• A Baroque Denouement: The Direct Influence of Theatre on Bernini's Artistic Work

      Plax, Julie; Francesco, Amelia Rose; Busbea, Larry; Ivey, Paul (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Gian Lorenzo Bernini is the most prominent architect of the High and Late Baroque periods and there is a vast amount of scholarship addressing his architectural, sculptural, and pictorial works. However, studies on the other aspects of his life and work are underdeveloped, especially that of his long and dedicated involvement with the theatre. As scholars Robert Fahrner and William Kleb note in a 1973 essay published in the Educational Theatre Journal, “Art historians seem interested in it [Bernini’s theatrical activity] only in general, as an ‘influence’ on Bernini’s more important (and tangible) sculptural and architectural achievements. Theatre historians seem to have ignored it almost entirely.” This vast oversight, caused by the arbitrary separation of the visual and performing arts, has greatly hindered any scholarly attempts at a fully realized understanding of the Baroque master. In this thesis, I discuss the traditions and styles in 17th century theatre of Italy and France as well as Bernini’s involvement in and use of theatrical conventions in his sculpture and architecture. By tracing both his theatrical activity and artistic career, the connections become extremely evident, shedding new light on Bernini’s life and legacy.
    • 'In Her Own Fashion': Marie de Gournay and the Fabrication of the Writer's Persona

      Ring Freeman, Wendy Lynn; Leibacher-Ouvrard, Lise; McGinnis, Reginald; Zegura, Elizabeth Chesney (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Marie de Gournay (1565-1645) was bold. Following a profound, epiphanic experience while reading Montaigne's Essais, she would turn the despair of a young woman, ambitiously seeking her own voice, into literary performances as part of a continuous exercise of staging herself. Indeed, she would fabricate for herself a mythic persona, a Virgo nobilis, in order to control her own destiny as an author, and as a literary, political and social commentator. She also had some very powerful friends and supporters. Following a prominent fifty-year career, though, she would virtually disappear from the French literary world. Shortly after her death, Gournay's work was erased behind the ridicule, parodies and mystification that had targeted her during her lifetime. Gournay would become counter-fashioned, her own myths turned against her. My intent in this study of Gournay's persona is to provide an example of the dynamics at work in subversive creations, specifically how the construct of Gournay evolved into what humanist Justus Lipsius had presaged as a novum monstrum.I propose to analyze the fabrication of her persona from two different perspectives: first of all, from the point of view of her own self-fashioning, how she appears as both author and character of her own creation, putting into flux the notions of copy - original and imitation - invention. Critical theories on reception, self-fashioning, mystification, originality and feminism will be used within the context of the development of politesse and the honnête homme, in early modern France. Close study of the works of fiction in which her persona appears, only to be mocked, and an analysis of texts which praised her will then reveal how and why Gournay continues to suffer from the binds constructed during the seventeenth century after which she, and many other women writers, were no longer read. She was either scornfully dismissed, or simplified to the point of distortion out of the need to classify and explain a woman whose positions and actions rendered her a phenomenon in a patriarchal society where women were excluded from creating meaning for themselves.