Now showing items 21035-21054 of 39117

    • L'Acquisition de la Temporalité Passé Chez les Apprenants du Franҫais 13

      Ayoun, Dalila; Soria, Andra Kristen (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • L'analyse Illustrative d'Elle sera de Jaspe et de Corail

      Taoua, Phyllis; Porter, Kaitlin; Price, Joseph; Mouzet, Aurelia (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Ma thèse est composée des 83 illustrations que j’ai dessinées à partir de mon analyse du roman de Wèrè-Wèrè Liking, Elle sera de jaspe et de corail.  Le roman est écrit avec des images vives, des thèmes courants et un vocabulaire particulier qui présente une opportunité parfaite à l’analyse illustrative.  Je cherche à montrer les concepts littéraire, critique et théorique à travers mes illustrations qui pourraient être utilisées dans les cours de la langue en tant que soutien visuel, pour motiver les étudiants à lire le roman et les pousser à la discussion et la réflexion
    • L'ascension de la petite bourgeoisie française dans la Chronique des Pasquier

      Sébastien-Johnston, Francine, 1926- (The University of Arizona., 1950)
    • L'enseigne de Gersaint

      Haskin, Shirley Helen, 1931- (The University of Arizona., 1976)
    • L'espace jaloux dans "La Jalousie" et dans "Sodome et Gomorrhe".

      Rogers, Suzanne Provost.; Wittig, Monique; Brown, Edward; Leibacher, Lise (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      In Alain Robbe-Grillet's La Jalousie and Marcel Proust's Sodome et Gomorrhe, semantic duality of "jealousy" makes it both a realistic objective architectural element (the shutter in the window) and an abstract subjective element (the feeling of jealousy). Architectural jealousy constitutes a metaphor of romantic jealousy, which is a formalization of jealous love in the text. The romantic environment makes jealous love appear a part of "natural" reality. Some techniques are used to colorize the decor according to an "interior universe." Fragmentation of space and the delineation of text into borders contribute to illustrate the paradoxical jealous space in which one can see the object of one's jealousy, but where one always meets only oneself. The closing of the text into borders allows displacement by way of analogy, description and understatement, processes that force the reader to explore the allegorical narrative and the jealous space, a textual space. In a metaphorical place, the distortion of the narrative instance's point of view brings on analogical displacement. In La Jalousie, the traces revealing the presence of the narrator in the narrative can be observed. The motifs reflect his own image, in a jealous space. The narrator of La Recherche displaces the object of his jealousy who is not Albertine but the text itself. The text is the jealous object. The characters, as per Bakhtin's theories, try to escape the dictatorial point of view of the jealous narrator; they hide in folds of text where there exist blind spots, shades and reflections. They use the romantic fallacy to represent to the narrator the image he wishes to see. The socio-semiotic paradigm illustrates the narrator's masculine voice, which only suggests the recipient of jealousy, the "she" object. Romanticism renders dictatorial jealousy obscure; it then appears as jealous love. Jealousy constitute a metaphor of the untold in the narrative.
    • L'ESTHETIQUE DE LA MONSTRUOSITE DANS LES ROMANS ET NOUVELLES DE SAMUEL BECKETT (FRENCH TEXT)

      Leisure, Maryse Josette, 1937- (The University of Arizona., 1974)
    • L'étude de l'enfance dans les romans de Rolland, Proust et Romains

      Selover, Sandra Jean, 1938- (The University of Arizona., 1967)
    • L'Oeuvre Post-Retour D'Exil de Mongo Beti

      Taoua, Phyllis; Mokam, Yvonne-Marie; Taoua, Phyllis; Le Hir, Marie-Pierre; Clancy-Smith, Julia (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      The Return Home : Mongo Beti's Late OeuvreIn 1991 amid the wave of democracy sweeping Africa, Mongo Beti returned to his native country of Cameroon to continue his literary career after 32 years of exile in France. My dissertation investigates the originality of his homecoming discourse. I explore how this prominent writer's late oeuvre illustrates his struggle to re-discover the country he left decades earlier as well as how his experience of returning shaped a new literary perception. His work after returning home reflects his gradual re-acquaintance with and re-integration into his native country. I argue that at the outset, his perception is initially guided by a backward glance on the past and that his assessment of the present aims at resisting pessimistic representations of Africa. In his later works, however, one cannot but notice the same sentiments of dissatisfaction and disillusion that were based on his first hand experience. To this extent, Mongo Beti's post-return literature can be considered dynamic as it evolved over time. A diachronic approach allowed me to examine his changing perceptions and representations of Africa based on the magnitude of his comprehension of his environment at each point in time. His post-return writing demonstrates a progressive redefinition of some of his previous narrative techniques as regards such elements as political resistance, authoritative narrators, linear unfolding of the plot, time and space, and character development. My analysis also questions the concept of "home" as a place of safety and refuge just as his post-return novels portray exile as an ambiguous state of being in-between worlds, as an expression of a simultaneous connection to the "new old" home and the distant former one abroad. Therefore, there is a shift in Mongo Beti's post-return discourse away from questions of national responsibility and social progress rooted in a consciousness of belonging to a defined community. The conceptual organization of my dissertation is derived from my reading of each of the four texts of the post-return era, and the way they illustrate the author's process of re-discovery of postcolonial Cameroon.
    • L'Usage de Ressources Technologiques dans l'apprentissage du Français au Ghana

