• A 5-Axis Calibration System for Calibrating DOI-Correcting Gamma-Ray Detectors

      Furenlid, Lars R.; Anderson, Owen Adams; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Sabet, Hamid (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Improving the resolution of pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) depends on correcting parallax error at the edges of gamma-ray detectors. A novel way to achieve this is to use laser-induced optical barriers (LIOB) to restrict the spread of scintillation photons to a segment of the crystal that corresponds to a ray angle through the pinhole. The gains in resolution at the edge of the detector would be lost, however, without a way to use maximum likelihood (ML) position estimation to correlate detector response to the segment of the scintillation crystal where the gamma ray scintillated into visible photons. To find the response from a given segment of the crystal, a mean detector response function must be acquired from recording the mean detector responses when a known ray angle of gamma ray enters the detector. This motivates designing an building a novel calibration stage that has the ability to aim a pencil-beam of gamma rays into a detector at any position and angle that is possible with a photon traveling through the pinhole from the field of view.
    • A 7.5X Afocal Zoom Lens Design and Kernel Aberration Correction Using Reversed Ray Tracing Methods

      Sasián, José M.; Zhou, Xi; Schwiegerling, James; Liang, Rongguang (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis presents a design of an afocal 7.5X zoom lens with maximum resolution of 0.68μm followed by a reversed ray trace method to show and correct kernel aberrations in zoom lens, with some examples. In Chapter 1, some fundamentals of geometric optics are introduced to help understanding lens design, including terminology, aberration theory, and methods to quantify a lens system performance. Chapter 2 starts with a brief introduction on zoom lens system, which includes characterizing the functionalities of different moving groups, the variator and the compensator, different types of zoom lens configurations, evolution of zoom types and lastly several novel applications of zoom lenses. In Chapter 3, design of a 7.5x afocal zoom with maximum resolution of 0.68μm is presented. The process starts with finding a thin lens solution, then a monochromatic thick lens solution; finally a diffraction limited polychromatic thick lens solution is achieved. In Chapter 4, a reversed ray trace method is introduced to identify and correct the kernel aberrations in zoom lens. Some patent examples are used to show kernel aberrations with the reversed ray trace method. Then two optimization examples of the kernel aberrations are given at the end. Chapter 5 concludes the work presented in this thesis, with some suggestions for possible future works.
    • A Barthesean Analysis of Revisionist Stagings of Verdi's La Traviata

      Rosenblatt, Jay M.; Morneault, Gwyndolyn E.; Brobeck, John T.; Mugmon, Matthew S. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      David Levin wrote in his book Unsettling Opera, “Staging has played an important role in the history of opera, dictating compositional choices and affecting public reception. However, the notion that staging is integral to both the interpretive work and the eventness of opera is relatively recent.”1 Levin made this remark in 2007, but more than ten years later, we still have not developed a consistent framework for which we as an audience can judge the value of revisionist productions. In this document I will analyze and evaluate three different productions of Giuseppe Verdi’s La Traviata in terms of their effectiveness as revisionist stagings by using a set of criteria from the writings of Roland Barthes as laid out by Alessandra Lippucci in her article “Social Theorizing on the Operatic Stage: Jean-Pierre Ponnelle’s Postmodern Humanist Production of La Traviata.”2 Lippucci borrows Barthes’s concepts of relevance, logic, and innovation from his research in reading revisionist literature and applies these concepts to revisionist opera stagings. By demonstrating how we can use these three concepts (the Barthesean model) to create a standard by which to judge revisionist productions, I hope to uncover the value of revisionist productions and determine whether they are valid based on Barthesean principles. This paper will use information gained from isolating these productions of La Traviata as a microcosm for understanding the benefits and cultural necessity of welcoming and evaluating other operas staged in modern revisionist ways.
    • A Bayesian Approach to Spike Sorting of Neural Data via Source Localization

