uncomfortable to non-psychiatric nurses who may have limited education and/or specialized training on mental health conditions. Due to lack of specialized psychiatric knowledge and training, non-psychiatric nurses develop attitudes that are based on misperceptions such as the fear that mental health patients are aggressive and violent. These perceptions contribute to discriminatory acts by the nurses and heightened stigma. This fear also induces a sense of caution and guard (which in turn interferes with their ability to be effective nurses) due to a perceived threat on their own safety. Objective: Explore nurse attitudes, knowledge base and comfort level of non-psychiatric nurses caring for the patient with mental illness through the use of a pre-existing Likert scale (MICAv4) and a newly developed semi-structured survey (Demographic & Knowledge Base Questionnaire [DKBQ] administered through an online Qualtrics survey. Design: Descriptive quality improvement design. Setting: Medical/Surgical unit in a 212-bed not-for-profit community hospital in the East Valley of the Phoenix Arizona metropolitan area. Participants: Non-psychiatric nurses on the inpatient medical/surgical unit whom care for psychiatric patients and are employed by the community hospital, in Arizona. Results: 60% of the nurses interviewed feel comfortable caring for patients with a psychiatric disorder, 57% feel they have adequate knowledge of psychiatric medications, and 67% feel they have adequate knowledge of psychiatric disorders. In regards to attitudes, 71.4% of the nurses interviewed overall disagree that people with a severe mental illness can never recover enough to have a good quality of life, 62% of participants disagree the public does not need to be protected from people with mental illness, and more than half agree they feel comfortable talking to a person with a mental illness the same as talking to a person with a physical illness. Conclusion: Overall, the nurse participants indicated feeling a baseline comfort in caring for patients with a mental illness. More than half feel they have adequate knowledge of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric medications. The participants, attitudes per the MICAv4 scale indicated the participants have a reduced stigmatic attitude in caring for psychiatric patients.
    • Études for the Orchestral Cymbalist: Developing the Skills for Successful Crash Cymbals Performance

      Timman, Matthew Peter (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In the study of percussion instruments as a part of a collegiate education, the focus is usually placed upon performance of literature from four major areas: snare drum, mallet percussion, timpani, and multiple percussion. This often leaves an instructional gap in the field of performance on percussion accessory instruments, including performance of orchestral crash cymbals. Though literature exists for the instruction of techniques required for commonly performed orchestral works and collections of basic études for cymbals, currently no pedagogical literature exists that cultivates the techniques required for performance of standard orchestral literature through technical études. By identifying required techniques for the performance of standard orchestral literature, technical études have been composed in order to assist with the development of six essential core techniques required to perform the most widely performed orchestral repertoire and works requested in professional orchestral auditions. In addition to these technical études, accompaniment tracks have been composed, incorporating music from the original orchestral works to help educate performance and cultivate a greater familiarity with the repertoire for which the études are specifically designed.
    • La Verdad Cómica: Rius, La Contracultura Mexicana, y Una Ficción Fundamental No Oficial

      Howard, Sarah E. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Eduardo del Río (known as Rius) proved a fierce political activist and prolific comic book creator. He challenged the successes of the Revolution, exposed weaknesses in the government, and provided a voice willing to say something aloud. Unlike most in the comic book industry, del Río held strong leftist political inclinations and campaigned against, among other things, the Institutional Revolutionary Party, U.S. policies in Mexico, and the Catholic Church. Comic books, along with other forms of popular culture, hold an important role in the cultural identity of the nation’s people. Del Río’s work became a part of the continual comic book exchange of its period. His series, Los supermachos (1967-1981) and Los agachados (1968-1977), solidified his role in national identity construction. Comics hold a place in cultural memory and identity construction far more lasting than the inexpensive paper they are printed upon. It is in part because of the persistent nature of comics that an eighty-three-year-old virtual recluse could be considered not only culturally relevant but esteemed. There is no correct way to study popular culture. The closest a scholar can come is to approach the topic openly and from all directions. Popular culture derives power from its fluid, ever-changing, unmeasurable nature. A close study of the work of a man who challenged the status quo provides entry into a field of study that itself questions hundreds of years of history awash in timelines, memorized dates, and military history. Pick up a comic book and dive into the possibilities.
    • Rhetorics of the Fantastic: Re-Examining Fantasy as Action, Object, and Experience

