• 15-deoxy-delta-12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) Mediated Signaling in Colon Cancer

      Mehta, Dipti J; Gerner, Eugene W.; Bowden, Tim G.; Martinez, Jesse D.; Nelson, Mark A. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Normal tissue structure and function are maintained by a dynamic interaction between epithelial cells and the stroma consisting of fibroblasts, adipose, vasculature and resident immune cells, and a multitude of cytokines and growth factors. Stroma was usually studied in the background of the malignant lesion, only in recent years researchers have started considering its role before carcinogenic lesions appear. Recent studies have shown that stromal cells and their products can cause the transformation of adjacent cells through transient signaling during phenomena like adipogenesis and inflammation by secreting various cytokines and chemokines into the matrix which can lead to apoptosis resistance, proliferation, mutations etc. Research in the last few years has demonstrated a functional role for stroma in the initiation and progression of breast, colon and prostate carcinomas. In this study effect of adipogenesis and/or inflammation on prostaglandin biosynthesis is investigated and the effects that these prostaglandins can have on epithelial cells is highlighted. This work demonstrates that normal colonic fibroblasts CCD18Co can produce anti-tumorigenic and pro-tumorigenic prostaglandins during adipogenesis and that this signaling is mediated via COX-2 activation. Although deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid that is responsible for inflammation in the gastro-intestinal tract, induces COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts the downstream signaling of prostaglandin synthases is suppressed. Adipogenesis also leads to an increased polyamine catabolism. Effects of the prostaglandins were studied on various epithelial colon cancer cell lines. It was seen that 15d-PGJ2 causes growth inhibition and apoptosis in all cell lines tested and it was demonstrated that an activated K-RAS suppressed this phenomena. It was also seen that 15d-PGJ2 treatment could induce MAPK signaling and that an activated K-RAS suppressed JNK activation via AKT and MKK4. In conclusion this work reports that colonic fibroblasts can produce anti-tumorigenic factors like 15d-PGJ2 which may then induce apoptosis in epithelial cancer cells. This would be suppressed by an activated K-RAS and at the same time 15d-PGJ2 mediated MAPK signaling could confer a growth advantage for these cells and thus aid in tumor progression.