      Lin, Kevin K.; Greene, Patrick; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Venkataramani, Shankar; Morrison, Clayton T. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This dissertation describes a novel mathematical algorithm for extracting spike data and positional information from extracellular electrophysiological neural recordings. By capturing the electrical signals emitted by individual neurons using a thin, conducting probe inserted into the brain of an animal, such recordings allow us to understand how groups of neurons process and encode information about the animal and its environment, and are one of the basic tools of modern neuroscience. However, these recordings generally cannot be used directly because factors such as background activity, movement, and electrical fluctuations produce significant amounts of noise in the recorded data. In addition, nearby cells often code for different features, so simply averaging over the data would result in loss of information. Therefore, as an essential first step, one must extract the underlying signals (spikes) contained within the raw data, and assign these spikes to particular neurons. This process is called spike detection and sorting, and the degree of accuracy to which it can be done directly affects the quality and reliability of all downstream analysis. This dissertation consists of three main components. The primary component is the spike sorting algorithm itself, whose overall mathematical framework is described in chapters 3 and 4. There are two key ideas. The first is the usage of a dipole-based generative model for recorded waveforms. This dipole approximation of a neuron, which captures the empirical falloff in signal strength with distance from the probe, allows us to estimate the position from which signals originate. This in turn helps us estimate waveform shapes and the number of neurons being recorded from. The second key idea is to incorporate this dipole model within an extended Bayesian version of a gaussian mixture model. This gives us a principled way to deal with many of the issues that arise in spike sorting which cannot be resolved by previous methods. We then implement this mathematical framework in the python programming language and test it on both simulated and experimental data. We compare it against a basic mixture model approach and find that it does indeed improve accuracy. The second component of this dissertation is a relatively realistic model of the extracellular signal generation and recording process (the “forward model”) which we describe in chapter 2. We construct this model in order to better understand the physics of extracellular signals, and how they are affected by probe position and neuron geometry. Experimentation with this model allowed us to formulate the simplified physical model which was later incorporated into our final spike sorting algorithm. The forward model also allows us to generate realistic test data which we use to judge the accuracy of our method. The final component of this dissertation is an investigation into the effect of probe geometry and the dipole prior distribution on how well we can estimate neuron positions. This makes extensive use of the forward model described above, and is the content of chapter 5. We show that the algorithm we have developed is robust across a range of prior sizes, and determine the probe geometry which produces optimal localization accuracy.
    • A Brazilian-Muslim Identity in the Land of the Holy Cross: The Assimilation of Muslim Immigrants in Curitiba, Brazil (2001-2020)

      Clancy-Smith, Julia A.; Spinder, Nathan; Fortna, Benjamin C.; Hudson, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Scholarship on the Muslim diaspora in Brazil is still relatively scarce. There is an abundance of English and Portuguese academic research focused mainly on Arab Christian immigrants, who arrived in the late nineteenth century, in large measure because of the estimated twelve million Syro-Lebanese descendants now calling the country home. Nevertheless, Muslim communities have deep roots in Brazil, stretching back to the slave trade. Thus, Muslim immigrants have played a significant role in the evolution of a Brazilian society. This thesis investigates the assimilation of Muslim immigrants in Curitiba, the capital of the southern state of Paraná, mainly during the latest period of the diaspora, from 2001-2020. I chose the city of Curitiba for my fieldwork because of the strong assimilation (Birgit Meyer, 1999) of the Muslim community into society and the hyphenated Brazilian-Muslim identity (Jeffrey Lesser, 1999) there. However, my fieldwork revealed that instead of being a united ummah (Vanessa Souza-Lima, 2016), Shi’i and Sunni Muslims in Curitiba currently compete in order to create a more ample social space in society for themselves. To explain this competition, I lay out the historical background, the physical, non-physical and virtual spaces in which these immigrants have created a Brazilian-Muslim identity, and the forces that have led to exclusion and discrimination. This thesis identifies a Brazilian-Muslim identity and argues that acculturation is not merely or simply a one-sided process but that both Muslim and non-Muslim immigrants in Brazil have adapted to some aspects of Brazilian culture, norms, and social expectations, and distancing themselves from others.
    • A Brief Educational Intervention to Improve Culturally Appropriate Care in Hispanic Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Living in Texas

