Now showing items 10143-10162 of 39117

    • E-Learning in Physical Education

      Sipe, Dawna; UA South Educational Technology (The University of Arizona., 2015-05-17)
    • E-Learning practice: Adding Humor to your Online Class

      Stoll, Paul; UA South Educational Technology (The University of Arizona., 2016-04-23)
      Abstract: There will always be instructors who use humor in their classes. While these practitioners have never numbered in the majority and often have been scorned by their peers, there has been a resilient insistence that humor has a place in education. As education moves more and more into online modalities, we find ourselves at a crossroad of opportunities. It has never been easier to find humorous content about any topic using technology. Simply searching Google for “humor in instruction” lists page after page of ideas, research and content designed for the classroom. At the same time, many of us are teaching in classes where we never see the people we teach. This can rob instructors of important feedback about whether their content (whether humorous or not) is connecting with the students. This literature review explores these crossroads, looking at the effectiveness of humor in teaching, theories that can guide humor in the classroom, types of humor to use in education, how to add humor to your online class and resources for implementing humor in your online class.

      Clark, Don; Smith, Robert James; Allen, Paul M.; Barnes, Don; Gose, Ken; Droegemueller, Lee (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a teacher/advisor program on early adolescents' perception of self image. A review of the literature revealed much which proclaims the virtues of the teacher/advisor program but at the same time demonstrated an absence of any significant research which verifies that such programs, in fact, accomplish what their proponents claim. Because a notable amount of research supports the inclusion of educational experiences which heighten self image, determining specifically what effects a teacher/advisor program has would satisfy the need to validate the credibility of this concept and aid middle level educators in assessing its value. A pretest-posttest control group design with multiple measures of self image was employed. The sample consisted of 145 seventh grade students from two middle level schools. The experimental group came from a 6-7 school with a total of 73 students participating, 37 male and 36 female. The control group came from a 7-8 school with 72 students participating; both males and females numbered 36. Subjects were administered a questionnaire, which was composed of seven self image or transition research, at the beginning of the fall semester and again nine weeks later. Subjects in the experimental group received a thirty minute per day teacher/advisor program during this time interval. The findings of this study revealed significant group effects for the measures of victimization and perceived self image. For the measures of anonymity, self-consciousness, and the three self-esteem measures, however, group effects were not observable. Furthermore, examination of the results using gender as a variable showed no significant difference in any of the seven self image constructs. The data indicate that participation in a teacher/advisor program tended to suppress perceptions of victimization, which can be construed as a positive effect, and to lower perceived self image, which can also be viewed as beneficial if construed as a more realistic occurrence.

      Ross, Patricia Wilson, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1986)
    • The early career of Burgoyne Diller: 1925-45

      Johnson, David Hoyt (The University of Arizona., 1978)
    • Early childhood programs and the Arizona public schools: Promises and practices.

      Desjean-Perrotta, Blanche.; Clark, Donald; Paul, Alice; McCorkle, Mary Belle (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This study explored the public school system in the state of Arizona as a provider of programs for young children. It specifically addressed the quality of preschool at-risk programs administered by the State Department of Education and compared practices to the promises set forth in the Guidelines for Comprehensive Early Childhood Programs as reported by the Early Childhood Advisory Council to the Arizona State Board of Education (1990). The study examined program quality of twelve preschool programs through the lens of the standards for developmentally appropriate early childhood experiences as outlined in the Guidelines, Section 2, titled "Preschool Program Operation." The study consisted of in-depth case studies designed to provide a picture of the essence of what life is like in a preschool program through the eyes of the child. Three basic instruments were used for data collection on site visits: (1) observations, (2) questionnaires, and (3) recorded interviews. Classroom observations were guided by two previously developed and validated instruments: a Shadow Study Observation Form (SSOF) designed by Lounsbury and Clark (1990) for a national shadow study of middle school students, and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) developed by Thelma Harms and Richard Clifford (1980) at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. These two instruments complemented each other and provided an extensive description of an early childhood program in operation. The second component of data consisted of a survey of directors and teachers designed to obtain information about directors' and teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about preschool education and basic demographic information. The third instrument was a set of interview protocols for program directors and teachers. Collectively, the data offered a comprehensive profile of the nature of the state-administered preschool programs in practice as experienced by the child. It also provided an agenda of recommendations for those concerned with quality early childhood public school programs in the state of Arizona.
    • Early childhood teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge of geometry