      Price, Joseph E.; Fianoo-Vidza, Etornam; Hellmich, Emily; Knisely-Southerland, Kris (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Given technological advancements, studies (Knisely 2018 ; Pun, 2013 ; Mitchell, 2012 ; Clark & Gruba, 2010, Cetto, 2008 ; Furstenberg et al., 2001) show the great potential of technological resources in the optimization of the language-learning experience. This said, this project attempts to find out whether technological resources are exploited and optimized in tertiary institutions for the learning of French in Ghana. In the Ghanaian context, French is an important foreign language due to its membership in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS, a community dominated by francophone countries) and the fact that its neighboring countries are all francophone. Owing to this, French is a subject taught at almost all the levels of education in the country, although it is compulsory only at certain levels. However, some factors hinder the teaching and learning of French in Ghana. Considering the status of French and the factors that militates against its teaching and learning, our first aim is to find out whether French learners are aware of the technological resources that are available for enhancing their language learning. Secondly, we would like to find out what kind of technological resources they use, how they use them and finally, whether courses are structured to integrate technology. In order to get answers to these crucial questions, French students from all levels in the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Ghana Institute of Languages were asked to take an online survey. The thirty-two questions asked on the survey are related to materials used for French instruction in their institution, the kind of technological devices they own, their awareness and use of technological resources for French learning as well as the type of resources they would want their lecturers to include in the teaching of French. The result of our study shows that Ghanaian students who are aware of technological resources constitute the majority (N = 146, 73.36%) of students. The results also show that students use their Smartphones (N = 186, 77.17%) and the internet (N = 193, 93.24%) in their learning of French. Furthermore, the results show that they use these resources in fun ways such as listening to French music, listening to French audios, watching French films. Finally, the results indicate that lecturers integrate technological resources with audiovisuals (N = 190, 65.51%) being the most used and the internet (N = 103, 35.51%). being relatively less used. Based on the results of this survey and acknowledging that the restructuring of French programs could be a gradual process, we suggest that lecturers should integrate different technological resources in a coherent way in their teaching in order to make French teaching interesting, fun, attractive, varied and efficient for Ghanaian learners.
    • L-type calcium channels mediate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor aggregation on cultured myotubes

      Gordon, Herman; Yool, Andrea; Milholland, Rebecca (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      In this dissertation, I have presented new information on several aspects of the signaling pathway responsible for the clustering of AChRs on muscle cells. First, I have shown that activation of L-CaChs is both necessary for agrin induced clustering of AChRs and sufficient to stimulate AChR clustering even in the absence of agrin. Additionally, I have shown that activation of AChRs causes their own clustering by influencing the activity of L-CaChs. I have also shown that neither AChRs nor L-CaChs play a role in MuSK activation or AChR beta subunit phosphorylation suggesting that the role of AChR and L-CaCh is downstream of MuSK activation and phosphorylation of the AChR beta subunit in the signaling cascade that leads to the aggregation of AChRs. Finally, I have shown that calcium induced clustering and phosphorylation of AChRs require LCaCh activation. These data suggested that although L-CaCh activation is insufficient to cause AChR beta subunit phosphorylation L-CaCh may modulate an intermediate step between MuSK activation and AChR phosphorylation. These data therefore support the hypothesis that L-CaCh activation delivers extracellular calcium to the intracellular machinery that regulates AChR clustering. Furthermore, these data establish the position of L-CaChs in the signaling hierarchy responsible for AChR clustering as being downstream of or parallel to both MuSK activation and AChR phosphorylation in the signaling cascade behind AChR clustering. The data presented in this paper begin to provide an integrated view of NMJ formation in which neuromuscular transmission, calcium signaling, and signaling cascades mediated by neurotrophic factors act in concert to regulate the localization of synaptic molecules to junctional regions of the muscle fiber. Many questions remain, however, regarding the events downstream of MuSK and L-CaCh activation.
    • L.D.S. seminary dropouts in Arizona, an analysis of the class of 1989.