      Pacheco, Christy; Diaz, Gabriela Cassandra; Brown, Angela; Allison, Theresa (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this project was to utilize an online asynchronous educational webinar to increase the Texas Nurse Practitioners Association’s providers’ knowledge of teaching strategies and culturally appropriate education for Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes. The incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Hispanic population in Texas is increasing with the Hispanic population being diagnosed disproportionately more. This is a cause for concern across the state of Texas due to its significant Hispanic population. Type 2 diabetes; if poorly managed, can have negative outcomes for the patient’s quality of life as well as a financial impact on the economy. Unsuccessfully managed glucose levels may result in debilitating outcomes, such as renal failure, stroke, loss of limbs, blindness, nerve damage, and possibly early death. The sample included 40 nurse practitioners’ who were members of the Texas Nurse Practitioner Association. This project included a pre-test and a post-test to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of the webinar. This project ran for three weeks, during which time one reminder e-mail was distributed. Data was then compiled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the comparison showed that the presentation helped nurse practitioners by providing new cultural knowledge. There were barriers in the questionnaires because the pre-test and post-test were not linked, so there was no way to determine the knowledge learned by each individual participant. There were also technical problems regarding sound quality and speed of presentation. This study could serve as a foundation for further research on improving cultural education for providers who educate Hispanics with type 2 diabetes in Texas. Aggregate data and recommendations were given to the Texas Nurse Practitioner Association.
    • A CACHING EVALUATION OF THE HADOOP DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM

      Newberry, Eric Evan Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is a distributed le system used to support multiple widely-used big data frameworks, including Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark. Since these frameworks are often run across many compute nodes, it is possible that multiple nodes will read the same data. In addition, since data is replicated across multiple nodes for storage, the same data will be written multiple times across the network. In this paper, we conduct an evaluation of the caching potential present in HDFS in order to determine if in-network caching, particularly of the type seen in Named Data Networking (NDN), would reduce the amount of tra c seen in a Spark cluster network, as well as the average load on each data storage node. Our results show that for most benchmarks running on Apache Spark, a majority of the large read operations were done to transfer the Spark and application dependency libraries to each compute node. In addition, there was not a signi cant amount of read tra c in the network for most of the applications we evaluated, making the bene ts of in-network caching for HDFS questionable.
    • A Case Study Analysis of Problem-Based Learning via Fabrication Laboratory Applications in a Southwestern Secondary School

      Rice, Amber; Merrick, Taylor; Mars, Matthew; Molina, Quintin (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers at a southwestern secondary private school utilize the on-campus fabrication lab to promote the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL). Guided by the theory of constructivism, I qualitatively explored the processes teachers engage in when implementing a PBL lesson using a multi-case study design. Five teachers and two fabrication lab directors from various content areas were interviewed and observed. Five overall themes emerged: the differing emphasis on PBL framework components; conflicts, limitations, and constraints perceived with PBL; teachers use of PBL for cognitive development, the role of the environment in PBL; and the role of reflection in the PBL framework. Research recommendations include further exploration into the factors that contribute to a positive environment conducive to PBL, in-depth investigation into the role of each step in the PBL framework, and additional observation periods to elicit the impacts of PBL over time. Recommendations for practice include purposeful teacher reflection, scaffolded planning, strengthening connections between PBL and real-world applications, and strategies for increased student support and encouragement in the classroom.
    • A Case Study of Art Museum Educational Programming for Persons with Dementia and their Care Partners

