Now showing items 18055-18074 of 39116

    • I already know how to read.: Literacy through the eyes and mind of a child

      Martens, Prisca Amalia.; Goodman, Yetta M.; Goodman, Kenneth S.; McCarty, Teresa; Short, Kathy G.; Fox, Dana (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      Sarah's literacy from ages 2-5 is documented through this longitudinal interpretative case study. The researcher, Sarah's mother, employed ethnographic techniques and methodologies of data analysis and data collection, including interviews, writing samples, audiotapes, observations, and field notes, to accomplish the research goals and purposes. The initial research goals were twofold: (a) to observe and describe Sarah's literacy in natural settings, particularly at home, beginning formally at age 2; and (b) to analyze, understand, and explain her literacy learning process. The model of literacy learning presented, the generative learning cycle, is grounded and rooted in both the data and the theory and research of others, notably Ken Goodman, Yetta Goodman, and Kathy Short. The data demonstrate that Sarah's learning is continuous and not hierarchically ordered as developmental stages propose. While the qualities of her literacy artifacts, or products, change, the quality of her thinking, strategies, and learning process do not. She perceives, questions, and invents sophisticated solutions to her inquiries concerning literacy, continually utilizing all she knows to outgrow herself and learn what she does not know.
    • I Am The Space Where I Am: An Arts-Informed Autoethnographic Inquiry on Place-Conscious Education In The Community

      Hochtritt, Lisa; Miller, Taylor Kathryn; Sharma, Manisha; Reid, Natasha (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      This thesis investigates how my representations of experience through arts-informed autoethnographic research are significant in establishing the pedagogical nature of place. I seek to understand how place-conscious education in a community setting can encourage students' relationships with the spaces they inhabit and lend to a more just learning environment. Many educative tools are provided and analyzed which are derived from wayfinding and psychogeographic methods. Data was collected over two months throughout the Summer of 2015 while participating in the Onward Israel service learning program in Israel and Palestine. My digital photographs and excerpts of stream-of-consciousness style poetry serve as the data set to illuminate the rich sensory encounters and art making processes indicative of experiential learning. This context-driven artwork encourages questions and dialogue about sociopolitical conflict and wars, migration and occupation. It is concerned with physical as well as psychological borders, checkpoints and boundaries. I utilized poetic and photographic inquiry as well as cognitive mapping to explore how concepts of travel are intricately linked to practices of self-reflexivity, community building and alternative curricula development outside of the formal classroom setting. This qualitative data is not a strictly defined set of interviews or statistics. Instead, vignettes of a more totalizing experience can be extracted, analyzed, dissected and/or rearranged. It is an exploration of identity, agency and untraditional ways of knowing the self/Other. I underscore how new pathways and possibilities for teaching emerge from a greater acceptance and validation of experiential knowledge and an attuned consciousness to place.
    • “I Can’t Dance in Two Weddings”: Marriage as an Articulation of Emerging and Transforming Fractures in the Iraqi Ezidi Refugee Community in Germany

      Green, Linda; Stuewe, Allison; Hudson, Leila; Betteridge, Anne (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      As a lens for analyzing the frictions in the Iraqi Ezidi refugee community in Germany, I consider marriage as a lived daily reality, an idealized concept, and ritualized life cycle event. I evaluate the ways tensions between Ezidis and between Ezidis and non-Ezidis are enacted through these myriad aspects of marriage. In addition to exploring the particular ways these tensions have emerged, been strengthened, or transformed within the Ezidi refugee community and between non-Ezidi others, this paper argues that Ezidi refugees are uniquely situated to highlight the loss and precarity created by migration even when the community in question has been bestowed a certain amount of privilege vis-à-vis other migrant groups inside of Germany and in other countries. The numerous topics that are increasingly dividing the community include marriage rules, traditional authority structures, caste tensions, connections to Kurdish culture and politics, thoughts on the influence of Islam on Ezidism, and what it means to be a “good” Ezidi. The fractures that emerge around these topics divide the community along region of heritage, generational, gender, and class lines. In analyzing these fractures, I emphasize the overwhelming sense of instability in the Iraqi Ezidi refugee community and argue that this instability is enhanced by the political acts of the German government and the governments or leaders from back home, including but not limited to the Kurdish political parties and the Iraqi central government.
    • "I Have a Connection!": The Situated Sense-Making of an Elementary Student about the Role of Water in Modeled vs. Experienced Ecosystems

