• African Slavery and the Impact of the Haitian Revolution in Bourbon New Spain: Empire-Building in the Atlantic Age of Revolution, 1750-1808

      Gosner, Kevin; Garcia, Octavio; Gosner, Kevin; Few, Martha; Barickman, B.J. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This dissertation examines the ways that slaves and free blacks participated in and shaped the Bourbon Reforms in New Spain (Mexico and Central America) during the period of 1750-1808. By framing the Bourbon Reforms in this part of the Americas through an Atlantic World perspective, centered on the importance of slavery to European empire-building efforts in the eighteenth century, this dissertation argues that the politics of difference was vital to these imperial ambitions even in places where the slave population was relatively small. In the context of the slave and free black populations, the Spanish Empire determined its politics of difference on prejudices against blacks informed by skin color. Slaves and free blacks, nonetheless, actively participated in Bourbon imperial projects through litigation, forcing negotiations by escaping slavery, giving service in the militias defending the frontiers, borderlands, and imperial cities, and forging important kinship ties that shaped their identities and social networks that they used to negotiate their position in the imperial order. I argue that a pivotal moment when racism exacerbated the relationships of slaves and free blacks with the Crown was the Haitian Revolution. Although racist attitudes were already present against blacks, the Haitian Revolution demonstrated that slaves could eradicate slavery and the colonial order associated. The impact of this revolution was profound and even affected regions of the Americas that had small slave populations.
    • Between Menace and Model Citizen: Lima's Japanese-Peruvians, 1936-1963

      Pieper-Mooney, Jadwiga E.; DuMontier, Benjamin John; Gosner, Kevin; Brescia, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The Japanese-Peruvian community in Lima, Peru used different understandings of race to assert its role in the country. This dissertation examines the changing racial and ethnic characterizations of Japanese residents in Peru between 1936 and 1963. Using archival research and oral histories this dissertation traces the category of “enemy alien” in Peruvian policy, a racial and legal category which overlapped with global conversations about anti-Asian “yellow peril” fears. This analysis pays close attention to one national context – Peru—and takes a long view on nation-state policies that influenced the lives of immigrants. In this context, I argue that understandings of race among Japanese-Peruvians had to do with the placement of Japan in global politics—and were not uniformly negative, depending on the historical moment. Peruvian officials formed their political agenda – and the subsequent treatment of Japanese-Peruvians –not solely in response to U.S. policies and interests in national security. Instead, domestic policies in the 1930s and actions by Japan abroad shaped the changing ways of addressing Japanese-Peruvians before, during, and after World War II. After the war, however, the Japanese-Peruvian community developed their own survival strategies amid changing national and global designations for their racial and political identities. They exploited the racial ambiguity that newspapers, government policies, and Peruvian laborers had towards Japan to claim new citizenship rights. This dissertation uses oral histories to trace how changing international political relations – and war – affected the efforts of immigrants to create a new homeland.
    • Brazil's Anti-Racist Education Reforms And Their Effects On High School History Textbooks: Addressing Critical Reflection On Race And Racism

      Gonzales, Patrisia; Lynch, Lucas Leonard; Gonzales, Patrisia; Cammarota, Julio; Gosner, Kevin (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Anti-racist legislation and education reforms for the past two decades in Brazil have required that curriculum in all basic education combat prejudice and racism and promote critical thinking of the nation's past and current ethnic-racial relations in an effort to construct a society that is more democratic, equal, and just. In response to the reforms, textbooks have been rewritten. This study analyzes one high school history textbook series that was approved by Brazil in 2012, and asks: How, and to what extent, do these new high school history textbooks address critical reflection on race and racism in Brazil? Using qualitative content analysis, I coded the above series for its attention in these matters. My findings reflect that though there are a number of cases where racism in Brazil was admitted, more explanation on the content on racism is needed, the content was too vague, or it lacked necessary details to make its analysis more informed for student reflection.
    • Educated Arguments: Schooling and Citizenship in Turn-of-the-Century Tucson, Arizona