      Hochtritt, Lisa; Romero, David Reuel; Shin, Ryan; Kraus, Amanda (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Persons diagnosed with dementia or with an intellectual disability and their care partners frequently are marginalized by society (Innes, Archibald, & Murphy, 2004). In the United States, the dementia community is growing because of an aging population and increasing numbers of persons with brain injuries (Hurd & Langa, 2013; Plassman et al., 2011). This qualitative case study investigated inclusive museum programming for persons with dementia (PWDs) and their care partners. It focused on participants from Tucson Museum of Art’s (TMA) Memories in the Making program (MIM) and examined: (1) museum and art education strategies, (2) the use of other disciplinary theories, and (3) how universal design influences the intellectually disabled museum visitor. Using a constructionist lens and single case study methodology, the investigation examined: 11 interviews from museum professionals, docents, artist/educators, and care partners; art pieces produced by the participants; and programming materials. The theoretical frameworks of Kübler-Ross (1974, 1969), Boss (2016, 2007, & 1999), and Schlossberg (1981) were used to analyze issues of grief, loss, and human development. The study findings affirmed that: (1) museum dementia programs strengthened the relationship between PWDs and the care partners, (2) shared experiences had a positive effect on both, (3) there is a need for effective educational strategies for visitors with intellectual disabilities, (4) environments of creativity and self-expression are needed, even when impediments exist. Results suggest that further investigations are warranted into how to strengthen, expand, and sustain museum and art educational programming for those members of the intellectual disability communities. Keywords: dementia, intellectual disabilities, care partners, museum educational programming, museum inclusion
    • A Catalog of Chamber Music Works for Cello in Trio, Quartet, and Quintet Formats from Colombian Composers Who Lived During the Late Nineteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

      Buchholz, Theodore; Mejía, Juan David; Alejo, Philip H.; Kantor, Timothy A. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      When Nobel Prize-winning author Gabriel García Márquez was asked about magical realism, he replied that surrealism, the main component of magical realism, came from the reality of Latin America. It is in this same manner that the composers in this catalog have expressed their reality - through a chorus of many different sounds and rhythms distinct to Colombia. The purpose of this study is to discover and promote Colombian chamber music from 1880 to the present. This has been accomplished by researching trio, quartets, and quintets in which the cello is included as part of the ensemble. A comprehensive catalog of fifty-three composers and 126 chamber music works found while researching in Colombia are presented. Pertinent information on composers and their works, including instrumentation, publishers, and libraries where the compositions can be found, is included in this project. Finally, this study discusses four works from the catalog that serve as examples of the diversity of styles and wealth of repertoire existing in Colombia. Appendices to this research include a list of instrument abbreviations, as well as a list of publishers and libraries with their respective contact information. As significant research of Colombian chamber music, this catalog intends to introduce and facilitate these compositions, exposing and cultivating Latin American chamber music repertoire.
    • A Change in Forecast: A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of a Brief Mindfulness Intervention on Elementary School Class Climate

      Eklund, Katie R.; Meyer, Lauren Nicole; Kirkpatrick, Jennifer B.; Sulkowski, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In recent years, schools have begun seeking new ways to support students who are encountering barriers to success, specifically addressing academic and behavioral challenges that emerge in the classroom setting. Instruction in social-emotional learning (SEL) has emerged as a potential solution for students struggling with self- and social-awareness, relationship skills, self-management, and decision-making. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a brief SEL-based mindfulness intervention on classroom climate and academic outcomes. Seven elementary school classrooms participated in a mindfulness program over a ten-week intervention period, and were matched with seven additional classrooms that acted as the control group. Teachers were trained to implement a two-minute mindfulness-based intervention that was delivered three times per day. Results indicated an increase in classroom satisfaction among students participating in the intervention. Students in both control and intervention classes demonstrated increases in friction and decreases in cohesion. Improvements in academic achievement were also observed. Both intervention and control teachers reported changes in classroom climate over time, specifically indicating decreases in friction. Further, there was a significant difference between intervention and control groups for cohesion; the intervention group had overall higher levels of cohesion. Practical implications, study limitations, and avenues for future research were considered.
    • A Classical Insight Into the Separation Between Church and State