      Rick, David Wesley (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Establishing the literary genre of fantasy, as it is currently known, is largely credited to J. R. R. Tolkien in the mid-twentieth century, though in a broader sense fantastical storytelling has existed for as long as humans have been telling stories. Since its rise to popularity as a contemporary genre, many scholars have studied fantasy in various dimensions, but such study has tended to emphasize genre taxonomy, remaining otherwise generally limited in scope and narrow in focus. This dissertation seeks to complicate an understanding of the term “fantasy,” particularly as it differs from commodified, market-driven genre conventions. It argues that the fantastic represents departure, transformation, and alternative modes of thinking. The project examines major writings on fantasy and the fantastic, including works by writers such as Tzvetan Todorov, Farah Mendlesohn, Ursula K. Le Guin, and Tolkien. It also examines how the fantastic manifests in works not usually thought of as fantasy, as in the writings of Gloria Anzaldúa, and draws upon rhetorical thinkers, such as Wayne Booth and William Covino, while borrowing Kenneth Burke’s dramatistic pentad as a central device to establish a “fantastical pentad.” Part One of this dissertation examines three major capacities of this fantastical pentad: action, object, and experience. As action, the fantastic has the power to complicate, to reimagine—what Tolkien called “sub-creation” and what Paulo Freire called “re-creation.” This produces a fantastical object, or fantasy, that embodies the transformative power of the fantastical act, allowing others to experience it. In turn, experiencing a transformative fantasy offers the opportunity for questioning, evaluating what that fantasy is, how it may or may not be plausible within one’s worldview, and to understand why it is fantastical—that is, what it seeks to transform. Part Two applies these ideas to three sites of inquiry: the composition classroom, games and play, and popular fiction. The project concludes that the fantastic offers, as its primary function, not escapism or mere “flight of fancy,” as has often been claimed in the past, but transformation. This transformation may work in many ways: it may be transformative for the fantasist, who enacts the fantastic; it can be transformative for the audience, who experience the fantasy that the fantasist creates; or, it can be transformative within the object, itself, by reimagining some convention within the writing. This compositional transformation may be a narrative element of fiction such as in the works of Le Guin, where the fantasy is transformative within its genre, or in the writing of Anzaldúa, which blend the fantastic with non-fiction for very material, real-world purposes. This illustrates a cultural significance that reaches far beyond the realm of idle entertainment, providing inspiration and impetus to enact change in the material world.
    • Bifacial Solar Panels System Design, Modeling, and Performance