      Morrissey, Katherine; Grey, Amy; Morrissey, Katherine; Irvin, Benjamin; Briggs, Laura; Mutchler, J.C. (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      This dissertation examines some of the ongoing debates about American citizenship in the context of new school development in the small, desert town of Tucson, Arizona, between 1870 and the late 1920s. Arizona officials were actively in pursuit of statehood during most of this period; bringing citizenship to the forefront of public discussion. New schools were one vital resource in the efforts to "civilize" Arizona to meet national expectations for statehood. It was in the fundraising and organizing of these new schools that Arizonans often voiced their expectations about who could and should be a fully active American citizen. Beginning with the development of the first school, in the 1870s, Tucson private and public schools became spaces for educators, state officials, missionaries, and parents to assert their interpretation of the good American citizen. The term cultural citizenship is used to describe the process of social debate and enactment of various interpretations of American citizenship. Tucson's first school, a Catholic girl's academy, at first united the town and territorial boosters who saw the school as an orderly influence on the roughness of the desert settlement. The later creation of local public or common schools led to polarization between Catholics and Protestants as they debated the connections between citizenship and religion. A series of public and private schools opened to segregate Native American, African American, and Mexican American children from the general school population. Each of these schools promoted an agenda about preparing a population of students for American citizenship--often envisioned as necessitating a complete adoption of Anglo-American behaviors and standards--as well as continued segregation. Students in these schools, however, pushed with their words and actions for a wider vision of a more multicultural American citizenship. Rather than adopting Anglo-American mission teachings in their entirety, Native-American and Mexican-American mission school students mixed and adapted traditional culture, mission teachings, and popular culture in ways that had particular meaning in their own lives. Students who attended Tucson schools recognized the benefits of educational opportunities, but almost always adapted that education to meet the needs of their more expansive visions of American citizenship.
    • Everyday Visibility: Race, Migration, and National Identity in Santiago, Chile

      Roth-Gordon, Jennifer; Sheehan, Megan; Greenberg, James B.; Shaw, Susan J.; Roth-Gordon, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Over the last two decades, migration to Chile has increased dramatically. This "new migration" (Martínez 2003) marks a demographic shift away from largely Europeans and Argentineans to the current arrival of migrants from Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. As in other Latin American nations, previous migratory waves to Chile were often associated with racial improvement via blanquemiento, or whitening, a deliberate move away from bodily, material, and cultural markers of indigeneity. While Chile and these neighboring countries share a common language, history of Spanish colonization, dominant religion, and some cultural traditions, the current arrival of Latin American migrants has prompted emphatic delineation of racial difference. In analyzing current discourses addressing migration, I argue that the new Latin American migratory flow is always understood in the context of historic migrations from Europe. As Latin American migrants settle in Chile, racialization - the practice of making racial distinctions and pairing these distinctions with an accompanying racial hierarchy - profoundly shapes migrant experiences. I argue that migrant racialization emphasizes both the creation of racial others as well as the assertion of a Chilean national sameness. Indeed, this new migratory flow prompts the construction, contestation, and negotiation of Chile's own national racial identity - one that is produced in constant awareness of global racial understandings. My research extends work on migrant racialization by exploring the recurring tension between racial distinction and national self-presentation through three examples: understandings and experiences of migrant domestic labor, migrant use of public space, and the consumption of Peruvian food. Throughout these examples, I chart the ongoing production of migrant visibility and how the discourses, practices, and processes involved illustrate the shifting terrain of Chilean racial understandings.
    • Examining the Double-Consciousness: Portraits of Americana in the Works of Ulysses Kay

      Mugmon, Matthew; Knox, Grant Stephen; Brobeck, John T.; Rosenblatt, Jay (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Ulysses Simpson Kay, Jr. (1917–1995) was a distinguished American composer, conductor and professor. Having composed approximately 140 works throughout his lifetime, Kay established himself as a prominent figure within the scope of twentieth-century American composition. An African American composer, Kay often seemed to downplay the role of race in his music, an approach perhaps best articulated by his categorical definition of Black music as “music written or conceived by blacks.” Indeed, scholars have debated the role of Kay’s racial identity in his music. An examination of selected works by Ulysses Kay, and their contexts, reveals that his American and African American musical identities coexist. This finding suggests Kay’s music to be a case study in the musical expression of W.E.B. DuBois’s (1868–1963) term “double-consciousness.” DuBois’s writings, particularly his 1903 collection of essays The Souls of Black Folk offer a framework for understanding the role of racial identity in Kay’s music. This study will look at Kay’s Danse Calinda (1941), Lift Every Voice & Sing (1943), Harlem Children’s Dance Suite (1973), and Frederick Douglass (1991) as works that are evocative of the African American identity, while A Lincoln Letter (1953), FDR: From Third Term to Pearl Harbor (1958), Forever Free (1962), Presidential Suite (1965), Southern Harmony (1975) represent the broader American identity. Each of these compositions implies the duality of identities through its subjects, contexts, and/or specific musical details. As a result, we are able to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the role of racial identity in Ulysses Kay’s music.
    • Eyeing Alameda Park: Topographies of Culture, Class, and Cleanliness in Bourbon Mexico City, 1700 - 1800