      Waddell, Philip T.; Videla, Gabrielle Marie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This paper connects events of the late Roman Republic with the United States of America’s principle of separation of Church and State. Many scholars find similarities between the Roman Republic and the U.S., but do not know the depth of connection or how the founding of the nation was impacted by the classical world. In the first sections of this paper I define the Roman state cult and examples of how it was abused during the turbulence of the late Republic. The next section describes the classical education the Founding Fathers received. There follows an indepth explanation of the creation and support of the principle of separating church and state during the founding of the United States. To conclude, connections are drawn between that principle of separation and the troubling events of the late Roman Republic that the Founding Fathers would have read from classical authors. It is hoped that this paper shows how a study of the classical world offers modern scholars a chance to understand the modern world.
    • A Clinical Decision Tool to Guide Prevention of Adult Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting during Ondansetron Shortages

      Carlisle, Heather L.; Hoch, Kristie; Bernal, Diana; Piotrowski, Kathleen A. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Nausea and vomiting frequently complicate recovery from anesthesia. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are concerning to patients, with some patients fearing PONV more than postoperative pain. PONV remains a significant problem in anesthesia because of the multitude of consequences such as unexpected hospital admission, delayed recovery, and return to work of ambulatory patients, pulmonary aspiration, wound dehiscence, and dehydration. The antiemetic drug, ondansetron, is recognized as the standard of care in the prevention and treatment of PONV, but this medication is frequently on the national drug shortage list. The primary purpose of this Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project was to develop an evidence-based clinical practice tool to guide PONV prevention practices during ondansetron shortages, to be used by anesthesia providers at a hospital in the Tucson area. The objectives for this project included exploring facility practices surrounding PONV prevention during ondansetron shortages, educating anesthesia providers on available alternative antiemetics during shortages, and evaluating the perceived usefulness of a clinical decision tool on PONV prevention practices. Lewin’s Change Theory and The Johns Hopkins Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Model were utilized as the quality improvement, conceptual frameworks to facilitate translation of current evidence into best practices. Expert practitioners (N=7) were educated on the clinical decision tool modeled after the 2014 Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia (SAMBA) consensus guidelines. 100% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the proposed clinical decision tool would enhance PONV prevention practices during ondansetron shortages. Project results were reported to the facility’s Director of Professional Practice and the anesthesia department’s chief Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA).
    • A Collaborative Investigation of Climate Change Adaptation for the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe

      Chief, Karletta; Chew, Edward Silvio Schuyler; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica; Crimmins, Michael; Scott, Christopher (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This dissertation explores climate change impacts to the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT) and considers how collaboration and community engagement with diverse stakeholder perspectives are critical for PLPT adaptation. The PLPT is a federally recognized tribe located at the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation in the Truckee River Basin of what is now northern Nevada. The Pyramid Lake Paiute call themselves the Kooyooe Tukadu, or cui-ui eaters, reflecting their deep connection to the fish species of Pyramid Lake, which include the endangered cui-ui (Chasmistes cujus) and threatened Lahontan cutthroat trout (LCT, Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi). The Kooyooe Tukadu are deeply connected – culturally, physically, and spiritually – to the Truckee River Basin, Pyramid Lake, the cui-ui, and the LCT, all of which are threatened by impacts of climate change. Designed and framed within an ongoing collaborative partnership between the PLPT Council and university researchers, this research has three key objectives: (1) develop community outreach strategies and tools for the PLPT that stimulate discussion of climate change issues; (2) engage PLPT departments and stakeholder groups to understand climate change impacts and vulnerability; and (3) explore how adaptation and Indigenous knowledge may enhance PLPT responses to climate change.Utilizing decolonizing and participatory action research methodologies, this study engaged community perspectives of climate change through a community centered workshop. Educational resources were developed to augment PLPT community members’ knowledge of how local climate affects the Pyramid Lake ecosystem. With PLPT oversight, interview questions were designed to identify climate change impacts and the role of planning and Indigenous knowledge in adaptation. This study engaged 31 PLPT department staff and stakeholders in interviews and focus groups. Their responses were organized into three main categories: climate change impacts and vulnerabilities; adaptation and planning; and Indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation. Participants expressed concern about a wide range of climate change and environmental impacts. including water resource issues, cultural concerns, environmental change, management and operations, and impacts on individual livelihoods. Education, outreach, and community engagement were emphasized as potential solutions for adaptation planning. Planning emerged as an important category from the interviews and focus groups that encompassed seven themes: mismanagement, community engagement, funding issues, strategic plans, operations planning, ecosystem restoration, and PLPT governance. The role of Indigenous knowledge in PLPT adaptation was explored extensively through seven relevant themes: practices, knowledge & history, land, survival, colonization, intergenerational, and protection. The results of this study have direct relevance to PLPT efforts to understand and respond to climate change. This study may offer insight to tribal governments considering climate change research partnerships with university researchers. This study emphasizes accountability, PLPT autonomy over research design and data, empathy for participants, and respect for their contributions. This study’s careful approach to understanding how PLPT Indigenous knowledge might be included in adaptation efforts may provide guidance to other Indigenous communities. The conclusion offers a summary of the participants’ views on adaptation and Indigenous knowledge that the PLPT Council could consider for climate change action planning.
    • A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RACIAL/ETHNIC SLEEP DISPARITIES AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN MAJORITY-WHITE AND MAJORITY-MINORITY INSTITUTIONS

      Grandner, Michael; Okuagu, Ashley Chisom (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Racial/ethnic sleep disparities have been documented for decades and may be related to discrimination faced at various levels, both in individual communities and at the sociopolitical stratosphere. The purpose of this research was to delve into a specific demographic of the national population, college/university students, and analyze whether the predominance of white students at various institutions affected the sleep quality and duration of minority students. Data used in this research was collected by the American College Health Association (ACHA) National College Health Assessment. In this survey, students identified as Non-Hispanic White, Black/African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, Native American, Multiracial, or Other. Schools where the majority of respondents were Non-Hispanic White were classified as “Majority-White” schools while schools where a majority of the respondents were not Non-Hispanic White were classified as “Majority-Minority” schools. The results showed an overall correlation with poorer sleep in minority students at Majority-White schools and no association between school type and sleep sufficiency in Hispanics/Latinos. Sociopolitical and socioenvironmental influences may be involved, though future directions for this study may include further analysis on the reasoning behind the results of this study.
    • A Comparative Multi-Site Case Study of the Implementation and Impact of a Stock Inhaler Protocol in Two School Districts in Tucson, Arizona