      Johnson, Bruce; N. Roberts, Lisa (Elisabeth); Johnson, Bruce; Doyle, Walter; Gunckel, Kristin; Wood, Marcy (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to integrate the FOSS Water Cycle curriculum into the Bottle Biology Project became an affordance for Jorge to ask questions, observe, and theorize about the role of water and the water cycle in an ecosystem. The practice of modeling a closed ecosystem made salient to Jorge the boundaries of a system and the conservation of water within that system. The closed ecosystem model also presented constraints to students' sense making about the role of interactions when students lack domain knowledge in ecology. Relying on students' own talk, photographs and representations as explanations of phenomena in the Bio Bottle, without establishing norms of representational conventions and communication, resulted in missed opportunities for Jorge to reinforce his sense making during the activity and to develop conventions of scientific representation. Findings from this study can be used to inform the design and implementation of learning environments and curricular activities for elementary and middle school students that address all three dimensions of the Next Generation Science Standards: a) developing conceptual understanding of key concepts in the domain of ecology, b) the cross-cutting concept of systems, and c) multiple practices that ecologists use in developing and evaluating models that explain ecosystem structures, functions, and change over time.
    • I have a new friend in me: The effect of a multicultural/anti-bias curriculum on the development of social cognition in preschoolers

      Slaughter, Sheila; Rosenzweig, Jill Ellen (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the early childhood program at the Tucson Jewish Community Center in order to discover the program's role in reproducing or restructuring the social order existing in the wider society. The study examined events in which issues of race, gender, class, and physical or mental disabilities arose in centers, during teacher guided group activities, at lunch, on the playground, and during other special activities among the groups of three and four year old children in the Center's preschool. The research then reviewed how young children develop social cognition and how they construct an understanding of their identity while developing expectations about individual and group behavior. It went on to investigate the manner in which race, gender, class, and disabilities issues were expressed and lived out by the children and staff. The data indicated that all four topics had meaning for the children, but issues involving race and gender arose more frequently than issues involving class and disabilities. The main source of information for this study were vignettes recorded in the three and four year old classrooms. The vignettes revealed the extent of the anti-bias perspective guiding the actions of both the staff and children and provided the data to evaluate the effect of the anti-bias curriculum presently in use at the preschool. The findings indicated that while an anti-bias perspective guided the resolution of many issues, it was not pervasive among all the children and staff. The findings also illustrated when an anti-bias perspective was guiding the formal curriculum. The major focus of the research questions was to determine the need for further staff training in order to develop a pervasive anti-bias perspective among the staff and children. The data indicated that additional staff training would be beneficial. Additional staff training should address the anti- bias perspective of the participants and the children. It should also explore ways to expand this perspective within the formal curriculum so that the curriculum stresses a democratic multicultural perspective.

      Brucks, Merrie; SHADE, DALTON JEFFREY (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      This thesis is designed to look deeper into the issues that affecting the five a cappella groups within the UA a cappella community. Six focus groups and a comprehensive survey were conducted to better determine what issues actually exist within the community and to determine how to best solve those issues. Marketing, awareness, member backgrounds, and audition processes are examined by these studies. In order to understand the issues and find the proper solutions, the studies were conducted with roots in consumer behaviors. An inside look into the minds of the consumers, the people auditioning for an a cappella group, is needed to properly understand the roots of, and to fix, the problems the a cappella community currently. In doing so, the community can become aware of what needs to be done to improve in the future. Understanding the consumers and their relations to the group has proved extremely crucial to the future success of UA A Cappella. The following breakdown of research and analysis, as well as concluding recommendations will allow each of the groups within the community to make the necessary changes to pursue great success far into the future.
    • I Like It, But It's Just Not Me: Self Brand Connections, Brand Evaluations, and Experts in Markets