      Larson, Carol F.; Maxedon, Sandra Jo (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      This study investigated early childhood teachers' knowledge of the following four components of the professional knowledge base: goals of geometry, child development and geometry, geometry curriculum and curriculum content, and geometric concepts. Eight experienced early childhood teachers in grades kindergarten through two participated in interviews on each of the four knowledge components. Their responses to interview questions and geometric concept activities were electronically recorded and transcribed for analysis of patterns, trends, or themes which emerged for the group. The teachers knew how geometry would benefit students and could elucidate their own goals when teaching geometry. They were more familiar with their district's curriculum and performance objectives for geometry than they were with state or national goals. They had ideas about what constitutes developmentally appropriate practice, both generally and in geometry education. Child development as it relates to geometry was an elusive concept. Their expertise in this area was primarily based on their experiences as teachers and their faith in the district's curriculum. They were somewhat familiar with pedagogical aspects of their grade level curricula, including expectations, materials, and resources, with shape names being their primary focus. They were less familiar with subject matter issues such as the scope and content of the geometry curricula in the grades preceding and following theirs, important geometric concepts for primary students, and the role of spatial visualization in children's development of geometry. When solving geometric problems, they tended to be anxious and uncertain but overall were persistent problem solvers who willingly communicated their thinking. Their problem solving was marked by doubt, self-talk, hand movements, and ambiguity. In general there was evidence of difficulty with class inclusion, deductive reasoning, and conceptual verbalization.
    • Early Confucianism: A Study of the Guodian Confucian Texts

      Wu, Jiang; Harper, Donald; Wong, Kwan Leung; Wu, Jiang; Harper, Donald; Shields, Anna M. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      A discovery unearthed in Jingmen of Hubei province in 1993 has surprised all the students of ancient China studies. A bundle of bamboo manuscripts, which include Taoist and Confucian texts, provides valuable sources for us to reshape our knowledge of the intellectual background and development in the fourth century B.C.In my research, I chose four Confucian texts, Lu Mugong wen zisi, Qiongda yi shi, Tang yu zhi dao and Zhongxin zhi dao, from these Guodian manuscripts as the objects of my studies. I argue that these four texts each has its individual origin rather than all four texts being from a single tradition. These four texts transcribed on two individual rolls can be divided into two units. Lu Mugong wen zisi and Qiongda yi shi form one unit as the ethical guidance for the tomb occupant; while Tang yu zhi dao and Zhongxin zhi dao form another unit as the tomb owner's personal favorite philosophical writings.It is believed that Tang yu zhi dao was a study derived from remote antiquity and the genealogy of ancient emperors. Zhongxin zhi dao was a learning of Confucius' disciple, Zizhang. Both texts were closely related to the ritual documents of the Warring States period.Using the fresh unearthed evidence and ritual documents from Liji and Dadai liji, my research explores the early Confucianism from the death of Confucius to before Mencius.
    • Early conservation by the Arizona Federation of Women's Clubs from 1900 to 1932

      Cortner, Hanna J.; Johnson, Sandra Jeanne, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      Women have been historically written out of human achievement. This is especially true in organized conservation. Historical analyses of the Progressive conservation era and the period following to the New Deal have understated women's organized participation in conservation. Through an analysis of Women's Clubs' records, newspapers, and magazines from 1900-1932, Arizona clubwomen's activities regarding natural resources are examined. The clubwomen are found to have been mutually and simultaneously supportive of conservation, preservation, civic improvement, nature study, and recreation--antagonistic issues at differing times. They reconciled those conflicts by advocating management solutions based upon resource renewability. Behind a shield of patriotism, maternalism, and housekeeping, the clubwomen used resource conservation to encourage a healthy future for humans and the environment. Conservation also served to advance their status as women through community service and self-education.
    • Early designation of at-riskness: A follow-up study of developmental first-graders.