      Gerald, Lynn; Snyder, Aimee; Taren, Douglas; Cutshaw, Christina; Clemens, Conrad; Contreras, Ricardo (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      A stock inhaler protocol for schools has been recommended as an important safety net for students who do not have access to personal quick-relief medication. The implementation process and impacts of the stock inhaler protocol in public school systems are not well defined in the literature. This comparative case study assesses the processes and impacts of stock inhaler implementations in two low-income, majority Hispanic public school districts in Tucson, Arizona. The implementation and impact assessments used simple quantitative usage data and extensive narrative data from meeting notes, email correspondences, and in-depth interviews to evaluate the implementation processes and impacts from the 2013-2017 school years. Legal and practical concerns were the primary barriers to stock inhaler adoption at the district level and implementation at the school level. The recognition of the students’ needs and lack of resources; challenges of care without quick-relief medications; supports from external asthma experts; and supports from a centralized district health services leadership were identified as facilitators of adoption and implementation. The stock inhalers were used in the majority of the schools included in the evaluation. The stock inhalers were favored by all interviewed stakeholders (n=78), except for one caretaker and one adolescent. School health staff reported that the stock inhalers improved school-based respiratory care; reduced time, opportunity, and resource losses; reduced psychological distress related to unexpected respiratory distress; provided a tool used to improve family/student respiratory care and asthma management; and allowed family/student reliance of the school’s stock inhaler. The improved school-based respiratory care; reduced psychological distress; and reduced time, opportunity, and resource losses were the most cited benefits of the stock inhalers. Stock inhaler protocols can provide reliable and immediate access to quick-relief medication for any individual who experiences respiratory distress at schools, dependent on the design of the protocol. Stock inhaler protocols can improve efficiency and effectiveness of school-based respiratory care when barriers to access and implementation are reduced. External stock inhaler supports – including supportive state laws, expert knowledge to adapt the protocol to fit the needs of the district/school, and provision of necessary medication and delivery device – can reduce barriers to adoption and implementation.
    • A Comparative Study of Vladimir Leyetchkiss's 1985 Piano Transcription of Igor Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps

      Woods, Rex; Linder, Daniel; Dong, Minjun; Knosp, Suzanne; Cockrell, Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Vladimir Leyetchkiss was a pianist, composer, and teacher born in Russia on August 8, 1934. It was Leyetchkiss’s love for transcriptions that led him to study with Heinrich Neuhaus. His passion for writing and playing piano transcriptions was fueled by his strong interest in orchestral music and conducting. His transcription work was facilitated by his impressive technique as well as his ability to produce an orchestral sound at the piano. He transcribed numerous orchestral works for the piano including Trois nocturnes by Debussy, L’Apprenti sorcier by Dukas, Tasso: Lamento et Trionfo by Liszt, symphonies of Taneyey and Prokofiev, and most notably, Igor Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps. This study shows that Leyetchkiss’s piano transcription of Le Sacre du printemps is superior to three existing transcriptions of the same work by other composers, because of its fidelity to the original orchestral score. The three existing transcriptions are: Le Sacre du printemps for Piano Four Hands by Igor Stravinsky; The Rite of Spring: Complete Ballet for Piano Solo by Sam Raphling; “The Rite of Spring: An Original Solo Piano Transcription of Stravinsky's 1913 Ballet with Annotations and Historical Notes” by William Norman Fried. Leyetchkiss’s piano transcription not only includes as many elements and voices as possible from the orchestral score but is also practical and accessible for the performer. Studying and performing this repertoire is a rewarding process for pianistic and musical growth. A comparative analysis of these four transcriptions will follow a brief history of the development of the piano transcription (Chapter 2), and an introduction to Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 includes comparison of selected passages from five representative sections of Le Sacre du printemps: “The Augurs of Spring,” “The Ritual of Abduction,” and “Dance of the Earth” from Part I and “Naming and Honoring of the Chosen One” and “Sacrificial Dance (The Chosen One)” from Part II.
    • A COMPARISON BETWEEN AN ANCESTRAL AND A DERIVED CRUSTACEAN BRAIN

      Strausfeld, Nicholas; Riffer, Jordan (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The goal of my research is to investigate which neurons in the brains of a crustacean species might be involved in pathways or circuits underlying sensory convergence and learning and memory. The first step in such an investigation is an analysis of neuron organization, using histological comparisons across identified centers that are known from other studies to serve multisensory integration and possibly learning and memory. The main goal of this research has been to analyze the morphology of a highly derived malacostracan crustacean (crab) brain, comparing it with the brain of a well-documented basal malacostracan belonging to Stomatopoda. The stomatopod learning and memory center consists of a cap and stalk, as in an insect’s mushroom body–a center known to support learning and memory. In contrast, the crab’s center comprises a saddle-like structure, which in the literature is known as a hemiellipsoid body, situated over the rostral surface of the lateral protocerebrum. In stomatopods, input and output neurons extend their branches into the mushroom body where they intersect parallel fibers. In the crab, there are no such obvious arrangements of fibers. My goal is to determine if there is evidence that, during the course of evolution, there has been a discrete modification of the organization in homologous computational circuits in the crab lineage (Brachycera). In order to complete this task, I have generated histological silver-stained preparations that allowed direct comparison of stomatopod and crab centers. I also had access to a library of Golgi stained specimens of both species investigated. These specimens provide crucial information about the shapes of single neurons.
    • A Comparison of Electromagnetic Physical Scale and Numerical Modeling for Geophysical Exploration

