• Banking the Unbankable: The Impact of Racialized Public Organizations on Public Service

      Smith, Craig; Ellenwood, Cheryl; Milward, H. Brinton; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Galaskiewicz, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      In organizational studies, organizations are largely considered race-neutral. This remains prevalent despite the assertion that individuals within organizations can be racialized. The core assumption that centers organizational goals, over emphasizes race at the individual level and fails to recognize race at the organizational level. The goal focused approach to organizations neglects the role of race within the structures of the wider institutional environment. In the United States (US), a white European colonial and settler history is the unmarked backdrop of what we consider ‘mainstream’ society and organizations. But along this landscape is also the subjugation of Native American and Black communities who share a history of racist treatment that has been legitimized throughout government policies and organizational practices, particularly in the name of colonization or capitalism. And although policy efforts attempt to reduce inequities, a number of discriminatory practices persist through organizational action. To examine these issues I use a theory of racialized organizations to investigate the history and extent through which these processes occur in the context of the banking and community development financial institutions industry. More specifically, I examine how the racialized public organization impacts public service. Lending practices within the U.S. provides broad insight into the extent to which organizational action prohibits the financial agency of communities of color. Community development financial institutions offer a remedy for providing access to capital to under resourced communities. Moreover, the remedy includes organizational action that targets distinct racial/ethnic populations as well as approaches that are assumed to include a more general population. Drawing on legislative documents, interviews, and survey data, I explore the impact of racialized public organizations on public service. More specifically, I test a theory of racialized organizations within the public sector. I empirically demonstrate how racially unmarked public organizations underserve communities of color and racially marked public organizations work to address the gap in public service. I begin with a legislative history of the 1994 Riegle Act and review the reasons why community development financial institutions need policy support and public funding. In chapter 3, I then contextualize these organizations with a case study of two CDFIs that balance their mission to provide access to capital for economically distressed among their target client base. In chapter 4, I present my theoretical argument that all public organizations are racialized. In chapter 5, using a theory of racialized organizations, I empirically examine the extent to which racially unmarked or marked organizations impact service to both white clients and communities of color. This final study advances the field by empirically testing a theory of racialized organizations in the public sector. Chapter 6, discusses the implications, limitations, and policy recommendations for this work. As a whole, this dissertation reveals how public organizations can fall short of or advance efforts to address inequities in public service and among target populations. It also examines the extent to which unmarked white organizations are biased towards the service of white clients.
    • Catching a New Wave?: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Racial Identity Development Theory

      Deil-Amen, Regina; Gjerde, Jessica; Nicolazzo, Z; Henry, Jr., Kevin L.; Svoboda, Tori (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Higher Education and Student Affairs (HESA) graduate programs use outdated identity development models from a primary source (Patton et al., 2016) to teach racial identity development to HESA graduate students and new professionals. Situated in a constructivist paradigm and influenced by the field of psychology, these theories promote life span, stage model approaches to identity which focus more on individuals than context. HESA faculty often teach these courses in the same manner in which they were taught (Harris, 2020), reproducing discourses in the field. Using a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) methodology, this study sought to determine what discourses were reproduced, how they contributed to upholding racial inequity, and how mixed-race identity development models may complicate these discourses. The findings showed that HESA syllabi need refreshing, the theories lack context, and Black, Indigenous, People Of Color (BIPOC) development models lack agency. As a result HESA faculty should use more critical and poststructural theory and engage in further research to examine how a multiracial lens can complicate understandings of race, agency, and authenticity.
    • Competing Land Claims and Racial Hierarchies in the Works of Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton, Alexander Posey, Helen Hunt Jackson, and Charles Lummis

      Cooper Alarcon, Daniel; Kolodny, Annette; Szeghi, Tereza; Cooper Alarcon, Daniel; Kolodny, Annette; Evers, Larry; Tapahonso, Luci (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      This project explicates the ways in which writers from different cultural groups (Anglo American, American Indian, and Mexican American) used literature to defend the land claims of increasingly marginalized peoples within the United States around the turn of the twentieth century. Each of the writers I discuss (Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton, Alexander Posey, Charles Lummis, and Helen Hunt Jackson) constructs and manipulates racial hierarchies in order to assert the comparative virtues of the cultural group for whom they advocate. I explore each writer's perceptions of proper land use and legitimate land claims and how these perceptions are informed by disparate cultural inheritances. By looking at authors from different backgrounds, writing from different regions in the United States, I am able to establish the frequency with which racialist assumptions guided popular opinion and U.S. law around the turn of the twentieth century--specifically in regards to land claims. I situate my reading of literary works within the historical context that made competitions for land particularly fierce during this period.
    • Condemning Mestizaje: Spatial Segregation and the Racialization of Sex in Colonial Latin America

