• Exploring 3D Visualization Techniques Using Geographic Information Systems Technology at the University of Arizona

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Wadsworth, James (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-11)
      As computers and geographic information systems (GIS) technology improves, more advanced visualization and analysis becomes possible. One area of GIS technology that is seeing improvement is the development of 3D GIS data. The primary focus of this project was to explore three types of building models that can be created from varying quality data and used by a wide variety of users. Using ESRI software, the goal was to provide guidance for GIS users to develop high quality 3D data relevant to their specific needs. Examples of created 3D products are photorealistic-textured buildings, thematically symbolized buildings, and 3D renderings designed for interior navigation. The resulting data were compiled into an interactive web application for visualization and making comparisons between methodologies. All methods involved using 2D building footprint source data and leveraging the attributes and geometry to create 3D structures. These models provide viewers with additional information that would be impossible to convey in two dimensions, such as viewing a route that occupies the same space on different floors of a building, like navigating between offices or classrooms. Interior navigation is one of many examples of an application that can be built upon the fundamental 3D data examined in this project. Additionally, institutions or organizations seeking to develop their first 3D data from 2D data could potentially use the findings of this project to inform their decisions and start supporting the advancement of 3D GIS at a faster rate than if they were to attempt to develop these data independently.
    • Sourcing Sustainable Energy at Music Festivals

      Esparza, Jordan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-06)
      Concern for carbon emissions is growing and every day that the world uses fossil fuels pushes us closer to irreparable damage. This paper focuses on the impact of outdoor music festivals, their carbon footprints, where they source energy from, and how to make it more environmentally friendly. Thousands of large music events take places around the globe each year, and with a growing population, this issue will only get worse. Working with Relentless Beats of Arizona, this paper uses Decadence Arizona as a case study. Decadence Arizona is an annual 2-day music festivals taking place on New Year’s Eve and New Years Day, in Chandler, Arizona. This paper will determine how, and what resources are needed to power Decadence through solar panels alone. All costs calculated are based on averages of the Phoenix metropolitan area at the time of review.
    • A Call for Remediation: Food Deserts

      Kramer-Lazar, Sean; Callahan, Lindsay; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zuniga, Adriana; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-05)
      The total area covered by cities is projected to triple worldwide in the next forty years (Swilling, 2016). Not only will this urban sprawl continue to consume America’s farmland, but sustainability efforts are largely being hampered, as resources will continue to be depleted, biodiversity will continue to shrink, and ecosystems will be degraded more so than they already are. In recent decades, there has been a flip in where people prefer to reside. Post World War II, America’s upper class preferred living in large mansions in the suburbs, while poorer people lived in or on the edge of central business districts. Nowadays, due to changing demographics and high fuel prices, affluent people prefer to reside in or near cities, and the suburbs have seen an increase in crime and poverty rates (Gallagher, 2014). In layman’s terms, the rich want to be near their jobs, recreation, and amenities, while the poor population has been pushed to less well-rounded/safe areas for residency. The United States’ national population is comprised of almost 326 million people, 23.5 million of whom currently live in a food desert (USDA, 2009). A whopping 2.2% of all American households are located more than ten miles away from a grocery store- this statistic is under-reported, as small corner stores are counted in the same category as big supermarkets in our Industry Classification System (North American Industrial Classification Systems, 2007 ) (Appendix A). Urban growth patterns show that expansion of the suburbs post World War II did not cause increased food access. Expansion radiated outwards, and food access largely remained centralized. Thus, those living on the outskirts where once the rich with means of transportation that would allow them to access food sources easily. However, since the switch in residents, the poor have much more difficulty accessing these supermarkets due to a variety of limitations. These low-income people who find it hard to get and access fresh produce and meat, live in what are called “food deserts.” A food desert does not say residents have no access to food at all, but the options available include numerous quick marts and/or fast food chains that provide a “wealth of processed, sugar, and fat-laden foods” (American Nutrition Association, 2010). Due to transportation barriers, research has demonstrated that people residing in food deserts tend to indulge in unhealthy options more than those living in supermarket accessible areas, and thus residents near or in food deserts tend to have health and weight issues. There is a positive correlation between food deserts increasing in quantity across America and America’s increasing obesity epidemic, where these health concerns end up having a snowball effect for the poor. This capstone is a policy review and lays out ideas to begin to alleviate the food desert crisis in America. The current and historical status of the situation will be thoroughly reviewed, and remediation suggestions will be flushed out throughout the paper.
    • Tucson regional strategies toward a more sustainable home