      Ayala Pelaez, Silvana (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Bifacial photovoltaic (PV) cell technology is currently poised to change solar modules and systems. They provide higher energy yield from its ability to capture both direct and diffuse illumination on the front- and rear-side of the module. At low-costs for implementation in production lines of traditional monofacial silicon cells, lower maintenance needed in fields compared to a similar power array of conventional modules, improved module characteristics like lower thermal coefficient due to better (in average) processes used in production, the implementation of this technology is projected to have a significant impact in the reduction of the cost of solar power, adoptable in a short period of time. Bifacial technology promises even lower $/W and $/kWh costs, continuing to improve solar photovoltaics’ competitive cost with fossil fuel energy sources and help mitigate climate change. However, bifacial PV performance models are not well established, and field validation data is scarce. Furthermore, existing optical models used to calculate the irradiance input into the modules make certain assumptions that have not been scarcely verified. This dissertation performs a study of these optical models for calculating irradiance available to bifacial panels under different deployment configurations. Sensitivity to mounting parameters and modeling assumptions are explored. The models agree between 2-3% despite differences in assumptions and complexity. The results from a test-bed built to validate the optical models are shown, showing good agreement within 2% error (absolute) in the bifacial gain in irradiance. Furthermore, algorithms for bifacial PV modules with single-axis tracking are implemented and presented. Field-data from two locations with single-axis trackers with monofacial and bifacial PV module technology are used to validate the algorithms. A methodology for calculating bifacial gain due to the fact that they can accept light from both front- and rear-side (a property known as bifaciality), and not due to differences in other cell or module properties, is also presented. This methodology has the possibility of addressing the lack of a framework for reporting bifacial versus monofacial fields gains, which has resulted in a wide range of reported gains. The methodology is used to compare performance data for two 100kW bifacial and monofacial arrays in Klamath Falls, Oregon, finding that 2.4% of the measured performance advantage of the bifacial array is due to improved front-side performance, rather than bifacial response. This dissertation concludes with the design of an optical concentrator to improve the specific uses of bifacial PV modules for vertically-mounted systems. Discussion of areas for improvement and future work are also included.
    • Compassion Fatigue among Pediatric Oncology Nurses

      Cooper, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Purpose: To conduct an educational intervention to improve knowledge about compassion fatigue among pediatric oncology nurses at Phoenix Children’s Hospital (PCH). Background: Burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and decreased compassion satisfaction contribute to compassion fatigue. Pediatric oncology nurses face stressful situations based on the unique care demands of children battling cancer such as complex treatment regimens, managing professional boundaries, providing emotional support. grief, and bereavement. Compassion fatigue is a progressive process that can impact a nurse’s quality of life and contributes to decreased job satisfaction, performance, patient satisfaction, and turnover. Methods: A 20-minute educational PowerPoint presentation was presented on compassion fatigue to highlight what compassion fatigue is, signs and symptoms, and common triggers. There was also a handout provided with available resources at PCH that could be utilized to help with compassion fatigue. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale was used to measure compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction levels and a pre- and post-test was completed to measure if an educational intervention improves nurse’s knowledge about compassion fatigue. Findings: The results showed that participants (n=30) knowledge significantly improved after the 20-minute educational intervention (p=0.001) with a mean score of 76.2% on the pre-test and a mean score of 95.4% on the post-test. In addition, nurses had a significant increase (p=0.0001) in the utilization of resources; prior to the intervention only seven participants (23.3%) utilized some of the available resources offered by PCH compared to 24 participants (80%) one-month post-intervention. However, there were no statistically significant changes in raw scores for the pre- and one-month post ProQOL survey (p > 0.05). Overall the participants viewed the class worthwhile and had positive things to say about the class. Implications: The results of this study showed that an educational intervention on compassion fatigue improved nurses knowledge about compassion fatigue, symptoms, common triggers, and available resources with improved utilization of available resources. Even with improved knowledge and utilization of resources, there was not a statistically significant difference in pre- and one-month post survey scores on compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress. Future research could benefit from analyzing the long-term effects improved knowledge of compassion fatigue and the utilization of resources has on compassion satisfaction and fatigue.
    • Evaluating Healthcare Providers’ Utilization of Social Support for COPD Patients