      Widdifield, Stacie G.; Hamman, Amy Cathleen; Widdifield, Stacie G.; Widdifield, Stacie G.; Umberger, Emily; Plax, Julie-Anne (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This study addresses eighteenth-century illustrations of Mexico City's Alameda Park. The study reads views of Alameda Park for information about the cultural, political, and economic topographies of the colonial city. Alameda Park offered a place of leisure that was free and open to all members of society. It is argued that as a popular, public setting the Alameda represented a discursive space where cultural opinions were shaped. These beliefs found expression in physical objects: views of Alameda Park. Despite the informational value of these expressions, views of Alameda Park remain an untapped resource on account of the ambiguity surrounding their classification as either an objective map or an artful landscape. This study takes a visual culture approach; it calls attention to the ways views of Alameda Park utilize the conventions of both map and landscape. The study analyzes four views of the park. Each view illustrates a moment in colonial history. These include: the 1719 founding of a convent for Amerindian women—the first in two hundred years of colonial rule, the 1774 opening of the Hospicio de Pobres—a facility that incarcerated vagrants in order to rehabilitate them, the circa 1775 renovation of Alameda Park—a project joining citywide efforts to better police the population, and the 1778 promulgation of the Royal Pragmatic on Marriages—a bill designed to preserve Spanish hegemony in a racially-diverse context. Each view speaks a separate narrative; by reading the object, audiences gain detailed information about the shifting cultural landscape of eighteenth-century Mexico City.
    • Fund Development and Donor Race: How Colorblindness and a ‘Sales Mentality’ Delimits Expanding the Donor Base

      Rhoades, Gary D.; Jensen-Ives, Johanne Kirsten; Kraus, Amanda; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Deil-Amen, Regina J. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This qualitative case study examined the practices used by higher education development professionals and institutions to better understand how a donor’s race is considered as part of the fundraising process. It employed a Critical Race Theory (CRT) framework (Delgado, 2001) designed to combine the scholarship on fund development and race. The central frames of color-blind racism (Bonilla-Silva, 2006) were key organizing concepts for the analysis of findings in this study. Additionally, this research used concepts of White savior ideology (Cammarota, 2011) and poverty porn (Collin, 2009) to interpret the messages and language used in the higher education development field. To provide context for this study, the concept of academic capitalism (Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004) is engaged relative to the pressure higher education development professionals may experience connected to their fundraising efforts. This study employed several qualitative methods for gathering data which consisted of interviews, document analysis, and observation. Findings revealed that development officers utilized a colorblind approach or a one size fits all method for their fundraising, which maps on to several of the four central frames of color-blind racism (Bonilla- Silva, 2006). The findings from this study also suggest that the growing ‘sales mentality’ and pressure to generate more revenue for big campaigns is fueling a development environment where fundraisers are being conditioned to desire a donor who is White and familiar with the philanthropic process; therefore not taking up too much of their time. Institutional, practical, and research-oriented recommendations and implications are presented to inform the work of higher education advancement professionals. This research contributes to the scholarship in CRT, but also provides new empirical based scholarship on a topic that was previously unexplored between higher education fundraising and race.
    • Gender and Race of Teacher and Student: Are They Related to Teacher Responses to Incidents of School Bullying?

      Bauman, Sheri; Hirdes, Cassandra Laine; Bauman, Sheri; Falco, Lia; Perfect, Michelle (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      In this study teachers provided responses indicating what actions they would take towards the bully and victim after watching three bullying vignettes in which the gender and race of the students varied. Significant differences revealed that when race, gender, or race and gender of teacher and student differ teachers are more likely to dismiss the victim or seek out adult resources. If the race or gender or race and gender of teacher and student were the same then teachers indicated that they would comfort the victim with more frequency, use a wider array of approaches regarding the victim, and they would also reprimand the victim more. Females were more likely than males to show care toward the victims and Whites were more likely than non-Whites to dismiss the victim. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher responses by student characteristics alone. Implications for teachers and school counselors are discussed.
    • Media, Race, and Presidential Legitimacy: The Role (and Non-Role) of Mass Media in the Assessment of Presidential Legitimacy

