• FROST TOLERANCE STUDIES ON JOJOBA-SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (LINK) SCHNEIDER: CLONAL VARIATION, COMPOSITIONAL RELATIONSHIP AND EFFECT OF CULTURAL PRACTICES (ARIZONA).

      Palzkill, David A.; KHALAFALLA, MUBARAK SIRELKHATIM.; Bartels, P. G.; Bessey, P. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Matsuda, K. (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      In 1984 and 1985 visual differences in frost damage were observed among 40 jojoba clones growing in a field in Tucson, Arizona. More detailed data were collected on the clone with the least damage (Clone-1) and the one with the most damage (Clone-2). On 10-ten terminal branch samples, Clone-1 showed an average of 12% leaf damage compared to 35% for Clone-2. Leaf freezing under controlled conditions on a monthly schedule showed that leaves of Clone-1 consistently froze at a lower temperature than Clone-2. Also, a second exotherm occurred in 50% of the samples for Clone-1 whereas a second exotherm occurred in only 15% of the samples of Clone-2. Soil moisture content and plant water potential were measured biweekly. Neither seemed to relate to the differences in freezing tolerance of the two clones. Total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), total soluble sugars, sucrose and proline were determined monthly. Accumulation patterns of TNC were similar for the two clones, however, Clone-1 generally accumulated more soluble sugars, sucrose and proline which might have contributed to its freezing tolerance. Growth measurements were recorded monthly to determine whether differences occurred between the two clones. Growth of both clones peaked in the spring, showed minor peaks in summer and ceased in winter. Under greenhouse conditions, pot grown cuttings from Clone-1 and Clone-2 were given zero, six or 12 gm of Osmocote fertilizer and watered at 35 or 70% field capacity to determine the effect of irrigation and fertilization on leaf freezing point. Fertilization significantly increased leaf concentrations of N and P and produced more growth. In the greenhouse study, no differences were found in leaf freezing point due to clones, irrigation or fertilization treatment. Leaves of Clone-1 froze at a higher temperature compared to field grown plants.