      Nguyen, Thiennga (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Currently, most primary healthcare providers manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through pharmacological treatments, often lacking assessment of the patient’s social support. A lack of social support negatively impacts the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with COPD resulting in increased morbidity, hospital readmissions and excessive costs (Metting, van der Molen, & Kocks, 2016). A comprehensive approach extends beyond pharmacological management to include ways that improve patients’ disease knowledge and self-efficacy, resulting in better disease management and improved QOL. Aim: The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project is to increase healthcare providers’ understanding of the importance of adding a social support referral as part of a comprehensive treatment for patients with COPD. Methods: The QI project was conducted at Banner Desert Medical Center in Mesa, Arizona. The targeted participants were registered nurses, case managers, social workers, and any other care providers in telemetry units, where most COPD patients are treated. The project included a pre- and post-test survey questionnaire and a brief PowerPoint educational presentation. The presentation showed the positive role of social support groups for COPD patients based on multiple evidence-based studies and introduced several options of social support groups to the participants. Results: Total number of participants who completed the project were 42 (n=42), and included registered nurses, one case manager, and one social worker. Most of the participants were not aware of the existence of any social support group before the educational presentation. After the presentation, the collected data demonstrated increased participants’ knowledge and attitudes about the social support groups and the participants’ willingness to utilize the social support referral as part of a comprehensive education and treatment for COPD patients. Conclusion: The referral of social support program is a cost-effective intervention. As shown in several evidence-based studies, the benefits are endless when integrating the referral of a social support group, such as the Better Breathers Club, into COPD patients’ education and discharge planning, so that the patients themselves can connect, share their experiences, learn to better cope with the disease, improve their knowledge and self-care and reduce their depression, exacerbation, and hospital readmissions.
    • Improving Use of Opioid Safety in Primary Care

      Fisher, Kristen (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      With an increase in opioid prescription rates, opioid misuse, abuse and overdose deaths have increased in parallel. Primary care providers are responsible for the majority of the system’s pain management but may lack proper training. The purpose of this project was to implement an educational module designed to improve primary care providers’ knowledge about unnecessary opioid prescriptions, safe pain management and opioid related disorders. This project implemented an educational module to familiarize primary care providers with evidence based guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic pain management. This project used a pretest-posttest design to evaluate if the educational module was effective in increasing provider knowledge. Provider knowledge was assessed using the KnowPain-12 tool and an eight-item survey based on the Center for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for opioid prescribing. Six providers participated in the educational intervention and responded to the pre and post-survey. For the KnowPain-12 survey, three providers had a higher score following the intervention, one provider’s score stayed the same and two had lower scores. The KnowPain-12 survey score ranges from 0-60, average score of the pre-intervention survey was 39.33 and the average score of the post-intervention survey was 39.50. For the knowledge assessment of the CDC guidelines, one point was awarded to each correct response for a total of eight points possible. Overall scores were high, with an average score of 6.83 before the intervention and 7.5 after the intervention. Findings suggest that there may be an educational gap in chronic pain management for primary care providers. There needs to be further research to evaluate opioid prescribing practices in the primary care setting and to identify educational gaps. Educational interventions should be implemented to improve provider knowledge of chronic pain management.
    • Mind the Gap: Gender Differences in Alcohol Consumption and Protective Behavioral Strategies at a Large Public University, 2002 - 2016