      Placke, Amber Dale (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      In my thesis, I explore two important marketing entities, self brand connections and brand evaluations. To begin, I show that there are different levels of expertise in a given domain ranging from amateur to expert. This expertise level affects the degree to which consumers develop self brand connections to brands ranging from recreational to elite. In my study, I show that expert consumers develop special relationships with elite brands that recreational runners do not. Even more interesting, I show that consumers of all expertise levels show the same liking for fashion brands as they do professional brands. Therefore, expert runners can say they like a brand and still feel as it that brand does not represent who they are (i.e. high brand evaluation, low self brand connection). My study shows that self brand connection is not an antecedent to brand evaluation.
    • "I lost the bus: Can you give me a ride home?" Native and nonnative English speakers' speech act production and metapragmatic judgments: A study of apologies, complaints and requests

      Wildner-Bassett, Mary E.; Ruhil, Anuradha, 1965- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This dissertation reports the findings of a study on pragmatic ability and metapragmatic judgments of native and nonnative speakers of English conducted at a public university in the United States and also at a public university in Singapore. Specifically, the research study investigated the realization of apologies, complaints and requests focusing on the production of downgraders and upgraders. In addition, the study also examined metapragmatic ratings provided by these subjects and their reasons for the ratings. Thirty-eight native and thirty nonnative speakers participated in the first phase of the study, which involved responding to a 30-item discourse completion task (DCT). In the second phase of data collection, responses to the DCT were used to construct a metapragmatic judgment task (MJT) in order to investigate subjects' metapragmatic ratings of apologies, complaints and requests. A new group of native speakers (69 total) and thirty-seven nonnative speakers (a new but comparable group) completed the MJT (the Singaporean subjects were unavailable for participation in the MJT). Fourteen native and 16 nonnative speakers participated in the interviews. Various statistical tests were conducted to analyze the coded DCT responses as well as the MJT data. Interview protocols were summarized to study opinions provided by subjects for the MJT ratings. Results of this research study indicated that native speakers used a significantly higher number of downgraders in complaints and requests than nonnative speakers. A significantly higher number of downgraders were also supplied in requests than in complaints. Metapragmatic ratings of native speakers differed significantly from those of nonnative speakers in 29/90 cases. While the two groups were significantly different in their performance on the DCT and the MJT, the subjective opinions expressed about the appropriateness of responses converged to a great extent. In conclusion, this dissertation was able to contribute to our understanding of native and nonnative speakers' use of modality markers and their perceptions about appropriate language use. The results of this study also concur with previous research that indicates the need for instruction in pragmatic aspects of the L2.

      McLoof, Ted; Romano, Avery Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      I Love You; Not Enough is an exploration of family dynamic, relationship dysfunction, secret pasts, and the manner in which individuals handle a drastic shift in their current realities. The story of this family begins in the summer after Janie’s first year at college, when she comes home only to find that their dynamic has been uprooted by her father’s affair. Following are five short stories, a mixture of experimental and traditional fiction, that explore the summer following Janie’s return. Though it begins with a simple view of the family as a whole, as time progresses it is revealed that there is much more to this family than meets the eye. As the collection progresses, it seeks to examine the differences in relationships, the underlying factors in how those act in them, boundaries crossed and limits reached, and what brings a relationship to it’s end.
    • I relate to the sense of not belonging: Native American perspectives of homelessness