      Bezerra, Katia; Gutierrez, Laura; Rosenthal, Olimpia Eurydice; Bezerra, Katia; Gutierrez, Laura; Acosta, Abraham; Morales, Monica (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The central objective of this project is to chart the relationship between early-modern notions of race that developed in the Iberian-Atlantic world and systems of colonial racialization that emerged in the Americas in relation to mestizaje. By analyzing three case-studies from Latin American's early-colonial period, I show that as anxieties about racial mixture got intertwined with the Iberian notion of purity of blood, spatial segregation and the curtailment of interracial sex became two of the main issues around which early-colonial discourses on mestizaje were articulated. In chapter one, I justify the use of the term race for analyzing this period by drawing from current scholarship whose aim is to historicize this notion as a means to better theorize it. Moreover, I explain the specific elements that inform the theory of race that I develop throughout this project, including Bernasconi's formulation of race as a border concept, JanMohamed's notion of racialized sexuality, and Foucault's account of how biopower can help us theorize the interconnections between race and reproductive sex. In the second chapter, I examine Vasco de Quiroga's decisive influence in the formation of the Dual Republic model of spatial segregation in Mexico, and I show how the racialization of space during this period led to a dualistic conception of society that by definition left no place for the liminal figure of the mestizo. In chapter three, I examine a policy adapted by the Portuguese Crown during the sixteenth century whereby white Portuguese women were taken to Brazil in an effort to reduce interracial sex and miscegenation. Lastly, in chapter four I analyze Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala's abject characterization of mestizos in Peru, and I demonstrate that two of the key issues around which he organized his demand for colonial reforms were spatial segregation and the curtailment of interracial sex. By examining these three cases-studies comparatively, and further incorporating a transatlantic perspective that situates them within broader developments that were taking place during the early-modern period, I emphasize the importance that the study of colonial Latin America has for current efforts to historicize the notion of race.
    • Emergent Discourses of Difference in Spenser's Faerie Queene

      Brown, Meg Lota; Goodrich, Jean Nowakowski; Brown, Meg Lota; Boyd McBride, Kari; Ulreich, John C. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      “Emergent Discourses of Difference in Spenser's Faerie Queene" argues that Spenser's project of fashioning "a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline" is in fact a project to define both an English literary and national identity. Yet his idea of faerie which expresses this Englishness is based upon the perception of difference as dangerous and monstrous. While Spenser's faerie is romanticized and politicized, the nature of its threat to the Christian hero is expressed in emerging discourses of anxiety concerning racial, sexual, and class differences, discourses which continue to inform English/British identity well into the age of empire. Although the medieval romance which influenced Spenser presents faerie as an aristocratic ideal, Spenser also borrows from an older, more popular conception of faerie as inherently dangerous, perhaps even predatory. Spenser's use of popular faerie folklore may be read as either an "imperial" appropriation or an instance of the shaping power of popular culture to influence the hegemonic discourse of Elizabethan courtliness, gentility, and the power of the (female) monarch. Spenser's depiction of the lower classes is more complex than the ubiquitous "many-headed monster" so commonly represented by his contemporaries. In turn, Spenser's use of folklore provides an interpretative lens with which to view Spenser's depiction of Elizabeth Tudor as the Faerie Queene, suggesting that the female body and female sexuality present a source of danger both to the titular heroes of the work and to the idealized Christian hero, Arthur. I contend that Spenser's depiction of Elizabeth as Gloriana is not as complementary as it seems. Further, Edmund Spenser was writing at a time of an emergent discourse of race difference applied to Africans and Native Americans, a discourse which manifests itself in Spenser's work as a racialization of the Irish and the "paynim" enemies that challenge his heroes. The Faerie Queene demonstrates Spenser's anxiety for the corruptive effects of the uncivilized and "unworthy," the non-white/non-English, and the non-Protestant Other, including the female witch. Both the inhabitants of faerie and the Faerie Queene herself represent the anxieties at the source of what Spenser defines as English.
    • "I Thought this U.S. Place was Supposed to be About Freedom": Young Latinas Speak to Equity in Mathematics Education and Society