      Salafsky, David B. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Alcohol use among college students is a persistent and far-reaching public health issue. While some measures of alcohol use within the college population appear to have improved, questions remain as to whether the alcohol use gender gap has been stable or is in a period of change. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), harm reduction approaches commonly used to address high-risk alcohol use among college students, were also assessed, to determine their relationship with several key alcohol consumption measures for both males and females. Methods: This research summarizes alcohol-related consumption measures based on annual, cross-sectional survey data collected between 2002 - 2016 at a large, public university. Linear regression models as well as descriptive statistics were used to explain overall trends and gender-specific patterns of use over time. In addition, an analysis based on pooled data between 2013 – 2016 was conducted to determine the association between protective behavioral strategies and key alcohol consumption measures, to inform programming that uses these strategies to reduce high risk alcohol use among students, and determine which strategies may be more likely to benefit either males and females for the following alcohol measures: binge drinking in the past two weeks, average drinks when partying and the number of drinks last time consumed alcohol. Both logistic and linear regression models were used to describe these relationships. Results: The results of the 15-year trend analysis revealed significant and meaningful declines among all students in past 30-day alcohol use, average number of drink consumed in the past week, average number of nights students “party” each week, and reductions in the frequency of binge drinking. Looking at the gender gap specifically, these results showed a declining gender gap (i.e. where the difference between male and female use decreased) most notably in average number of drinks consumed in the past week, estimated BAC last time students drank, and past 30 day alcohol use. Based on recent survey results, women showed slightly higher past 30-day alcohol use and reported a higher estimated BAC last time they drank, compared to men. For the second aim of the study, which was based on pooled data collected between 2013 - 2016, most PBS that were expected to moderate alcohol use showed clear and strong protective effects, with a few exceptions. Top strategies for females that were associated with lower alcohol consumption included stopping alcohol use 1-2 hours before going home, avoiding pre-partying and avoiding hard liquor. For men, these included setting a limit on drinks, avoiding pre-parting, and avoiding hard liquor. Conclusion: A number of alcohol measures improved during the study period, and for these, male university students showed greater declines, on average, than females – resulting in a shrinking gender gap. Decreases in the frequency of drinking occasions likely influenced overall declines in average drinks per week and the frequency of binge drinking. Male and female students showed considerable overlap with respect to protective behavioral strategies that were negatively associated with alcohol use and identified a few strategies that may have limited effectiveness. These results highlight evolving trends in alcohol use among college students and point to specific strategies which can help address this longstanding public health issue. Policy and program recommendations, informed by these findings, are detailed in its conclusion.
    • Sustainable Climate Design

      Bean, Jonathan; Lenon, Traci; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2018-12-18)
      Sustainable climate design is one that is sensitive to the environment, energy consumption, human thermal comfort, and health & wellbeing. Several tools are used including a psychometric chart, sun dial diagrams, and 3D modeling to make design decisions. A design in Green Bay, WI a cold & humid climate, is analyzed to find sustainable design strategies that achieve this goal.
    • Streetcar Track Risk to Cyclists: Education as a Solution

      Adkins, Arlie; Friberg-Landon, Alexandria; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2018-12-14)
      The study evaluates bike safety education as a solution to bike crashes involving Tucson’s Sun Link Streetcar Tracks. Bike crashes on streetcar tracks present a problem for public safety that is complex and unique. This study measures the effect of bike safety education on bike crash rates on the streetcar tracks. A survey was used to measure bike crashes on the streetcar tracks before and after the treatment was given. The first survey measured the number of bike crashes on the tracks in the past 8 weeks and randomly divided the treatment and control groups. The control group received no education. The treatment group watched a 3 minute bike safety video. After 6 weeks, a second survey measured the number of crashes on the streetcar tracks in both groups since. The crash rates were compared before and after the treatment and between the groups. The p-value of change in crash rate between the treatment and control groups is .2209. This means that there was not a significant difference between the two groups. The change in crash rates is not likely a result of the educational video. Part of the study is an index to measure the knowledge level of participants about bike safety, specifically as it relates to the streetcar. The index used answers to questions in my survey about experience, risk perception, formal education experience, and how to cross the tracks. This index could be helpful in future studies about bike safety education. While no relationship was found between education and bike crashes on the streetcar tracks in this study, future studies could find something else. If future studies find education effective, then treating the problem might mean a slight shift in bike safety education resources to be more oriented towards the streetcar tracks. If education is not effective, then we need our infrastructure and design standards to change to prioritize safety.
    • ROUTE REPAIR: DESIGN CHANGES TO IMPROVE SAFETY AT MOUNTAIN AVENUE AND HELEN STREET