      Sternberg, Ben K.; Burkart, Riley; Johnson, Roy A.; Rucker, Dale F. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Numerical modeling has, in the twenty-first century, become the dominant form of modeling for electromagnetic exploration geophysics, but few studies have been undertaken that compare numerical models with physical scale models to determine the constraints on numerical algorithms. In this thesis, a physical scale model system was constructed and twenty-six profiles run to analyze the strengths and limitations of four algorithms in PetRos EiKon's EMIGMA V8.6 modeling software: Free Space EikPlate (FS Plate), VH Plate, Inductive Localized Non-Linear (ILN), and EMSPHERE. A low-power vertical-array system with a ten-turn square transmitter loop and receiver coils in the Bx, By, and Bz directions with ten turns, ten turns, and two turns, respectively, was designed and constructed for this thesis. Profiles were taken in either a lab setting, which provided more space, or a tank setting, which allowed for lower noise and modeling of a conductive host. A total of twenty-six profiles taken with ten targets are presented here together with their geometric configurations. Through comparison of the measured and the simulated data, the following conclusions are made: (1) The VH Plate and ILN algorithms produce less accurate simulations for small targets; this may be redressed by increasing the scale of the targets. (2) Every algorithm designed to account for galvanic responses, when otherwise operating within its constraints, does so effectively and corroborates the measured data. (3) FS Plate simulations reasonably approximate the measured responses of long sheet targets when the sheet center is distal to the receiver by more than one third the sheet length, but do not approximate the measured data as well when the center of the target is proximal to the receiver. (4) EMSPHERE, which is only supported for dipole sources, does not approximate a target with a loop source well when the target is directly beneath the transmitter, but it does approximate it well when the target is displaced from the transmitter; a sphere may be approximated for the ILN algorithm by a cube that fits flush within the sphere. (5) FS Plate peak responses tend to be smaller than the measured responses by a factor of two, but the side skirts match well; FS plate also appears to diverge from the Kramers-Kronig relations for induction numbers smaller than 2e-4. (6) VH Plate peak responses tend to be larger than the measured responses by a factor of roughly two, and the side skirts do not match well. (7) ILN breaks down for high conductivity contrasts, such as a graphite cube in air; this issue may be avoided by using a more resistive host for the model so long as inductive effects still dominate, which may be determined using LN.
    • A Comparison of the Effect of Heat Treating on the Microsegregation and Microstructure of WS-306 in End-Chill and Commercial Samples

      Poirier, David; Lenharth, Paul; Muralidharan, Krishna; Wessman, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Present commercial ball mill liners composed of WS-306 tend to crack before being worn-down. As part of an effort to increase the fracture toughness of WS-306, the microstructure and microsegregation of both commercial and end-chill castings of WS-306 were characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The effects of high temperature heat treatment on the microstructure and microsegregation were also characterized by EPMA. It was found that both commercial and end-chill samples experienced additional microsegregation upon heat treatment for some elements, as contrasted to the microsegregation in the pre-treated samples. Commercial casting samples had an aggregation of carbides during heat treatment, while end-chill samples precipitated secondary carbides. This suggests that high temperature heat treatment performed after current commercial heat treatment may improve fracture toughness.