Bayles, Kathryn Ann (The University of Arizona., 1979)
    • The effects of remediation on the psycholinguistic abilities of cerebral palsied children

      Arehart, Willard Noel, 1939- (The University of Arizona., 1968)
    • A processing model of phonological rule application.

      Myers, James Tomlinson.; Hammond, Michael; Oehrle, Richard; Garrett, Merrill (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      This dissertation proposes a formal model of phonological performance, Double Lookup, that also has empirical consequences for theories of phonological competence. The most significant of these is the Productivity Hypothesis, the claim that the ordering of rules derives from their relative productivity. According to Double Lookup, the use of phonological knowledge during speech production occurs in two steps. First, forms are retrieved from memory; second, phonological rules are retrieved from memory and applied, if appropriate, to the retrieved forms. Phonological patterns may be applied during speech in this way or be prepatterned (stored as patterns across lexical items in memory). The productivity of a rule is defined to be the likelihood of its being retrieved and applied during speech production. In general, less productive rules are more likely to be prepatterned than more productive rules. The Productivity Hypothesis then follows: Because prepatterned forms are retrieved before rules are retrieved and applied, less productive rules will be ordered before more productive rules. Double Lookup and the Productivity Hypothesis are tested in several ways. First it is shown that the ordering of partially productive rules in English, as determined using standard linguistic methods, corresponds with their ranking in productivity, as determined through experiments described in the literature and through original surveys of speech errors. The application of fully productive rules in English is also shown to be consistent with the Productivity Hypothesis; fully productive rules do not apply in a linear sequence, but rather interact in accordance with universal principles. All apparent counterexamples actually involve less than fully productive rules. Next it is shown that the phenomenon referred to in the literature as cyclicity is correctly predicted to arise under certain well-defined circumstances, as when a rule is both prepatterned and very productive. In addition, it is shown that there are large categories of examples that cannot be handled by the notion of cyclicity at all, but find a simple account within Double Lookup. Finally, evidence for the model is summarized by comparing it with other models of rule ordering which face conceptual and empirical problems Double Lookup avoids.

      Goodman, Kenneth; POLLOCK, JOHN FRANCIS.; Goodman, Yetta; Blecha, Milo (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      This study is a naturalistic exploration of the way elementary school children resolve anaphoric pronoun reference in their oral reading of complete narratives. The resolution of pronominal reference is of interest because of the possibility it offers to examine how readers construct a meaning for a text while they are reading it. Third-person pronouns offer interesting points to examine how readers deal with the referential structure of text. They play an important role in establishing the structure by virtue of their dependence on other text items for their interpretation. It was assumed that the way readers deal with pronouns would provide insight into the way they were constructing the referential structure of the text. Miscue analysis was selected as an appropriate technique to examine the in-process behavior of readers. The miscues involving third-person pronouns made by 88 readers from second, fourth, and sixth grade children were analyzed. The children at each grade level each read a complete story. A total of 1,037 miscues involving third-person anaphoric pronouns were noted for qualitative analysis. The analysis produced the following results. Miscues involving third-person anaphoric pronouns occurred proportionally less frequently than miscues involving other text items. This suggested that pronouns were more readily comprehended by the subjects of this study than other text items. The frequency of insertion and substitution of particular third-person pronouns was directly proportional to the frequency of the particular pronoun in the text. This suggested that the subjects were sensitive to the broad referential character of the text. Substitution miscues involving third-person anaphoric pronouns were restricted to a small set of grammatical items. This suggested that the subjects were sensitive to syntax as they processed pronouns. A number of atypical miscue patterns were identified at particular points in the texts. These atypical patterns provided the strongest evidence for the view that readers construct a cognitively interpreted text as they read. The correction of pronoun miscues suggested that when the subjects constructed a cognitively interpreted text they did so tentatively and were prepared to change this in the face of disconfirming evidence in the subsequent text.

      Daniel, Terry C.; Enríquez, Miguel Ángel (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      Two experiments using Spanish-English bilinguals from the University of Arizona and Pima Community College (Tucson, Arizona) investigated information processing and semantic integration of texts presented in Spanish and English. Using propositions (sentences) developed by Kieras (1978) and their Spanish translations, this study sought to determine how bilinguals store and retrieve information when contiguous and interleaved paragraphs are presented in both languages. It was hypothesized that bilinguals store language tags for encoded information in their memory. Storage capacity may be taxed, however, such that recall will be less effective than when information is presented coherently and in only one language. Results showed that forcing bilinguals to keep language tags did in fact result in less correct recall in some instances and greater recall in other instances. Data suggested that bilinguals having to keep language tags may have had better recall because language links between propositions provided additional retrieval routes and increased the probability of recall. In general, results were consistent with the hypothesis that bilingual subjects have only one semantic memory system that is accessed via two different languages. The bilingual's memory performance may be affected, however, by the availability of differentiated language tags stored at the time of information encoding. An attempt was also made to determine language dominance of the 20 bilingual subjects who participated in Experiment II and to correlate this information with recall data. No reliable technique for gauging language dominance was found, nor were there any reliable correlations with recall performance.
    • Therapeutic discourse: a phenomenological view

      Hartmann, Barbara Dianna Reed (The University of Arizona., 1980)