      Stauss, Joseph; Mortensen, Margaret Ann, 1972- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Responses of ten Native American men, who reported being homeless for at least six months, waiver slightly from the hypothesis that their concept of home denotes community, family, and an indigenous connection to the land. However, they did strategically cope to create home-like atmospheres. Direct answers show that home provides basic necessities, safety, and emotions of well-being, like belonging. Scrutiny of the complete contexts of these men's lives show that friendship often replaced a lack of family. Some participants referred to an indigenous connection to the land and to home as being more than one place, including a natal reservation. Adoption and a period of time away from culture, an uprootedness, also characterized these lives. Researcher recommendations include a permanent wet/dry residence, a camping area, and provisions for more culturally specific homeless services.
    • I Sit Beside the Door

      Monson, Ander; Sorenson, Lynda (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    • I Still Play: Exploring Play and Creativity in Early Adulthood Amongst Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics Professionals

      Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Earl, Emily Charlotte; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Burross, Heidi; Gaches, Sonya; Lopez, Francesca (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Play is acknowledged as a fundamental need and right of the human experience. However, across the human lifespan is not always valued. Research on play has traditionally been on children, and while some attention is now being paid to older adults, there is little scholarship regarding play in adulthood. This exploratory study examined how early adulthood (25-40 years old) play, the influence playing has on creativity and career performance, and implications for future research on play. The study was completed utilizing traditional and non-traditional research methods with the intent to incorporate the participants' voice and perspectives into a human-centered research design. The end results of this study, demonstrated that early adults engage in a number of play experiences that shape their development and learning as well as influence their creativity and work performance. The use of human-centered research provided participants with the opportunity to individualize data collection, analyze results, and have a voice in the final product.
    • "I Thought this U.S. Place was Supposed to be About Freedom": Young Latinas Speak to Equity in Mathematics Education and Society

      Turner, Erin E; Gonzalez, Norma; Varley Gutierrez, Maura; Turner, Erin E; Gonzalez, Norma; Moll, Luis; Civil, Marta (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      This dissertation outlines findings from a critical ethnographic research study that attempted to document young Latinas engaging in critical mathematics education, with implications for shifting dominant ideas about the form and goals of education. As Latina youth are marginalized from classrooms and in society where their language, culture, practices, and community are seen as "problems," and particularly in mathematics classrooms where a dominant culture is said to further exclude girls, there is an exigency to understand how in fact Latina students could experience education as transformative. Critical race and feminist theories further argue for centralizing the experiences of women or girls of color as essential to understanding where change can happen in society because of the role that racism and sexism play in structuring educational experiences. Therefore, this study foregrounds the experiences of young Latinas as they engage in critical mathematics.A critical educational paradigm has been put forth whose purpose is to develop critical literacy in students where they investigate, make apparent and challenge oppressive societal structures. This critical ethnographic research study seeks to gain a more nuanced understanding of how young Latinas experience a social justice mathematics learning environment through the facilitation and research of an after-school, all girls mathematics club. More specifically, data in the form of field notes, videotaped sessions, classroom observations, student work and interviews offers a rich source for analysis of their practices in the learning environment, their perceptions of mathematics, themselves as learners of mathematics and as people who can make changes in their lives, communities and in the world. The construct of critical mathematical agency is employed in attempting to understand how the participants' actions expressed a sense of being able to use mathematics to critique and change their worlds. Analysis revealed they engaged in resistance, research and (re)authoring, as ways of expressing critical mathematical agency. In addition, their insight into critical mathematics education highlights the importance of incorporating critical funds of knowledge, fostering collectivity, and centering the experiences in authentic, community contexts. This understanding will inform arguments for seeking social justice through mathematics education and educational research, particularly for Latina youth.
    • "I Understand Everything You Say, I Just Don’t Speak It": The Role of Morphology in the Comprehension of Spanish by Receptive Heritage Bilinguals