      Sacken, Donal M.; Callicotte, Nancy Rice; Ames, Wilbur S.; Medina, Marcello (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This study takes an in-depth look at five children who participated in a developmental first grade program after a year in kindergarten. The characteristics of the students that led to their placement in the developmental program, the program itself, and the school progress of the students in the three years following participation in the developmental program are described. Students included in the sample were selected on the basis of their consecutive attendance in the same school for a period of five years to permit a longitudinal perspective on the schooling experiences of children perceived to be at-risk of school failure in the early years of schooling. Availability of classroom teachers for interviewing was also a consideration in sample selection. Qualitative research methods were used to develop detailed case studies on each of the five children. Interviews were conducted with the students themselves, their parent(s), classroom teachers, special area teachers, and other school personnel having contact with each student. School records, including special education records when applicable, were reviewed. In addition to document analysis and interviews, the children were observed in their third grade classrooms. The study examined the characteristics demonstrated by young children perceived to be at-risk in the traditional school setting, their teachers' perceptions of them in subsequent years, and their school progress through third grade. Several issues emerged from the data. These were discussed along with suggestions for consideration by policy makers to more effectively meet the needs of young children perceived to be at-risk of school failure. Recommendations were made for further research.
    • The Early Detection of Depression from Social Networking Sites

      Mehl, Matthias; Holleran, Shannon; Mehl, Matthias; Greenberg, Jeff; Stone, Jeff (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      Depression has a high prevalence among college students. Because it is a highly private (i.e. experiential) and socially stigmatized mental illness, it often goes undetected in daily life. The basic research question behind this line of research is how students' postings on their social networking websites can be used for the early detection of depression. The current research investigates how well depression can be gauged from MySpace profiles (Study 1) and Facebook profiles (Study 2 & Study 3). Across studies, the results reveal that depression can be assessed with a moderate degree of accuracy. In addition, Study 3 presents evidence that viewing "mini-blogs" allows for similar levels of accuracy compared to viewing an entire profile and the degree to which a person is Extraverted or censors information about themselves (e.g. Impression Management, Public Self-Consciousness) influences the degree of accuracy. Overall, the results speak to the idea that social networking sites can be a cost effective and clinically relevant tool to detecting depression.

      Berg, Judith A.; Wilson, Heidi Eileen (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      The purpose of this clinical project is to invent a new Pap smear collection instrument and describe beginning research that is intended to establish an increased endothelial cell yield with intact nuclei that will lead to increased sensitivity and specificity of Pap smears with the use of this new instrument.
    • Early embryos of dams of heat stress

      Shively, James N.; Johnsen, Suzanne Louise, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      Increased environmental heat causes early embryonic death before implantation. This study was designed to examine tissues of dams exposed to environmental temperatures of 36°C and to examine 72 hour old embryos from these dams. Results showed adult mice exposed to heat stress had significant changes in liver morphology with hepatocyte swelling and vacuolization of the cytoplasm, organelles in the hepatocytes were displaced next to the cell membrane. After 48 hours of recovery from heat stress, liver morphology appeared normal. Embryos from heat stressed dams had delayed development indicated by increased 2alpha helical cellular inclusions. Embryos responded differently to different fixation techniques indicated permeability changes in either the zona pellucida or cellular membranes. Litter size or pup survivability from heat stressed dams allowed to recover indicated changes seen at this point were reversible

      Scofield, Margaret Sisson, 1947- (The University of Arizona., 1973)
    • Early evolution of coal nitrogen in opposed flow combustion configurations.