      Kenski, Kate; Zarkower, Nicholle Michelle; Kenski, Kate; Harwood, Jake; Rains, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      That Barack Obama's race was a factor, for both blacks and whites, in the 2008 general election is well-documented. As the majority in this country, the white electorate's response to the nation's first successful African-American presidential contender is of particular interest because it revealed the persistent effects of racism. Scholars have suggested contemporary forms of racism (e.g., Ditonto et al., 2013) explained the reluctance of white citizens to cast their ballots for an African American. This dissertation approaches the topic from a different angle, arguing deep-seated beliefs about which individual characteristics define a legitimate president, race in this project, affected voting decisions, especially among whites. Such beliefs, or "status expectations" (Ridgeway&Berger, 1986), are evident every day in social interactions and are also reflected in the mass media, especially in the vivid medium of television, which was proposed to reinforce status beliefs about presidential legitimacy among white viewers. African Americans, in contrast, were hypothesized be inured to status beliefs represented in television campaign coverage because of a protective, ingroup orientation called "linked fate," (Dawson, 2004), the belief that life chances of the individual are inextricably intertwined with life chances of the black race as a whole. Therefore, while mass media would affect whites' assessments of presidential legitimacy, linked fate would lead African Americans to reject the status beliefs about presidential legitimacy embedded in televised content because this medium has historically derogated their "ingroup". Findings, however, did not support this proposed insulating effect of linked fate, which was operationalized as perceived black racial group favoritism. In fact, moderating relationships, even when statistically significant, typically added little explanatory value to or confounded interpretation of the presidential legitimacy models. Thus, baseline models with main effects were the clearest and most statistically powerful in discerning which variables had the greatest impact on Obama and McCain presidential legitimacy assessments. For both candidates, party identification and race were consistently the most influential predictors. But, for McCain, the effect of conservative partisanship was particularly acute, with an effect size more than three times the effect size of race and four times the size of the most powerful media effect, Fox News believability. In contrast, multiple predictors of comparable effect size factored into Obama legitimacy assessments. Measured by both number of statistically significant media variables and magnitude of effect sizes, Obama's legitimacy assessments were more affected by media predictors than were McCain's. For Obama presidential legitimacy, the most influential variables were Democratic partisan identification, black race, Fox News believability (negatively related), and perceived black racial group favoritism. The next most influential predictors were CNN believability, MSNBC believability, and a status expectation measure of Obama's legitimacy. A third grouping of influential predictors consisted of broadcast believability, an education control variable, and a status expectation measure of McCain's legitimacy (negatively related). These predictors yielded a model that explained 43% of the variance in Obama legitimacy assessments, in contrast to the 28% of variance explained by the model without media variables. Though McCain's presidential legitimacy evaluations were driven primarily by Republican partisan identification and, to a lesser extent, race, several media variables attained statistical significance in the McCain model: the number of days respondents watched television for campaign news, CNN believability, and Fox News believability, all of which augmented McCain's legitimacy assessments. The proportion of variance in McCain legitimacy assessments explained by the model with media effects was 20%, compared to 16% in the model without media predictors, figures substantially lower than the 43% and 28% in the respective Obama models. The range of predictors in the Obama legitimacy model implied myriad perspectives notably absent in the McCain legitimacy model, a pattern that mirrored the diverse coalition that ultimately supported him. Therefore, despite only partial support for this dissertation's hypotheses, the results were consistent with the current partisan and racial divisions in this country, divisions that were affected by the media in the 2008 election.
    • Metempsychosis, Race, and Sympathy in Nineteenth-Century American Literature

      Hurh, John P.; Walsh, Christine Michelle; Zwinger, Lynda; Mason, Lauren (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In this study, I argue that in Robert Montgomery Bird’s Sheppard Lee (1836), Edgar Allan Poe’s “Morella,” (1835), “Ligeia” (1838), and “Eleonora” (1842), Herman Melville’s Confidence Man (1857), and Charles Chesnutt’s The Conjure Woman (1899), the trope of metempsychosis—the supposed transmigration of the soul to another body at the time of death—complicates the process of sympathetic identification and marks its limits. These texts are therefore in dialogue and tension with sentimental fiction, a tradition premised on the capacity of sympathy to create connections between individuals. In the texts I study, however, metempsychosis uncovers the potentially oppressive mechanisms at work in sympathy, and attempts at identification results in disconnection rather than connection. Anticipating late twentieth and early twenty-first century criticisms, these texts reveal that sympathy is not only difficult for the sympathizer to attain and sustain but also perhaps damaging to the recipient, particularly when the sympathizer is white and the recipient is not. Counterintuitively, these texts critique sympathy and the process of identification through a concept that would seem to facilitate them, and their usage of metempsychosis emphasizes not the transcendence of the soul but the implications of embodiment, particularly for black bodies. Ultimately, the action of metempsychosis in these texts offers modes of relation premised on difference rather than commonality, and on not knowing rather than knowing—intellectual and ethical stances that are potentially useful for the twenty-first century and beyond.
    • naat ?a hemkank'la maqlaqsyalank: Toward a Tribal Methodology in Language Research