      Grant, Robert T.; Fotheringham, Steven Craig.; Sacken, Donal M.; Newlon, Betty J. (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      This study explored the relationship between L.D.S. seminary discontinuation and the characteristics of individual dropouts. It also sought to identify distinguishing characteristics of students who continue enrollment in seminary. The seminary teachers and the program itself were considered for their impact on a student's decision to continue attendance. Major factors such as peer associations, Priesthood involvement, parental influence and recruitment practices were considered. The roll of public school academic requirements in connection with premature seminary dissociation were also investigated. Initially a sample of dropout and continuing students form Southern Arizona were interviewed using an open-ended, semi-structured format. This process elicited data in four major domains: (1) discriminating personal characteristics; (2) external factors; (3) structural factors; and (4) church related factors. The responses were analyzed and used to develop a second questionnaire. This second survey was then administered to a larger sample of dropout and continuing students throughout Arizona.
    • L1 Attrition: German Immigrants in the U.S.

      Ecke, Peter; Badstübner, Tina; Warner, Chantelle; Schulz, Renate; Dupuy, Beatrice (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      L1 attrition - which in the context of this study is defined as the decline of any native language skill (or portion thereof) in a healthy bilingual speaker (Ecke, 2004) - has been studied extensively for several decades. However, only few studies have examined the native speech of immigrants who use their L1 for professional purposes, such as language instructors (Isurin, 2007; Major, 1992; Porte, 1999, 2003). Furthermore, no research has been conducted comparing the L1 speech of such individuals with that of individuals who do not use their L1 for professional purposes. This study analyzed and compared L1 speech samples from two populations of German immigrants in the U.S., German Instructors and Other Professionals, and from a monolingual control group in Germany. It was hypothesized that German instructors may be less vulnerable to L1 attrition due to more frequent L1 use, a higher motivation to maintain the L1, and greater identification with the native language and culture. Data elicited through verbal fluency tasks, a film retelling task, a semi-structured interview, and a sociolinguistic questionnaire revealed significant differences between the control group and the two bilingual groups which point to L1 attrition (primarily as an access problem) in the bilingual speakers. The data also revealed significant differences between the German Instructors and the Other Professionals, suggesting that the severity of L1 attrition is not the same for all populations. In addition, a comparison of the two bilingual groups with regard to sociolinguistic variables, and correlations between linguistic measures and sociolinguistic variables also yielded interesting findings which have implications for L1 attrition research as well as L1 maintenance.
    • L1 Biases in Learning Root-And-Pattern Morphology

      Ussishkin, Adam; Drake, Shiloh N.; Ohala, Diane; Harley, Heidi (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This dissertation addresses the question of whether non-adjacent morphological dependencies are as difficult to learn as non-adjacent phonological dependencies. Non-adjacent dependencies have been investigated in the past, and have proven to be at best difficult to learn (Bonatti, Peña, Nespor, & Mehler, 2005; Gómez, 2002; LaCross, 2011, 2015; Newport & Aslin, 2004), and at worst, completely unlearnable (Newport & Aslin, 2004: experiment 1). LaCross (2011, 2015) showed that speakers of a language employing non-adjacent dependencies were able to learn an artificial grammar employing analogous non-adjacent dependencies easily, suggesting there may be a linguistic bias that makes speakers more aware or capable of unconsciously parsing non-adjacent dependencies so long as they speak a language that employs vowel harmony. The research in this dissertation studies three subject populations with two tasks and two grammars to discover whether speakers of a language utilizing root-and-pattern morphology also have the ability to unconsciously parse non-adjacent dependencies pred- icated on morphological structure. Chapter 2 uses a segmentation or statistical learning task similar to the experiments mentioned above, while Chapter 3 uses a word elicitation task to establish a more fine-grained representation of what experiment participants learn after a very short exposure. The experiments show that there may be a cognitive bias toward concatenative morphology even among Arabic and Maltese speakers, but also that Arabic and Maltese speakers are willing to adjust CV skeleta and syllabic structure when deriving plural forms from singular forms. The methods that they use when producing novel plural forms are similar to those found in their L1, showing that this type of bias is predicated on morphophonological structure in the participants’ L1. The results together support a root-based lexicon for Arabic and Maltese and aggressive morphological decomposition (Boudelaa & Marslen-Wilson, 2001, 2004a, 2004b, 2015; Deutsch, Frost, & Forster, 1998; Frost, Deutsch, & Forster, 2000; Frost, Forster, & Deutsch, 1997; Ussishkin, Dawson, Wedel, & Schluter, 2015) even in novel words. Additionally, this work supports the notion of morphological abstraction, abstract grammatical features (such as past or plural) may be expressed by multiple allomorphs, particularly in the context of learning a new language. I extend this work to suggest that a processing model of Distributed Morphology (Halle & Marantz, 1993; Harley & Noyer, 1999; inter alia) would be appropriate both to model the results here and to better explain morphological processing disorders. Although Distributed Morphology has not been extensively tested as a processing model, recent research shows compatibility with existing psycholinguistic models (Gwilliams & Marantz, 2015; Stockall & Marantz, 2006) and has better explanatory power for deficits in morphological processing (Tat, 2013).
    • L1/L2 Eye Movement Reading of Closed Captioning: A Multimodal Analysis of Multimodal Use