      Wendt, Jost O.L.; Ghani, Muhammad Usman.; Peterson, Thomas W.; Shadman, Farhang; Perkins, Henry C.; Ramohalli, Kumar N.R. (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      A laminar opposed flow, pulverized coal combustion configuration was used to explore the early evolution of light gaseous nitrogenous and hydrocarbon species into the bulk gas phase. Two coals of different ranks were considered. Effects of pyrolysis environment, particle size and heating rates were investigated. Concentration profiles of HCN, NH₃, NO, CH₄, C₂H₂, C₂H₄ and C₂H₆ were measured, under both oxidizing and reducing environments, for three particle sizes, and at high heating rates provided by the hot flue gases of a CO/O₂/Ar flame. Net rates of formation into the bulk gas phase were calculated from the experimental data after correcting for diffusion and convection effects, and were then related to particle time-temperature histories. Experimental data show that HCN precedes NH₃ and NO for both coals. It is the first light gaseous product of coal nitrogen evolution entering into the bulk gas phase. For low rank coals, either only a small amount of tar nitrogen is released or its subsequent oxidation to light gaseous products is slow. For high rank coals secondary reactions of tars are rapid and lead to substantial levels of nitrogenous species. Nature of nitrogenous species evolving into the bulk gas phase was found to be independent of particle size. Lower heating rates favor increased yields of ammonia. Evolution of hydrocarbon species from high rank coals occurs via low molecular weight species, whereas low rank coals yield high molecular weight species. Evolution of hydrocarbon species was found to be independent of particle size and heating rates. Evolution of hydrogen occurs during late stages of devolatilization indicating that it is a product of secondary pyrolysis reactions. A simple kinetic model is proposed to relate rates of formation of nitrogenous species to coal devolatilization kinetics. The latter are similar for three experiments, with fine particles, involving two coals and can be described by a single rate constant given by 63.8 exp (-5220/RT). Bituminous coal (fines), under oxidizing conditions, shows substantially higher rates, possibly due to energy feedback mechanisms in the vicinity of the particles. Literature values, which originated from solid phase measurements, underpredict the quantities of total XN entering the post flame zone by substantial amounts. Our value, which was derived from gas phase species measurements, yields a better prediction of total nitrogenous species entering the post flame zone, and can be incorporated in engineering models aiming at optimizing of pollutant emissions.
    • Early FGF/Ets1/2 Target Heart Genes in Ciona intestinalis

      Jemmett, Jessica L. (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      Activation of the transcription factor Ets1/2 through FGF signaling is known to specify heart precursor fate in Ciona intestinalis. In previous research, we identified candidate target genes of Ets1/2 through microarray analysis. Through in situ hybridization assays we have identified a subset of these candidate genes that are expressed specifically in the heart precursor cells immediately following their specification. To find the enhancers for the regulation of these presumed Ets target genes, we are employing bioinformatics to find conserved areas of DNA in the upstream non‐coding DNA between Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi. This analysis will be used to guide ongoing efforts to clone and test predicted enhancer regions using reporter constructs. In depth analysis of identified enhancers will be used to find transcription‐binding sites for Ets and identify co-transcription factors presumed to act in concert with Ets to drive heart precursor cell specification.
    • Early Field Experience in Choral Methods

      Hamann, Donald L.; Kim, Irene J.; Cooper, Shelly; Draves, Tami J.; Hamann, Donald L. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The purpose of this study was to identify the value of early field experience (EFE) in choral methods courses, examine participants' likelihood to include EFE practice in choral methods courses, and determine the rationale for incorporating EFE. The study also explored the participants' preferences for activities related to early field experience, investigated possible relationships between EFE activities and participants' teaching experience or primary responsibility and perceived student outcomes of such participation. A survey instrument was distributed to choral music educators identified through the College Music Society. A total of 100 (after adjustments) responses were collected and analyzed employing descriptive and inferential statistics. The result displayed a high consensus among participants on the value and future implementation of EFE practice in choral methods. Participants declared that educational philosophy, personal experience, and requirements influenced their reason for implementing EFE, with personal experience receiving the highest positive response. The survey listed four categories of EFE activities--teaching, observation, evaluation methods, and other EFE activities. Highest rated activities from each categories were as follows: micro teaching at an elementary, middle, or high school; individual observation at an elementary, middle, or high school; reflection/self-evaluation and instructor feedback; and university choral ensemble participation. The result of Two-Way MANOVA to determine significant relationship between EFE activities and participants' teaching experience or primary responsibility reported no correlation in general with the exception of one activity. A significant difference was observed between attending choral seminars and conferences and participants' primary responsibility (p = .01, p<.05). Expected student outcome was measured through five skill types: personal, content, pedagogical, administrative, and communication skills. Of these, all participants agreed on personal skill (100%) followed by communication (95%), content (94%), and pedagogical skills (94%) as their highest expected EFE student outcome. Early field experience has gained notable recognition among music teacher educators in the past three decades. Numerous studies have verified the benefits of EFE and national organizations have actively supported the practice. The results of this study echoed the results of previous research with an overwhelming percentage of participants displaying a high enthusiasm for EFE practice in choral methods courses.
    • Early field experience: Four perspectives

