• Engagement of Map Kinase and mTOR Signalingn by the TSC-2 Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cancer

      Lau, Serrine S; Cohen, Jennifer Diane; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Bowden, Timothy; Vaillancourt, Richard; Wondrak, Georg (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      The tuberous sclerosis-2 (Tsc-2) gene product, tuberin, functions as a renal tumor suppressor. Treatment of Eker (Tsc-2 EK/+) rats and primary renal epithelial cells derived from Tsc-2 EK/+ rats (QTRRE cells) with 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl) hydroquinone (TGHQ) results in loss of heterozygosity at the Tsc-2 locus in kidney tumors and QTRRE cells. QTRRE cells are carcinogenic in athymic nude mice. Analysis of kidney tumors formed in Tsc-2 EK/+ + rats following 8-months of TGHQ treatment reveals increases in B-Raf, Raf-1, pERK, cyclin D1, p27Kip1, 4EBP1, p-4EBP1(Thr70), p-4EBP1(Ser65), and p-4EBP1(Thr37/46) protein expression. These data establish the involvement of mTOR and MAPK signaling cascades in tuberin null tumors. Similar increases in 4EBP1 and p4EBP1 are observed in renal tumor QTRRE-xenografts in nude mice. Concomitant with increases in expression of these proteins in TGHQ-induced renal tumors, similar changes are observed in QTRRE cells, which also exhibit high ERK, B-Raf and Raf-1 kinase activity; and increased expression of cyclin D1, p27, p-4EBP1 (Thr70), p-4EBP1 (Ser65), and p-4EBP1 (Thr37/46). Manipulation of the Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade in QTRRE cells, with kinase inhibitors and siRNA, indicates that Raf-1/MEK/ERK participates in crosstalk with 4EBP1 to regulate translation of cyclin D1.Cyclin D1 and p27 protein levels are increased in the cytoplasm in our RCC models. In normal HK-2 cells, p27 and cyclin D1 are localized to the nucleus. Due to the instability of the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex, p27 interaction is necessary for cyclin D1-CDK4 complex assembly and stabilization in the nucleus. Manipulation of p27 protein levels in QTRRE cells with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, dibutyryl cAMP, and the proteosome inhibitor MG132, all result in a parallel increase in p27 and cyclin D1. Furthermore, p27 siRNA and sorafenib treatment both cause a decrease in p27 and cyclin D1. Further manipulation of cAMP, Rap1B, and B-Raf proteins, revealed that cAMP/PKA/Rap1B/B-Raf activation and B-Raf//ERK MAPK inhibition both modulate p27 expression and compartmental localization in tuberous sclerosis renal cancer. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors play a role in regulating the expression, degradation, and cytoplasmic localization of p27. Therefore, cytoplasmic p27-cyclin D1 mislocalization and stabilization may have an oncogenic role in the cytosol and play a crucial role in tumor formation.