      Beaudrie, Sara; Nicol, Janet; Holmes, Bonnie Christina; Beaudrie, Sara; Nicol, Janet; Carvalho, Ana; Pascual y Cabo, Diego (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This study contributes to what is known about the nature of unbalanced bilingualism that emerges in language contact situations by examining the morphological knowledge of Spanish receptive heritage bilinguals (RHBs). RHBs were exposed to Spanish in their homes and communities but received formal schooling in English. These bilinguals have been described as being "on the verge of culminating the language shift towards English monolingualism" (Beaudrie, 2009a, p. 86), although despite this they report the ability to understand but not speak their heritage language. While the interpretation and production of inflectional morphology are difficult for more proficient heritage bilinguals (Montrul, 2008, 2009), little is known about the extent to which knowledge of morphology is measurable in HRBs or how it contributes to their ability to comprehend spoken Spanish. To answer these questions, 33 adult Spanish RHBs completed four, aurally-presented on- and off-line experimental tasks designed to assess their underlying grammatical competence, their receptive comprehension skills, and their proficiency without requiring that participants speak, read or write in Spanish. These tasks and the skills they assessed are listed below. 1) A self-paced, aural grammaticality judgment task examined whether RHBs have access to the rules that govern the well-formedness of specific inflectional morphemes, including gender and subject/verb agreement, as well as tense, aspect, and mood morphemes. 2) A morpheme interpretation task assessed whether RHBs interpret the meaning supplied by bound morphemes and distinguish between semantic contrasts. 3) A contextualized listening comprehension task measured the listening comprehension abilities of RHBs. 4) An elicited imitation task measured the proficiency of RHBs. The results of this study show that RHBs do have underlying morphological competence and are able to distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical morphemes despite their limited language skills in other domains. Additionally, these bilinguals interpret the meaning supplied by bound morphemes, although access to the rules governing both the structure and the semantics of these morphemes decreases in accordance with the order in which they were acquired in childhood. RHBs understand the majority of what they hear when listening to spoken Spanish, and on average their proficiency ranges from low to intermediate levels. An analysis of the linear relationship between the results of the four experimental tasks revealed that the extent to which listening comprehension abilities and proficiency correspond to morphological knowledge in Spanish RHBs is dependent on the degree of access that these bilinguals have to the semantic information provided by functional morphemes. The results of this study show that while the core syntax of Spanish RHBs is intact, semantic knowledge may not have been mapped to certain morphemes during the acquisition process. These results are analyzed in tandem with various hypotheses that have been recently put forth to account for the linguistic outcomes of contact bilingualism, and an argument is made for considering heritage grammars as completely acquired but distinct language varieties.
    • I Won't Live On, So I Create: Mortality Salience and Afterlife Belief Strength's Impact on Intention to Engage in Creation-Oriented Consumption

      Brucks, Merrie L; Greenberg, Jeff; Xu, Huimin; Brucks, Merrie L; Greenberg, Jeff; Erickson, Lance; Nielsen, Jesper (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Creative behaviors are part of an average consumer's everyday life. For example, amateur people buy various art and craft supplies from stores like Michael's, purchase studio time to make pottery, and collect camera accessories to help demonstrate their originality in photography. Usually the final creative product can be preserved for a long period of time. These creative activities are avidly pursued primarily because they provide consumers with enjoyment and a sense of fulfillment. I am coining the term "creation-oriented consumption" to refer to this phenomenon, which is one specific type of creative consumption.Terror management theory is used to examine why people engage in creation-oriented consumption. I hypothesize that mortality salience boosts the intention to engage in creation-oriented consumption; and under mortality salience, weakened afterlife belief increases the intention for this type of consumption.Three experimental studies are conducted, each adopting a somewhat different perspective. Study 1 gauges intention to engage in creation-oriented consumption against inaction. It finds that mortality salience increases interest in creation-oriented consumption; and that under mortality salience, weakened afterlife belief increases interest in creation-oriented consumption. Study 2 examines durable creation-oriented consumption's appeal relative to other activities, namely, non-creative activities and creative consumption that does not leave durable traces. The proposed effect of mortality salience is observed only when individuals possess a low level of chronic afterlife belief. Unexpectedly, interest in creative consumption is reduced under mortality salience. Consistent with study 1, study 2 finds that under mortality salience, weakened afterlife belief raises interest in creation-oriented consumption. Study 3 replicates the finding of study 2 that mortality salience dampens general interest in creativity. Taken together, these studies suggest that although creation-oriented consumption ameliorates existential anxiety, it is not the most effective one in the short term.Apart from the major hypotheses, this dissertation also investigates some boundary conditions. Two of the three studies find that the question of whether creative consumption leaves a durable trace is of significance.
    • "I Wouldn't Change Anything": The Everyday Realities of Living with Autism from a Parent's Perspective