      Waugh, Linda R.; Bever, Thomas G.; Goodman, Yetta M.; Specker, Elizabeth; Waugh, Linda R.; Bever, Thomas G.; Goodman, Yetta M. (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Learning in a multimodal environment entails the presentation of information in a combination of more than one mode (i.e. written words, illustrations, and sound). Past research regarding the benefits of multimodal presentation of information includes both school age children and adult learners (e.g. Koolstra, van der Voort & d'Ydewalle, 1999; Neumen & Koskinen, 1992), as well as both native and non-native language learners (e.g. d'Ydewalle & Gielen, 1992; Kothari et al, 2002). This dissertation focuses how the combination of various modalities are used by learners of differing proficiencies in English to gain better comprehension (cf. Mayer, 1997, 2005; Graber, 1990; Slykhuis et al, 2005). The addition of the written mode (closed captioning) to the already multimodal environment that exists in film and video presentations is analyzed. A Multimodal Multimedia Communicative Event is used to situate the language learner. Research questions focus on the eye movements of the participants as they read moving text both with and without the audio and video modes of information. Small case studies also give a context to four participants by bringing their individual backgrounds and observations to bear on the use of multimodal texts as language learning tools in a second or foreign language learning environment. It was found that Non Native English Speakers (NNS) (L1 Arabic) show longer eye movement patterns in reading dynamic text (closed captioning), echoing past research with static texts while Native Speakers of English (NS) tend to have quicker eye movements. In a multimodal environment the two groups also differed: NNS looked longer at the closed captioning and NS were able to navigate the text presentation quickly. While associative activation (Paivio, 2007) between the audio and print modalities was not found to alter the eye movement patterns of the NNS, participants did alternate between the modalities in search of supplementary information. Other research using additional closed captioning and subtitling have shown that viewing a video program with written text added turns the activity into a reading activity (Jensema, 2000; d'Ydewalle, 1987). The current study found this to be the case, but the results differed in regard to proficiency and strategy.
    • The L1495-B218 Filaments in Taurus Seen in NH₃ & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

      Shirley, Yancy L.; Seo, Youngmin; Shirley, Yancy L.; Walker, Christopher; Bieging, John; Kratter, Kaitlin; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Najita, Joan (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      We present deep NH₃ and CCS maps of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending over 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH₃ (1,1)&(2,2), CCS Nⱼ = 1₂-0₁, and HC₇N J = 21-20 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH₃ (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH₃ leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar. We find that the L1495A, B213E, and B216 regions have strong CCS emission and the B211 and B218 regions have weak CCS emission. Analysis of CCS emission with NH₃ (1,1) and dust continuum emission shows that CCS is not a good tracer for starless core evolution. On the other hand, CCS appears to trace recently accreted gas in L1495A and L1521D. We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores and filaments. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores and take the effect of radiation fields. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere. We also find the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation to be considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For regions in the inner Galaxy and near OB associations, the critical mass/line density of a dense structure may be less than 20% of the critical mass/line density of Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder.
    • L2 and L3 Acquisition of the Portuguese Stressed Vowel Inventory by Native Speakers of English