      Zepeda, Ofelia; Dupris, Joseph James; Warner, Natasha; Fountain, Amy; Silva, Wilson; Zhang, Qing (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The historical diminishment and contemporary revitalization of indigenous languages are underwritten by universalizing discourses set into motion three thousand years ago in the Antiquarian Mediterranean. Tribes, which are immanent polities with inherent rights to govern and protect their lands and peoples, have historically been deemed to be a barrier to empire-building and colonization. The salient colonial response to tribal polity has been forced detribalization, or the disaggregation of indigenous polities into governable state subjects. The factors underwriting indigenous status and identity are not interchangeable, though they overlap significantly. This research disambiguates indigenous race and nation under a “tribal” label. Ultimately, this dissertation offers a tribal methodology for language research that recognizes and respects indigenous polities. The research project aligns multiyear collaboration by the Klamath Tribes and American Indian Language Development Institute with the Klamath Tribes’ long-term commitment to restore the languages of the Klamath, Modoc, and Yahooskin Paiute peoples. Tribal language research conducted with tribal community members informed and articulated principles for future tribally-based language research. Further, the research validated the portability of Where Are Your Keys? Techniques and assessed them as valuable and important for enhancing tribal community members’ language immersion experiences. The first chapter gives a brief political history of western linguistic inquiry, demonstrating language’s primary role in coloniality. Coloniality relies on language as a vital supplement to visions of empire in indigenous homelands. Language research, regimentation of linguistic elements, and evaluation of language speakers through the Middle Ages proved an effective means for usurpation of lands, minds and bodies from existing polities. Those practices proved foundational to praxes of empire in the Americas. Colonizers sought to consume and appropriate indigenous knowledges in synergy with state-sponsored violence and alienation of non-IndoEuropean language users in conjunction with existing racial, religious and class orders. At the end of the chapter, the purpose of tying language to political or racial status and concerns about ambiguations of identity and polity under “indigenous” labels in language science paradigms are examined. The second chapter argues for limiting indigenous labels to tribes and similar transnational political entities underlying colonial nations. This scholarly reframing of polity and identity in relation to land claims enables critical examination of political differences between citizens of indigenous polity and persons of Indigene heritage in the formation of the United States and Mexico. The territorialization of the states of Oregon and California importantly drew on indigenized notions of race, religion and class to privilege European-Indigene metissage, initiate genocide and decolonial revolution, and attempt to preclude Black-tribal association west of the continental divide. The third chapter examines the interplay of federal Indian policy, language research and race science in political actions aimed at detribalization in the United States. Language research was an important aspect of 19th century federal Indian policy. That research incorporated ideas about the relationship between race, citizenship and tribes in the mid-20th century, eventually motivating the federal termination policy, or the legislative erasure of tribes de jure. From Termination through Restoration and the present, the Klamath Tribes have mobilized transcommunal activities to assert nationhood and mitigate state subjugation in the face of socioeconomic siege and formal legislative erasure. The chapter provides focused attention to maqlaqsyals and its diminished use in response to modern racism and Klamath termination, incorporating community thoughts and efforts pertaining to language revitalization. The fourth chapter outlines a research paradigm that centers indigenous polities and suggests the methodological tenets of a tribal paradigm can mobilize language research in sustenance of the political integrity of indigenous nations. The components of a paradigmatic approach to research are discussed, emphasizing cooperative political action through tribal consultation and formal cooperative agreements. Next, insights and experiences are recounted in operationalizing a preliminary tribal research methodology, and methodological reframing based on pilot research carried out in 2016 and 2017 with Klamath tribal community members. Methodological insights gained from the 2018 Summer Language Intensive internship with Where Are Your Keys? (WAYK) and Aleutian Pribilof Island Association are presented with regard to their contribution to a prototype of tribal language research. The chapter concludes with information underwriting the present research project. The fifth chapter describes a study that was carried out with Klamath Tribes community members from December 2018 to August 2019 on the Klamath Reservation in Chiloquin, Oregon. It provides a detailed explanation of research design, methods, and interpretation of outcomes operationalizing the prototype research methodology described in chapter four. The research was carried out to better understand which members of the language community would be interested in participating in tribal language research and what their attitudes are towards maqlaqsyals language and restoration efforts, and to formally test the portability of Where Are Your Keys? Techniques to pedagogical components of tribal language research. The findings of the research are presented, with insights to better understand tribally-centered research. It is hoped that this project leaves the Klamath Tribes well-positioned to facilitate further language research reflective of tribal community guidance. Concluding thoughts are given in the final chapter.
    • Race & Class: An Intergenerational Study of Privileged African Americans Educated in Predominantly White and Integrated Suburban Schools