      Turner, Erin E; Gonzalez, Norma; Varley Gutierrez, Maura; Turner, Erin E; Gonzalez, Norma; Moll, Luis; Civil, Marta (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      This dissertation outlines findings from a critical ethnographic research study that attempted to document young Latinas engaging in critical mathematics education, with implications for shifting dominant ideas about the form and goals of education. As Latina youth are marginalized from classrooms and in society where their language, culture, practices, and community are seen as "problems," and particularly in mathematics classrooms where a dominant culture is said to further exclude girls, there is an exigency to understand how in fact Latina students could experience education as transformative. Critical race and feminist theories further argue for centralizing the experiences of women or girls of color as essential to understanding where change can happen in society because of the role that racism and sexism play in structuring educational experiences. Therefore, this study foregrounds the experiences of young Latinas as they engage in critical mathematics.A critical educational paradigm has been put forth whose purpose is to develop critical literacy in students where they investigate, make apparent and challenge oppressive societal structures. This critical ethnographic research study seeks to gain a more nuanced understanding of how young Latinas experience a social justice mathematics learning environment through the facilitation and research of an after-school, all girls mathematics club. More specifically, data in the form of field notes, videotaped sessions, classroom observations, student work and interviews offers a rich source for analysis of their practices in the learning environment, their perceptions of mathematics, themselves as learners of mathematics and as people who can make changes in their lives, communities and in the world. The construct of critical mathematical agency is employed in attempting to understand how the participants' actions expressed a sense of being able to use mathematics to critique and change their worlds. Analysis revealed they engaged in resistance, research and (re)authoring, as ways of expressing critical mathematical agency. In addition, their insight into critical mathematics education highlights the importance of incorporating critical funds of knowledge, fostering collectivity, and centering the experiences in authentic, community contexts. This understanding will inform arguments for seeking social justice through mathematics education and educational research, particularly for Latina youth.
    • The Interaction of Race & Theological Orientation in Congregational Social Service Provision

      Tsitsos, William; Chaves, Mark; Grant, Don; Ragin, Charles (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      This project continues the tradition of scholarly attention to the social service activities of African-American religious organizations. Analysis of data from the 1998 National Congregations Study reveals that African-American congregations are not more or less likely to support social services in general. They are, however, more likely to support certain types of programs. Specifically, these are programs in the areas of substance abuse, mentoring/tutoring, and non-religious education. Further analysis of NCS indicates that, among African-American congregations, theological conservatism is associated with a greater likelihood of supporting social service programs. This runs counter to existing assumptions about theological conservatism, which has previously been associated with a focus on "other-worldly" concerns, such as getting into heaven. As such, theological conservatism has never been thought to encourage concern over "this-worldly" issues such as poverty, homelessness, and other social problems that are part of the social service realm. While these assumptions about theological conservatism hold true for non-African-American congregations, the same cannot be said for African-American congregations. This project attempts to figure out why this is the case. Does theological conservatism mean something different in African-American congregations than what it does in other congregations? If so, what are these different meanings?To answer these questions, the project includes nineteen interviews with key informants, such as ministers, priests, or other staff people/leaders, from local religious congregations in a mid-sized city in the southwestern U.S. Nine of the informants are affiliated with African-American congregations, and the other ten are affiliated with non-African-American congregations. The interviews establish the racial/ethnic composition, theological & political orientations (liberal, conservative, or in the middle) of each informant's congregation, as well as whether the congregation supports any social service programs. The interview data show the ways in which many of the stereotypes about theological conservatism do not apply to African-American, theologically conservative congregations. Many of the interviewees from African-American, theologically conservative congregations emphasize the importance of relationships and community in ways that the non-African-American theological conservatives do not. This explains why these African-American congregations are more likely to support social service programs, unlike other theologically conservative congregations.
    • La Raza Cosmética: Beauty, Race, and Indigeneity in Revolutionary Mexico