      Smith, Ben; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Ward, John; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-04)
      Individuals approach the implementation of sustainable strategies at home depend on many factors, which include personal values and economic status. Questions concerning the viability of sustainable home building persist, even within the industry. Utilizing current research, observations, and personal interviews with industry experts, this study attempted to define a prescriptive list of sustainability strategies to the average resident of the Tucson region interested in becoming more energy-efficient. A hierarchy of strategies emerged, ranging from low to no cost implementation strategies to high cost remodels. A consensus was reached concerning the importance of thermal envelope integrity as well as the often- overlooked benefit of shading strategies on the east and west side of a home. Limitations of this study include the scope of energy savings in the residential sector versus societal consumption as a whole, notably within the transportation or industrial sectors.
    • Recent Violent Crime Dynamics and Spatial Patterns in Albuquerque, New Mexico

      Sanchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Schiffer, Dustin (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      This project is an analysis of violent crime in the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico. In 2014, the DOJ opened an investigation into the Albuquerque Police Department (APD) which resulted in APD’s officer numbers dwindling, and making the officers that stay afraid to use their entire tool and skill set. This project uses raw data retrieved directly from APDs API to detect historical and geospatial patterns in Albuquerque crime data. It also uses complimentary data sets such as current station placement, and school locations. Using a Pareto (80/20) analysis, violent crimes were clustered together for an analysis on incident counts within a quarter mile of schools, and how far away the higher incident count buffers are from current stations. Space-Time (time-cube) analysis was applied with violent crime dates to identify areas that may be experiencing new patterns. The results were compared to the overall data that has been touted by the current city administration. This administration has claimed that crime numbers are going down. The results in this project, however, contradict these claims. The workflow and results described in this report will help identify areas that may require more extensive attention from law enforcement agencies in Albuquerque.
    • Growing Up: Greenhouse Designs for Urban Spaces

      Adams, James; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      With the world heading towards a potential food crisis by the year 2050 we need to start looking at current solutions to future problems. One idea is to create more efficient greenhouses where more food can be grown in a smaller space and closer to population centers. By first understanding a brief history of the origins of greenhouses and their historic uses we can further our understanding of how to push these designs into a better future. By utilizing new construction materials, buildings designs, and growing methods, greenhouses may be able to help stem the need for additional agricultural land and food transport. Many companies are already creating urban farms but there is still room for improvement. This study takes a look at some basic ideas towards furthering this goal.
    • Rebound Renewables

      Moore, Alyssa; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Orkney, Justin; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-11-16)
      In an attempt to better understand the effects of renewable energy as it continues to grow in preference, this capstone will focus on Southern Arizona - primarily the Tucson area. Arizona has an arid environment, with an abundance of sunshine making it the ideal location to utilize solar power. As more people realize the potential of renewable energy, a new problem begins to emerge. This capstone explored how the effectivity and efficiency of renewable energy can create a rebound effect. Through the use of qualitative and quantitative data, a strong positive correlation was found that shows that consumers use more energy after switching to renewable energy than before. The study also found that there is a contradiction between how people perceive themselves in terms of environmental consciousness versus how environmentally conscious they behave.
    • Cost Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Buying Solar

