• Quantum Control in the Full Hyperfine Ground Manifold of Cesium

      Jessen, Poul S.; Smith, Aaron Coleman; Cronin, Alexander D.; Anderson, Brian P.; Leroy, Brian J.; Jessen, Poul S. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Cold atomic spins are a great platform for developing and testing control and measurement techniques. This thesis presents experimental investigations into quantum control and measurement using laser cooled cesium atoms. On the control side, we present an experimental realization of a protocol to achieve full controllability of the entire hyperfine ground manifold of cesium. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to map between arbitrary states with fidelity greater than 0.99, using a combination of static, radio frequency, and microwave magnetic fields. On the measurement side, we present an experimental realization of quantum state tomography. The tomography protocol begins by measuring expectation values of an informationally complete set of observables using a weak optical probe in combination with dynamical control. The measurement record is processed using two different state estimation algorithms, allowing us to estimate a quantum state with fidelity greater than 0.9.
    • Very Accurate Quantum Mechanical Non-Relativistic Spectra Calculations of Small Atoms & Molecules Employing All-Particle Explicitly Correlated Gaussian Basis Functions

      Adamowicz, Ludwik; Sharkey, Keeper Layne; Lichtenberger, Dennis; Brown, Michael F.; Anderson, Brian P.; Adamowicz, Ludwik (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Due to the fast increasing capabilities of modern computers it is now feasible to calculate spectra of small atom and molecules with the greater level of accuracy than high-resolution measurements. The mathematical algorithms developed and implemented on high performance supercomputers for the quantum mechanical calculations are directly derived from the first principles of quantum mechanics. The codes developed are primarily used to verify, refine, and predict the energies associated within a given system and given angular momentum state of interest. The Hamiltonian operator used to determine the total energy in the approach presented is called the internal Hamiltonian and is obtained by rigorously separating out the center-of-mass motion (or the elimination of translational motion) from the laboratory-frame Hamiltonian. The methods utilized in the articles presented in this dissertation do not include relativistic corrections and quantum electrodynamic effects, nor do these articles assume the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation with the exception of one publication. There is one major review article included herein which describes the major differences between the non-BO method and the BO approximation using explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) basis functions. The physical systems studied in this dissertation are the atomic elements with Z < 7 (although the discussion is not limited to these) and diatomic molecules such as H₂⁺ and H₂ including nuclear isotopic substitution studies with deuterium and tritium, as well as electronic substitutions with the muon particle. Preliminary testing for triatomic molecular functionals using a model potential is also included in this dissertation. It has been concluded that using all-particle ECGs with including the addition of nonzero angular momentum functions to describe nonzero angular momentum states is sufficient in determining the energies of these states for both the atomic and molecular case.