      Simonet, Miquel; Warner, Natasha; Díaz Granado, Miriam; Carvalho, Ana M.; Simonet, Miquel; Warner, Natasha (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      This dissertation explores the potential differences in the acquisition of the sound system of a second language (L2) versus a third language (L3), building on recent research on adult L2 speech learning and testing the hypothesis that new category acquisition is available across the lifespan. On the one hand, recent influential theories of L2 speech learning predict that new sound categories will be difficult to acquire due to complex interactions among the phonetic categories residing in one same perceptual space. On the other, there exists the common assumption that the more sound categories one’s native language contains, the less difficult it will be to acquire new ones in a native-like fashion. My work provides additional evidence to this discussion, while providing speech data from the following five different speaker groups: (1) native speakers of American English; (2) native speakers of Mexican Spanish; (3) native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese; (4) native speakers of English learning Portuguese as their L2, and (5) native speakers of English learning Portuguese as their L3, who speak Spanish as their L2.The dissertation consists of three content chapters. The first of the content chapters describes the vowel systems of Mexican Spanish, American English and Brazilian Portuguese as informed by production data of the three native speaker groups above (1, 2 and 3). The second and third chapters describe and contrast the vowel system(s) of the two learner groups (4 and 5) as informed by their production and perception of Portuguese vowels respectively. The results from the analysis of the data from the various production and perception experiments performed as part of this dissertation provide evidence for (a) phonetic category assimilation and dissimilation processes in post-L1 speech learning and phonetic category interactions in general; (b) the relevance of quality and quantity of input in language learning; (c) the discussion on the relation between perception and production in post-L1 speech learning; and (d) the need for an extension of current models of L2 speech learning and cross-linguistic speech perception in order for these to address post-L2 speech learning processes, among other topics.
    • L2 Japanese Learners’ Development of Conversational Involvement during Study Abroad: An Analysis of Overlap in Talk-in-Interaction

      Jones, Kimberly; Maruyama, Rie; Karatsu, Mariko; Diao, Wenhao (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This dissertation examines the changes in the occurrence of overlap in L2 Japanese learners’ conversation from the perspective of the development of interactional competence during study abroad. Previous studies have suggested that overlap of utterances in talk-in-interaction can function positively to show involvement, understanding, and cooperation and to move a conversation forward (e.g. Tannen, 1985; Maynard, 1989; Fujii & Otsuka, 1994). Given that overlap can positively contribute to the joint construction of the conversation, overlap can be considered as one of the interactional resources that participants in conversation use for effective interaction (Young, 2008). A few studies have examined L2 Japanese learners’ overlapped utterances in conversation, but the number is limited. A longitudinal study in the context of spontaneous casual conversation will lead to a further understanding of the use of overlap by L2 Japanese learners. I collected recordings of dyadic casual conversations and of pre- and post-interviews from five L2 Japanese learners who participated in one-year study abroad programs in Japan. Each student recorded three to four conversations with their native Japanese friends or host families over the course of study abroad. The interviews were conducted before and after study abroad with the investigator. Their conversations and interviews were transcribed and all instances of overlaps were extracted and analyzed. The results showed changes in both frequency and contexts in which L2 learners’ overlap was observed. All L2 learners showed an increase in the occurrence of overlap in their conversations and expanded their use of different functions of overlap in the conversation over time. Although the L2 learners developed at a different rate, they appeared to have followed a similar developmental sequence. The results suggested the influence of two main factors, linguistic ability and the degree of involvement in the conversation, on the types of overlap found in their conversation. The findings suggested some trends in the developmental sequence of L2 learners’ overlap in conversation.
    • L2 reading and hypertext: A study of lexical glosses and comprehension among intermediate learners of French

      Ariew, Robert; Cooledge, Susan L. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      The focus of investigation in this study was the online reading behavior of intermediate learners of French as they read a hypertext with L1 and L2 lexical glosses and their comprehension. By design, access to the L2 translations was constrained by access to the L1 gloss information first. This prescribed path of support was meant to maximize target language input, and to prompt cognitive and metacognitive processes toward the goal of increased comprehension. Comprehension was measured through multiple choice and recall tasks, and questionnaires were used to gather demographic data and learner perceptual variables. The study provides evidence that comprehension is increased with access to the hypertext glosses among readers who accessed both French and English language glosses, regardless of prior ability. Accessing only French glosses was not linked to greater comprehension, and no access to glosses reduced a comprehension factor score. Prior ability, as measured by a standardized FL placement exam, was not related to gloss access or time on task. L2 readers' preference for L1 language glosses in also reaffirmed to some extent, though French language glosses seem to have some appeal. Gender also played a role in the extent to which the text was enjoyed by L2 readers, and there is suggestive evidence for the roles of background schema and formal schema based on a qualitative analysis of recall. Questionnaire data reveal insights on readers' perceptions of FLL, reading, their abilities, and reading online, findings which are related in a variety of ways to other factors in this study. Pedagogical implications are considered, as well as directions for future research.