      Doser, Seth; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bean, Jonathan; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-11)
      I conducted a cost-benefit analysis of buying solar panels versus leasing them. This study was performed on three residential locations and three commercial locations, which all had different square footage and usage. I found that with smaller system sizes for residential locations, leasing is not the best option. Otherwise, buying and leasing for larger system sizes is based on personal preference. This study demonstrated what the total cost to buy specific system sizes would be and what a customer would save based upon the cost of a leasing program month to month and annual savings based on a Power Purchase Agreement. This study showed the benefits of going solar and what program, lease or buy, could fit you as an individual.
    • Food Insecurity in Tucson, Arizona: An Analysis of the Potential Impact of Food Distribution Resources to Combat Food Deserts

      Pennington, Georgia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Sanderford, Drew; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05-03)
      This research paper aims to examine the food insecurity in Tucson, Arizona and how the use of surplus food distribution markets could be a factor in relieving some of that insecurity. The resources that will be included in this study will be community gardens, farmers markets, and Market on the Move (MOM)/Produce on Wheels Without Waste (POWWOW) projects. After surveying 140 users of MOM/POWWOW, there was no clear demographic of the users. Additionally, less than 10% of the markets were located in food deserts, which emphasizes that there is room to expand markets to these areas to serve vulnerable populations.
    • The Impacts of Energy Efficient Window Retrofits

      Monshizadeh, Iman; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05-01)
      This study set out to find the benefit of high efficiency window retrofits to a medium income Arizona home and specifically how these retrofits impact energy use and cost. To simulate these retrofits an energy modeling software (Energy-10) was used to create a base case home that mirrored the actual home in both design and efficiency. The software was used to create 3 different iterations that only upgraded the windows of the home, each iteration serving as a simulation of a retrofit to the base case home. Energy-10 then generated reports and data that were used to show the benefits, shortcomings, and cost of each iteration
    • Hot Water: Sustainable production and residential applications

      Iuliano, Joey; Lopez, David; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The purpose of the study is to identify how the energy of the sun can be harnessed to heat water in a residential setting. Solar thermal water heaters are used extensively throughout the world to provide a carbon dioxide free solution to an energy rich process. The negative impact of energy production to the health and environment disproportionately affects minorities and working poor. The question of how free sunlight can be used to heat water, reduce energy consumption, and energy insecurity was explored. Greece was used as a case study to determine what the possible implications could be to a town like Tucson, Arizona. Energy production in America by fossil fuels was also looked at geographically to determine where the highest potential, for the most people existed. The study found high incidences of poverty and extreme poverty close to pollution emitting power plants. The study also shows that there is high potential for transition from traditional water heating methods to solar thermal heated water in highly populated areas throughout the American southwest.

      Iuliano, Joseph; Abou-Zeid, Gabriella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Currans, Kristina; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      In the United States, the transportation sector was responsible for 28% of 2016 GHG emissions—the largest contribution of any industry (U.S. EPA, 2018). To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate their effects, active modes of transportation, like walking, need be planned for. This study provides an overview of walking in Tucson, AZ and subsequent guidance for future development through a) an assessment of walk-mode splits, b) a survey on residential preferences for walking, and c) a built environment case study analysis. It found that walking constituted 11% of all trips, compared to motorized vehicles, which accounted for more than 80% of all trips. Percentage of respondent walk and car trips varied significantly by income and trip purpose. Both Tucson residents and existing literature identified destination proximity as the most important built environment factor considered in deciding to walk. A complete streets project that incorporated many built environment features found to improve walkability (e.g., street connectivity, accessibility, walking infrastructure) but failed to account for destination proximity had little impact of walking behavior. To better promote walkability in Tucson, emphasis on coordination between transportation and land use planning and connection of walkability to social and cultural values is necessary.
    • The Negative Impacts of Solar Power

      Wang, Lujia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      With the urban development, more and more environment problems are showing in people’s life. The air pollution causes human health problem and the global warming impact the rise of sea level. To solve the environment problems and reduce the negative effect of environment to the future generation, people start to protect environment and one of the method is using renewable energy. Solar energy is the more popular renewable energy that people use to save energy, because it was clean and the solar resources is abundant. The electricity that transfer from solar energy can improve the energy efficiency use. However, the solar energy is zero pollution and completely clean for several reasons. The following content will discuss the negative impacts of solar power and the strategy to improve the solar energy use.
    • A Comparison Between Chinese Construction and U.S. Construction: From a Sustainability Angle