      Beezley, William; Varner, Natasha; Jenkins, Jennifer; Gosner, Kevin; Sheridan, Thomas; Beezley, William (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      This dissertation traces the creation of identity, race, and gender ideals during a period of heightened nationalism in Mexico from 1920 through 1946. In hopes of reestablishing stability and prosperity following a decade of Revolutionary warfare, an enterprising group of mid-level bureaucrats, artists, and intellectuals devoted themselves to the creation of a unified national identity. This period of nation building coincided with a boom in visual technologies, thus popular visual culture became an important site for articulating and disseminating new nationalist ideals to the masses. Women were positioned as the ideal conduits for disseminating national identity to the masses and they increasingly bore symbols that wed Indigenous heritage with Mestizo identity in popular culture depictions. Analyzing this nation building process through the lens of beauty as it was mediated through pageants, film, photography, and other ephemera allows for insight into the construction of gendered, racialized identity ideals. While much of this visual discourse was trafficked in the realm of ideas and ephemera, it was also very much based in place. This dissertation analyzes how these projects both shaped and were influenced by efforts to modernize and preserve sites of living Aztec memory in Mexico City. Examination of this identity project in place allows for glimpses of myriad counter-narratives in which Indigenous peoples strategically engaged with and resisted imposed race and gender ideals. Finally, this dissertation considers how the Revolutionary-era conflation of race and culture laid the foundation for a contemporary multiculturalism that discursively elides the existence of widespread inequity and structural racism.
    • Pataxó Hãhãhãe: Race, Indigeneity and Language Revitalization in the Brazilian Northeast

      Roth-Gordon, Jennifer; Nelson, Jessica Fae; Zhang, Qing; Warner, Natasha (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Having pride in one’s mixed racial heritage has been seen as an important part of being a good and patriotic Brazilian since at least the early 1900s. Recently, however, as part of Brazil’s re-democratization and the rise of the New Left, communities have mobilized not only as landless (see Welch 2009) but also as indigenous and Afro-descendant (see Warren 2001, French 2009). Still, ideas about racial harmony in Brazil have remained much the same. Brazil’s self-concept as a mixed-race nation is predicated on indigenous erasure: all Brazilians are imagined to share indigenous, African and Portuguese heritage, an understanding of race that restricts indigeneity to the past and reinforces racist stereotypes of Indians as primitive. This dissertation explores the efforts of the Pataxó Hãhãhãe, a mixed-race indigenous group, to assert an indigenous identity and revitalize their heritage language in a state commonly considered to be “the most ‘African’ state in Brazil” (Weinstein 2015:226). Language is central to my approach. I compare the under-documented Hãhãhãe language with the Maxakalí language; explore the possibility that Hãhãhãe is a mixed language; and reconstruct some morphosyntactic and lexical aspects of Hãhãhãe for revitalization purposes. Then, I focus on everyday cultural and linguistic practices to explore how the Pataxó Hãhãhãe are reworking ideas about race and indigeneity in the Brazilian Northeast as they reclaim an indigenous identity and their heritage language.
    • Race and the Matrix Movie Trilogy

      Sanchez, Tani Dianca; Babcock, Barbara A.; Bernardi, Daniel; LeSeur, Geta; Smith, Howard; Smith-Shomade, Beretta; Whaley, Deborah (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Using a close textual and contextual analysis, I trace themes of gender and race in the Matrix trilogy, arguing for the presence of a parallel, embedded filmic narrative, one that neatly aligns with African-American critical traditions affirming subjugated ideologies, knowledges, communities and forms. Decoding the films through the lenses of race, womanist, film studies and cultural studies theories, I explore this signified, covert storyline through phenotypes, casting choices, plot twists, and extra filmic events. In this dissertation project, I argue that their preponderance, consistency, and coherence are evidence of deliberate commentary. I further claim that that the trilogy can be reasonably understood as a historically motivated critique of Whiteness and White supremacy, offering references to American slavery and ideologies, as well as to cross-racial ideological domination and collective, coalitional and revolutionary change. Since long standing racial and gender understandings (along with their attendant domination and oppression) persist, examining popular films with transformed constructions is useful in supporting frameworks for conceptual change.