      Griego-Jones, Toni; Davis Welch, JerMara Camille (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This dissertation sought to better understand the K-12 school experiences of middle and upper income Blacks educated in predominantly White and integrated suburban school systems. Through the narratives of six (6) participants—four females and two males (split evenly between Generations Y and Z)—the study contributes toward knowledge on African American within-group differences and perspectives on K-12 school experiences. The theoretical frames of social location and trust were used to help guide this investigation. Through social location, I sought to understand the interconnectedness of one's race, class, and gender and how these locations impact school experiences. Through the theoretical frame of trust, I sought to understand "overall" participant confidence in the educational processes (academic and social) they underwent. While findings from this dissertation matched some of what is already well-documented on the K-12 school experiences of Black American students in general, by focusing on within-group differences relevant to class and generational grouping, key variances in experiences (not often reported) were revealed. For example, as the study was intergenerational in scope, there was a clear generational divide among study participants in terms of their views relating to how race impacted their K-12 school experiences. Despite the fact that most felt that their schools were not sensitive to their needs as African Americans, race seemed to be less of a concern with Gen Z'ers than with Gen Y'ers. More specifically, while participants from Generation Y were explicit in stating that race had an impact on their school experiences, Generation Z was hesitant to say that race influenced their experiences. Interestingly, as all participants dealt with racial stereotyping, the biggest perpetrators of such stereotypes were peers and not educators. The influence of socioeconomic class on school experiences was also significant as most participants felt that their economic status influenced their cross-cultural interactions. In addition, while the social location of gender was not heavily emphasized in this dissertation, there were variations in perspectives stratified across gender lines. Taken together, a major conclusion was that one's social location (inclusive of generational grouping) cannot be ignored when taking into account the academic experiences of African American students as a whole. Finally, this dissertation highlighted the overall confidence each participant had in the educational process they experienced (academically and socially). Although all encountered some tough circumstances directly related to their social location, everyone felt positive overall about their school experiences—perceiving the academic training they received and inter-ethnic social interactions, as an asset.
    • The Rhetoric Of Nostalgia: Reconstructions of Landscape, Community, and Race in the United States' South

      Day, Stacy Lyn; Mountford, Roxanne; Miller, Thomas P.; Clark, Gregory; Baca, Damian (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      My dissertation analyzes the rhetorical nature of nostalgia within American discourse communities. To accomplish this I analyze the construction and manipulation of nostalgia at the Middleton Place Plantation in Charleston, South Carolina, and in Alan Lomax's memoir, The Land Where the Blues Began. Nostalgia is an emotional response to displacement and occurs when an individual is separated either physically or emotionally from a specific time and place. Because an individual cannot simply return to the place and moment that they long for, nostalgia is hard to remedy and easy to manipulate. The danger of nostalgia is that although it seems individual, it is controlled by social expectations. Because nostalgia can be socially controlled and manufactured, it serves the communal needs of a society rather than the needs of the individual. Therefore, nostalgia can entrench an individual even more deeply into the constructions of their society. In this manner, nostalgia acts as a mechanism of restraint in society, and history based upon or associated with nostalgia becomes a history of containment.My project argues that we recognize the rhetorical work achieved by nostalgia. Three elements must be present if nostalgia is to be rhetorical: it must be purposefully evoked, satiated, and impact the community. Here I define rhetorical activity as any activity that seeks to persuade an individual or a community towards any action. This project analyzes how sites of public memory evoke and satiate nostalgia in their visitors, and reveals the actions that sites request of their visitors. I argue that these sites familiarize their visitors with a time and a place that the visitor cannot have full access to. Because of this, the visitor is displaced and nostalgia is evoked. Sites of public memory then respond to that same nostalgia through the presentation of values, ideals, and beliefs. Consequently, visitors depart sites of public memory with reinforced and realigned values and--due to their newly acquired discourse community--a community of fellow participants. It is in this way that public sites of memory evoke nostalgia for rhetorical ends.
    • South-to-South Migration, Reproduction, Health and Citizenship: The Paradoxes of Proximity for Undocumented Nicaraguan Labor Migrant Women in Costa Rica