      Iuliano, Joseph; Wang, Katherine; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zhang, Lingling; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      This paper will be examining the cause of some problems in the Chinese building industry in comparison to the American construction industry from a sustainability standpoint. The differences between the Chinese and American Construction industries are affected by many factors. As a fast-growing economy, China is experiencing rapid growth in its construction industry. Growth leads to prosperity but also sometimes expose problems.
    • LEED Needs to Reevaluate Demolition to Stay Relevant

      Kramer, Sean; Holliday, Tyler; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Almanza, Gabi; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The LEED accreditation process is recognized as the benchmark for ranking sustainable buildings in the United States. LEED certification provides building owners and operators with the tools they need to have an actionable and quantifiable effect on their site’s environmental impact (GenFlex Roofing Systems). By promoting a whole-building approach to sustainability, LEED recognizes performance in site planning, site development, water efficiency, energy efficiency, building materials, waste reduction/division, indoor air quality, and attention to regional concerns (GenFlex Roofing Systems).
    • Creating Sustainable Spaces: A School Garden Case Study

      Iuliano, Joseph; Howell, Jacqueline Ariel; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Marston, Sallie; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify elements of school gardens that promote well-being in students. Many schools are starting school garden programs around the country, and while it is common knowledge that gardens can promote well-being, the causal relationships are not well understood. To better understand what makes school gardens good for students, I spent 4 months working as a garden intern at Manzo Elementary where I observed students and interviewed teachers and other garden interns. This paper also contains a thorough review of available literature that connects human well-being and green spaces. This research found that students appear to be feel a strong connection to their school garden and a sense of ownership of it, and that kids are more excited to use these spaces than other spaces in their schools. These factors appear to promote well-being in Manzo Elementary students by increasing students’ enthusiasm for learning and teaching responsibility.
    • Learning for the Future: Education for Sustainable Development

      Rice, Jenny; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Herrera, Yvette; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      This capstone outlines the climate crisis that is currently perpetuated by the burning of fossil fuels. It addresses the need for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) within established curricula in a traditional and non-traditional school setting. Observations through multiple interviews (N=9) and online surveys (N=54) of University of Arizona students suggest that sustainability concepts in the primary and secondary schools need improvement. Systemic hindrances such as a heavy focus on standardized testing and lack of access to school gardens prevent the mainstreaming of ESD into the regular curriculum. Schools generally associate ESD with outdoor or environmental activities and limit the scope of lesson plans with science as the main subject to connect with. Sustainability is an interdisciplinary concept that can be addressed through nearly all subjects. Continued denial of climate science while politicizing ESD is preventing progressive action toward minimizing the negative effects of climate change. ESD, when thoroughly integrated into the education system could strengthen the opposition to policymakers who insist upon continued subsidies of fossil fuels.
    • Brick & Mortar vs. Traditional Adobe Housing in Southwest

      Virgen, Christian; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04-29)
    • Adopting Geothermal Heat Pumps

      Camarena, Paul; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Global climate change is a major problem we are facing. Thirty percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions are being produced by electricity production, while six percent is produced by buildings. Climate change is happening now. This capstone examines the way in which the use of the earth’s natural properties can help combat climate change through the use of Geothermal heat pumps in the residential sector.
    • A Study of Electrochromic Glass Applied to CAPLA East’s Northern Façade

      Kelly-Jones, Alec; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Chalfoun, Nader; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      I conducted a cost-benefit analysis on electrochromic film as an energy saving strategy at the University of Arizona’s College of Architecture, Planning & Landscape Architecture East building. Using eQUEST, I created a whole building energy model to simulate electrochromic film on its Northern façade, quantifying the effect on the building’s heating and cooling demands. The film proved to be so effective, saving 19,220kWh a year, that I designed a second iteration with only half of the northern façade retrofitted. This also proved to be a viable energy saving strategy, reducing consumption by 15,090kWh.