      Doyle, Walter; Burant, Theresa Jean, 1958- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Early field experiences (EFEs) are common in teacher education; yet, there is conflicting evidence regarding their value as educative experiences. As the need for preparing prospective teachers for diversity becomes more urgent, research that attends to the context, content, and experiences of preservice teachers in EFEs in diverse schools is necessary. In this study, qualitative case study methodology was used to understand the experiences of preservice teachers, and the meanings they constructed of these experiences, in a reconceptualized EFE in teacher education. The EFE consisted of a team-taught, integrated combination of a general methods course (with a classroom, school, and community-focused field experience), and a foundations of education course, situated in the context of an urban middle/elementary school with a diverse student population. The sample consisted of four preservice teachers: a Mexican-American woman, an American Indian man, and two White women. Data were collected over a period of five months using participant observation, document analysis, interviews, and focus groups. Constant comparison and analytic induction were used to analyze data. Cases of the experiences of the participants revealed three major themes: (a) participation in varied communities; (b) use of multiple literacies to make sense of experience; and, (c) transformations in practices, understandings, and voice. Implications for teacher education from these cases address curriculum and pedagogy in EFEs, experiences that follow EFEs, admissions criteria, and recruitment of members of under-represented groups into teaching.

      Brendel, Klaus; SILBER, PAUL MICHAEL.; Gandolfi, Jay; Wright, Steve; Halpert, Jim (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      It is well known that a variety of toxicants can cause damage to the renal proximal tubule. However, the early pathogenesis of these deleterious interactions between a toxicant and this region of the nephron remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of this research was to attempt to answer three interrelated questions. First, what are the earliest changes in kidney function and structure after administration of tubule toxicants in vivo? Secondly, how do these structural/functional alterations change over time? Finally, are certain indicators of renal "dysfunction" more sensitive then others to the early stages of proximal tubule injury? The basic experimental approach consisted of injecting laboratory animals with a selective proximal tubule toxicant, and then collecting blood and/or urine at several timepoints after dosing; a variety of renal function indicators were evaluated at each of these timepoints. These included blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the excretion of glucose, protein, salts, glutathione, enzymes, and other endogenous molecules into the urine. At the termination of the exposure period the kidneys were evaluated histopathologically, and were also assayed for levels of specific enzymes and glutathione. Enzyme histochemistry was used to visualize changes in renal enzyme distribution, and protein electrophoretic methods permitted quantification of urinary proteins. These studies showed that specific markers of renal dysfunction were more sensitive to acute proximal tubule injury than other indicators. Specifically, the urinary excretion of proteins and the brush border membrane marker γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were the best indicators of proximal tubule injury. Glucosuria, lysozymuria, and glutathionuria were all less sensitive markers, and changes in BUN or GFR were the poorest indicators of acute proximal tubule injury. These results indicated that the brush border membrane is one of the most susceptible regions of the proximal tubule to acute renal injury. Analysis of urinary protein electrophoresis patterns and kidney histopathology confirmed this hypothesis. This research also demonstrated the progression of the toxicant-tubule interaction over time, and showed that both tubule structure and function may be altered within minutes of administering a nephro-toxicant.