      Nichter, Mark A.; Goldade, Kathryn R.; Nichter, Mark A.; Briggs, Laura; Nichter, Mimi; Oglesby, Liz (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      International migration has grown in both scope and scale in recent decades. Almost half of the world's migrants move between countries lying within the global economic South, yet scholarship remains focused on South-to-North routes. This dissertation is a qualitative study of South-to-South migration experience of Nicaraguan women living in Costa Rica. In the mid-1990s, Costa Rica surpassed the United States as the primary destination for Nicaraguan migrants due to the coincided effects of economic distress in Nicaragua and economic developments in Costa Rica, creating gaps in the labor market that Nicaraguans filled.During the 1990s, the number of Nicaraguan migrants tripled to compose eight to sixteen percent of the Costa Rican population; women make up around half of the migrant population. What does the experience of moving between destination and origin contexts characterized by relative geographic, cultural, linguistic, economic and historical proximity reveal about the often juxtaposed social processes of integration and transnationalism? To explore this question, over a year of continuous ethnographic field research and systematic archival review of newspaper accounts were pursued in Costa Rica and Nicaragua (2005-06). Participant observation and 138 in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 43 migrant women, of whom two thirds were undocumented, and 12 Costa Rican health care workers. For its symbolic and material value to migrants and host country nationals, the health care system was the lens for examining migration issues and experience.Study findings suggest that multi-dimensional social forms of proximity for this migration circuit do not uniformly facilitate integration or transnationalism but rather the "paradoxes of proximity." Nicaraguan migrant women articulated feelings of profound exclusion and ambivalence about their lives. For Costa Ricans, migrants represented a threat to national ideals of "exceptionalism" central to historical accounts of their national identity. Ideals included racial and class homogeneity as well as the welfare state's successes in providing health care for all. By drawing on multiple theoretical perspectives from critical and clinical medical anthropology, feminist and historical anthropology, the study illustrates the importance of attending to paradoxical, local health-related experiences as a reflection of macro-level processes of globalization.
    • Spatiotemporal Politics of Postwar U.S. "Feminist History": Manifestos, Histories, and Post-Feminisms

      Soto, Sandra; Kim, Bomyung; Soto, Sandra; Joseph, Miranda; Casper, Monica (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      This dissertation examines postwar U.S. feminist narrative practices of "making," writing, and sustaining "feminist history" and their spatiotemporal figuration of the subject of "women of color." In so doing, I attend to three discursive genres of postwar U.S. "feminist history": manifestos of postwar U.S. women's movements, histories of postwar U.S. women's movements, and the discourse of "post-feminism." The term "feminist history," in this sense, relates to the various ways that postwar U.S. feminists theorized women's liberation (manifestos), historicized the past of postwar U.S. women's movements (histories), and countered the putative "end" of postwar U.S. feminism (post-feminism). First, I argue that manifestos and histories of postwar U.S. women's movements as well as the discourse of "post-feminism" commonly utilized narrative form of discourse within which spatiotemporal imagination of "feminist history" articulate. Second, I point to the spatiotemporal figuration of racial others within these postwar U.S. feminist narratives of "feminist history." Third, I question the political implication of the spatial mobility of "women of color" which is increasingly seized by the late-modern spatiotemporal politics of multiculturalism.
    • "That You May Know One Another": Examining Race Relations in One U.S City's Islamic Community

      Koyama, Jill; Gonzalez-Dogan, Shyla; Taylor, John; Clancy-Smith, Julia; Igsiz, Asli; Henry, Kevin; Betteridge, Anne (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This work focuses on the topic of colorism in the Islamic community of one U.S. city in the southwestern United States. The goal of this dissertation is to better understand how colorism is enacted in Islamic spaces and how immigration policies and the racial classification system of the United States have both assisted in dividing communities. Qualitative data for this dissertation was collected over the period of two years with members of the Muslim community. There is a total of 22 combined individuals that participated in the pilot and primary research. Findings indicate that anti-Blackness, if not outright colorism, has evolved in the community as immigrant Muslims have worked to be seen as model minorities. There is a perception of discrimination that pervades the local Muslim community and it is based on both race and class. Discrimination was found to be exhibited primarily through 1) inequality in social situations, 2) limited opportunities for leadership, and 3) a lack of access to resources. Recommendations are given to address practical participant concerns.
    • The Role of Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage in Disparities in Alzheimer's Disease Risk

