Ruiz, Joaquin; Valencia, Victor A.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Titley, Spencer R.; Ducea, Mihai; Eastoe, Christopher; Perez-Segura, Efren (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      In order to improve our understanding of poorly studied Mexican Porphyry Copper Deposits in the SW regional metallogenetic province, a detailed study of the hydrothermal fluid evolution of La Caridad porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, and its connection to a high sulfidation epithermal deposit, was performed using oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur stable isotopes combined with fluid inclusion studies. In addition, UPb and Re-Os geochronology from La Caridad, Milpillas and El Arco porphyry deposit were performed to constrain the timing of mineralization and magmatism in northwest Mexico. Uranium-lead zircon ages from La Caridad suggest a short period of magmatism, between 55.5 and 53.0 Ma. Re-Os molybdenite ages from potassic and phyllic hydrothermal veins yielded identical ages within error, 53.6 ± 0.3 Ma and 53.8 ± 0.3 Ma, respectively. Four stages of hypogene alteration and mineralization are recognized at La Caridad porphyry copper deposit. The isotopic composition of the water in equilibrium with hydrothermal alteration minerals is consistent with highly evaporated lacustrine waters mixed with magmatic waters or vapor separated from magmatic fluids, however, sulfur isotopes and fluid inclusions data support the lacustrine-magmatic water hypothesis. Milpillas porphyry copper deposit in the Cananea Mining District, yielded a crystallization age of 63.9 ± 1.3 Ma. Two Re-Os molybdenite ages yielded an identical age of 63.1 ± 0.4 Ma, Suggesting a restricted period of mineralization. Re-Os data indicate that mineralization in Cananea District, spanned ~4 m.y. in three discrete pulses at ~59 Ma, ~61 Ma and ~63Ma. El Arco porphyry copper deposit, Baja California, Mexico, yielded a Middle Jurassic crystallization age (U-Pb) of 164.7 ± 6.7 Ma and a Re-Os mineralization age of 164.1 ± 0.4 Ma and not ~100 Ma as previously determinated. Porphyry copper deposits in Mexico range in age from 164 Ma to 54 Ma and the mineralization in Sonora state occurred in two different periods, but magmatism overlaps in space and time.
    • Magmatic History and Crustal Genesis of South America: Constraints from U-Pb Ages and Hf Isotopes of Detrital Zircons in Modern Rivers

      Gehrels, George E.; Pepper, Martin Bailey; Reiners, Peter; Kapp, Paul; Zandt, George (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      South America provides an outstanding laboratory for studies of magmatism and crustal evolution because it contains older Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons that amalgamated during Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic supercontinent assembly, as well as a long history of Andean magmatism that records crustal growth and reworking in an accretionary orogen. We have attempted to reconstruct the growth and evolution of South America through U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope analyses of detrital zircons from 59 samples of sand from modern rivers and shorelines. Results from 5,524 new U-Pb ages and 1,199 new Hf isotope determinations are reported. We have also integrated our data into a compilation of all previously published zircon geochronologic and Hf isotopic information, yielding a record that includes>42,000 ages and>1,600 Hf isotope analyses. These data yield five main conclusions: (1) South America has an age distribution that is similar to most other continents, presumably reflecting the supercontinent cycle, with maxima at 2.2-1.8 Ga, 1.6-0.9 Ga, 700-400 Ma, and 360-200 Ma; (2)<200 Ma magmatism along the western margin of South America has age maxima at 183 Ma (191-175 Ma), 151 Ma (159-143 Ma), 126 Ma (131-121 Ma), 109 Ma (114-105 Ma), 87 Ma (95-79 Ma), 62 Ma (71-53 Ma), 39 Ma (43-35 Ma), 19 Ma (23-15 Ma), and 6 Ma (10-2 Ma); (3) for the past 200 Ma, there appears to be a positive correlation between magmatism and the velocity of convergence between central South America and Pacific oceanic plates; (4) Hf isotopes record reworking of older crustal materials during most time periods, with incorporation of juvenile crustal materials at ~1.6-1.0 Ga, 500-400 Ma and ~200-100 Ma; and (5) the Hf isotopic signature of<200 Ma magmatism is apparently controlled by the generation of juvenile magmas during extensional tectonism and reworking of juvenile versus evolved crustal materials during crustal thickening and arc migration.
    • U-Pb and Hf Isotopic Analysis of Detrital Zircons from Paleozoic and Cretaceous Strata of Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

      Gehrels, George E.; Alberts, Daniel G.; Kapp, Paul; Nelson, JoAnne (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Wrangellia, an exotic arc terrane to North America, is interpreted to have been constructed near the margin of the Paleo-Arctic and Paleo-Pacific during middle-late Paleozoic time, before finally accreting to the western margin of North America during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time. Utilizing the detrital zircon record of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Cretaceous basin fill we can provide further insight into the magmatic and depositional evolution of southern Wrangellia. 1422 U-Pb LA-ICPMS analyses from five samples of the Fourth Lake Formation in the Carboniferous Buttle Lake Group were performed. 1055 U-Pb LA-ICPMS analyses from four samples of the Comox formation within the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group were acquired in order to provide a broader sampling of the Lower Mesozoic-Paleozoic rocks of Vancouver Island. U-Pb analyses within the Fourth Lake Formation reveal prominent Carboniferous age peaks (344, 339, 336, 331, and 317 Ma), with minor pre-400 Ma grains from adjacent terranes of Paleo-Arctic origin. Paleozoic detrital zircons exhibit juvenile, with ƐHf(t) values between +15 and +5. U-Pb analyses of Nanaimo Group sedimentary rocks reveal dominant peak ages at 341, 195, 167, and 86 Ma. All major populations yield juvenile epsilon ƐHf(t) values in the range of +15 to +6. The detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Hf isotope data in this study suggest that sediment from the Fourth Lake Formation was derived mainly from bimodal magmatism within the Paleozoic southern Wrangellia arc system as well as minor contributions of recycled detritus from the adjacent Alexander Terrane. Hf isotope data from the Comox Formation indicate that Triassic and Jurassic igneous rocks of the Bonanza Arc, and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous sources from the central Coast Mountains Batholith (CMB), are highly juvenile. This new geochronologic and geochemical data set contributes to a new tectonic model for the Paleozoic Southern Wrangellia Arc system from Late Devonian to Early Permian time and reveals, during Cretaceous time, very locally derived detritus was deposited in sedimentary basins along the inboard margin of Wrangellia.