      Fitzpatrick, Quinton; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Adkins, Arlie; Iuliano, Joey; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      The intersection of Mountain Avenue and Helen Street in the city of Tucson, Arizona, lies at the end of a high use pedestrian and cyclist corridor. The intersection is located near the University of Arizona and is vital in facilitating walking and cycling connections to the university as well as the greater surrounding areas, including downtown Tucson. The intersection is currently unsafe and inefficient as a result of both design and location. This Thesis attempts to analyze and provide recommendations for potential design changes that would increase both vehicle levels of service and safety for all road users. A case study of successful cities and nationally recommended best practice design strategies was conducted to determine what features and infrastructure could be implemented to improve the intersection. It was found that safety infrastructure at intersections and connectivity between safe intersections were among the best practices for improved bicyclist and pedestrian safety. An application of these designs to the study intersection was explored with several alternatives offered. The application of left turn and straight through restrictions for automobiles proved the most promising design change. A significant increase in the level of service of the intersection was observed along with a 66% decrease in the number of conflict points at the intersection, a proxy for intersection safety. In conclusion, it is recommended that turning restrictions be implemented at this intersection to improve walking and cycling safety and connectivity in the greater university region of the city of Tucson.
    • Green Infrastructure and ArcGIS on the University of Arizona Campus

      Iuliano, Joey; Rouhani, Maryam; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Shujuan, Li; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      Climate change has led to an increase of destructive weather events around the world. This is a trend that is expected to continue in the coming decades. Because of this, making our cities more resilient and sustainable should be a top priority. However, realistically there are limited funds available to spend on improving our urban centers. We must find ways to be increasingly efficient and effective with the way we use our resources. This paper explores one way Arc GIS could play a role in analyzing data in order to decide where to prioritize spending. Green infrastructure is a cost effective and sustainable way to handle storm events. It allows water to be retained on site, rather than funneled through gutters. For this study, Arc GIS to create a density map of where green infrastructure currently exists on the University of Arizona’s campus, and then combining that with an NDVI analysis that reveals what areas are furthest away from existing green space. The resulting map shows what areas of campus are furthest from existing green infrastructure and greenspace, and are therefore in most need of additional green infrastructure. The area identified by the final map as having the most need is the north-west part of campus, by Park and Speedway. This same process could be applied at the scale of a city in order for city planners to make informed decisions on how to allocate their funds.
    • Adaptive Reuse as a Sustainable Solution

      Breckenridge, Lauren; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Daughtrey, Cannon (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      The scope of the research if focusing on how adaptive reuse of historic buildings satisfies the three pillars of sustainability. The implementation of adaptive reuse will reduce environmental impact, provide a place for communities to learn and interact with, and bring money into the local economy. The methodology for the study included an online survey, case studies, and literature reviews. This allowed the research to be unbiased and to obtain current research on the topic to figure out if there is a lack of knowledge on the topic. Case studies offer real-world examples of adaptive reuse in and their payoffs. The literature reviews provide information on the concepts and strategies that are involved with adaptive reuse. An online survey was conducted to grasp the general public’s knowledge of the topic. The purpose of researching adaptive reuse in historic buildings is to persuade people to restore a property for a new use rather than constructing a new building. This practice will be able to fulfill social, environmental, and economic sustainability in communities. The findings towards the research topic implied that more research and implementation of adaptive reuse in historic buildings need to be utilized to show the benefits as a sustainable solution.
    • Effective Strategies to Manage Underground Utilities and Urban Trees in Public Rights-of-Way

      Garrick, Sandi; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Alster, Ellen; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      With more than 8.6 million lane miles of roads and adjacent right-of-way in the United States, it is easy to understand why the management of those public assets is of vital importance. Public rights-of-way serve a variety of critical functions including, but not limited to, freight transit, recreational travel, utility infrastructure corridors, alternative modes of transport, drainage elements, vegetation management, and aesthetic enhancement or beautification. This paper will explore the constraints encountered in managing these public spaces for such a variety of stakeholders. Through means of case study analysis, literature review, and interviews with industry experts, recommendations will be made for both technologies and practices being used to effectively manage competing interests in the public rights-of-way. Best Management Practices include preliminary utility identification, accurate mapping utilizing Subsurface Utility Engineering, design considerations including appropriate species, planting, irrigation and maintenance of urban tree forests, public policies that are multi-disciplinary and holistic in their approach, along with funding mechanisms that can be leveraged to support a thriving urban tree forest.