      Gilmore, Perry; Molina, Rudy Modesto, Jr.; Gilmore, Perry; Ruiz, Richard; Fletcher, Todd (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Using qualitative methods, this study is about the attitudes and daily practices of parents who genuinely want the best for their children who have been diagnosed with autism. The study examined the everyday realities of living with autism from a parent's perspective. The purpose of this study was to describe the range of specific behaviors, practices, attitudes, and ways of being that families adopt when they engage in the world of autism. Three families were interviewed in these case studies. A content analysis of the interviews identified five thematic clusters that are described and examined in close detail. The five thematic clusters include (1) managing the diagnostic process, (2) child's behavior and educational needs, (3) impact on parent's well-being, (4) impact on the family as a whole, and (5) full integration into mainstream society. These themes were further categorized according to the "challenges" facing the families and the specific "strategies" families used to face these challenges. Parents shared their stories with the researcher with the hopes that their life experiences could be beneficial to other families facing the same challenges as they navigate complex educational, health, and social systems. The research presents a set of recommendations that were embedded in the participants' stories. These recommendations represent advice from the parents in the study to other parents with children diagnosed with autism. Their recommendations are based on what the participants have learned as they raised their own child with autism.
    • I'd Give My Right Kidney to Be Altruistic: The Social Biogeography of Altruism in the United States of America

      Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Garcia, Rafael Antonio; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Jacobs, William Jake; Steklis, Horst Dieter; Davis, Melinda (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The purpose of this dissertation is to model biosocial determinants of group-directed altruistic behavior – exploring the nomological net around it. To do this a study will be presented to determine existing associations among various biological and social predictors and test a life-history-derived causal cascade using a partially exploratory and partially confirmatory statistical technique called Sequential Canonical Analysis to ultimately predict living-donor, non-directed kidney donations (NDKD). Toward that end, some important methodological considerations first need to be discussed. The first consideration revolves around the level of analysis and how this frames the cascade model and its interpretation. Following a general discussion, an exercise in some of the general principles is provided – investigating the higher-order factor structure of the Big-5 personality constructs across two levels of analysis. The second consideration is the use of unit-weighted factor scores and their appropriateness. Following the theoretical discussion, a demonstration is provided – deriving an estimate of genetic relatedness from a set of heterogeneous data sets. Once the methodological considerations have been discussed, the primary cascade model is presented in two parts: 1) the measurement model – operationalizing the measures incorporated into 2) the structural model – testing the proposed causal cascade using Sequential Canonical Analysis. A discussion follows in which the results are summarized, limitations are articulated, and further research directions are explored.
    • I'itoi - "Pilot"

      Robinson, Chris (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
    • "I've needed a friend my whole life". Voices offormer gang members: An ethnodrama

      McCammon, Laura A.; Roberts, Christine Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      This thesis set about to achieve three goals. First it discusses street gang research, assessment of the gang problem, and in particular the forces that push and pull American youths into the street gang lifestyle and the gang member experience. Second, it explores how alternative forms of data presentation, such as ethnodrama, blur the boundary lines between art and scientific research and demonstrates that the embodiment of human experience through artistic means enhances our understanding of the gang problem and creates context. Third, it includes an ethnodrama text constructed from qualitative interviews of three former gang members, in support of narrative inquiry research methods, and illustrating how three young men were drawn into the gang lifestyle, what they experienced by being in a gang, and the factors that helped them to leave the gang and lead them to make positive changes in their lives.