      Carvajal, Scott; Peterson, Rachel L.; Butler, Emily; Fain, Mindy; Ehiri, John (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      BACKGROUND: Substantial disparities have been observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by race and social class. The persistence of health disparities over time and for diseases with distinct etiological processes suggests that the fundamental cause may reside within processes of advantage and disadvantage that accumulate across the life course. Although education is a well established risk factor for AD, it is unclear if the mechanistic role of education in AD disparities is through direct cognitive stimulation – the most commonly accepted hypothesis in AD research – or if it operates indirectly as a marker of social status and discrimination. OBJECTIVES: This dissertation aims to answer the question of how social processes at different points in the life course produce socioeconomic and racial inequalities in Alzheimer’s disease risk. This question is broken into a series of three studies that examine the existing evidence for the role of modifiable risk factors in AD, and test for the role of cumulative advantage/disadvantage in the context of socioeconomic, and racial disparities. METHODS: Study one is a structured narrative review of studies that tested for differences by race of the effect of any of six modifiable risk factors (education, obesity, smoking, physical activity, social isolation, and psychosocial stress) for AD risk. Study two used a Generalized Estimating Equation to examine the effect of individual SES and state-level income inequality on Subjective Cognitive Decline, as reported in the Cognitive Decline module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Study three used structural equation modeling to conduct mediation and conditional process analysis (moderated mediation) to examine the role of markers of socioeconomic status and stress in racial disparities in AD risk among participants of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. RESULTS: Of 3,464 identified studies in study one, 45 tested for differences in the modifiable risk factors by race. Education was the most widely examined risk factor, and the only factor in the review with strong evidence for a role in racial disparities. In study two, a dose-response effect was observed for income while those with high school education reported better cognition than those with some college. State-level income inequality was not associated with cognitive decline. In study three, education consistently mediated the race-cognition pathway, and perceived stress and assets mediated the education-cognition pathway. In all models, the direct effect of race on cognition remained large. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, these studies confirmed the importance of education for socioeconomic and racial disparities in AD risk, but suggested that education operates as an indicator of social status and discrimination, as well as through its role via cognitive stimulation. These findings point to the importance of considering social factors from across the life course in public health research and interventions aiming to understand and reduce disparities in AD risk.
    • Unions, Corporations, and the State: Ethnic Tension and Legislative Activism in the Arizona Mining Industry, 1873-1903

      Garcia, Juan R.; Ramsey, James Edward; Garcia, Juan R.; Morrissey, Katherine G.; Vetter, Jeremy A. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The mining industry in Arizona first gained prominence with the growth of the Morenci-Clifton district in the 1870s. A "Mexican camp" from its inception, the town differed racially from the other mining centers across the State, most notably that of Bisbee to the south. As the industry expanded and with the coming of the 20th century, each town established its reputation as an ethnic center for Mexicans and Anglos. Competition for jobs and debates over the rights of workers both contained an underlying issue of race. Questions about who held rights to which jobs isolated Morenci-Clifton as a cultural outlier, and the union push to regulate the industry left the region in a precarious situation. A 1903 state law shortening the work day to eight hours prompted the first major strike in the history of the district, and the motivations behind the law's passage had connotations beyond the protection of workers, extending into the realm of racial exclusion.
    • Up Against an (Imaginary) Wall? Economic Insecurity and the White Working-Class in Contemporary America

      Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Kenworthy, Lane; Bjorklund, Eric; Leahey, Erin; Carlson, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Economic insecurity has grown in the United States since the 1970s. This reflects extensive structural change across key social institutions, like the market, family, and the state. The experience and impact of rising insecurity has fallen disproportionately on the working-class (i.e., those without a four-year college degree). This includes previously insulated members of the working-class, like white non-Hispanics and men. Thus, for much of the white working-class the last fifty years has been a scenario of relative decline. The social, cultural, and economic position of the white working-class—relative to its peers—has generated a potentially distinct set of responses across multiple dimensions. This analysis focuses on two possible ramifications of white working-class economic insecurity: deaths of despair (suicide, drug overdose, alcohol) and reactionary politics. Using a combination of linear modeling and in-depth interviews I assess the relationship between economic insecurity, class position, deaths of despair, and reactionary politics in contemporary America. This research builds up theories of economics and health, class politics, and social inequality. It also provides insight into two highly topical events in modern America: rising deaths of despair and the (re)emergence of white reactionary politics.