Now showing items 31439-31458 of 39116

    • S(N) calculated neutron energy spectra from fusing dt microspheres

      Cauble, Robert C. (The University of Arizona., 1976)
      The mean energy per neutron for neutrons leaving a dense, laser compressed plasma was calculated. A discrete ordinates multigroup neutron transport code (ANISN) was used to calculate the energies and fluxes of the neutrons from the D(T, ⁴He)n reaction. A variety of constand density, core-burning compressed plasmas were considered. The mean neutron engergy was found to be a function of the product pR and a function of r/R, where R is the compressed plasma radius. A detailed thermonuckear burn in a microsphere was calculated at various time intervals by ANISN. The pR product for the sphere was 4.4 g /cm². The neutron density weighted mean energy per neutron was found to be 9.8 MeV.
    • S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine induced cellular injury in rabbit renal cortical slices

      Gandolfi, A. Jay; Brendel, Klaus; Wolfgang, Grushenka Hope Isabella. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The proximal tubule of the kidney is a target for a wide variety of chemical agents, both inorganic and organic. An in vitro model to investigate the site-specific toxicity of organic nephrotoxins was developed and validated using biochemical, functional, and histological parameters. The in vitro toxicity of cephaloridine, gentamicin, hexachloro-butadiene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) was investigated and the histopathological lesions induced in vitro were compared to those observed in vivo. All four organic nephrotoxins induced a proximal tubular lesion similar to that observed in vivo. DCVC was chosen for additional study. After determining the progression of cellular events resulting from DCVC exposure, the transport, metabolism and localization of DCVC was investigated. DCVC was found to be transported into the proximal tubule via an amino acid system rather than the postulated organic anion system. Aminooxyacetic acid (an inhibitor of β-lyase activity) partially inhibited the covalent binding and toxicity of DCVC indicating that metabolism of DCVC by β-lyase to a reactive thiol is partially responsible for the toxicity. A second enzyme system (L-amino acid oxidase) may play a role in the resulting nephrotoxicity. DCVC is localized to the proximal tubule and mitochondria appear to be the subcellular targets. The site-specific S₃ lesion produced by DCVC may be attributed to innate susceptibility of the S₃ region. The chemical form of a toxin may affect the transport and metabolism of that compound. The N-acetylated derivative of DCVC is an anion and was shown to be transported by the organic anion system. Probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion transport, almost completely inhibited the toxicity of N-acetyl-DCVC. N-acetyl-DCVC produced a lesion similar to that produced by DCVC. N-acetyl-DCVC is not metabolized by β-lyase and thus must be deacetylated to DCVC prior to being metabolized and producing toxicity. The optical isomer of DCVC, D-DCVC, proved to be less toxic yet exhibited the same selectivity of injury as DCVC. This research demonstrates that an in vitro model which reflects the in vivo toxicity of a compound can be utilized to study the mechanisms (transpoart, metabolism and localization) of selective injury.
    • S-C Complications in Nineteenth-Century Sonata Movements

      Pomeroy, David Boyd; Jenkins, Kyle Joseph; Pomeroy, David Boyd; Rosenblatt, Jay; Traut, Donald (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Many have noted nineteenth-century composers' tendency to undermine crucial formal boundaries normally found in eighteenth-century sonata forms. This dissertation examines phenomena that undermine the demarcation between the expositional secondary theme and closing section. In this document I refer to such events as "S-C Complications." In their Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata (2006), James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy argued that this point of articulation plays a much more crucial role than that of merely forming a boundary between S- and C-space. Rather, it serves as the goal for the entire expositional trajectory, a goal whose presence is felt from the very outset of the movement. The authors refer to this moment as "essential expositional closure," or EEC. In this dissertation I attempt to show what role EEC in Hepokoski and Darcy's sense plays in nineteenth-century movements featuring S-C Complications. I conclude that nineteenth-century composers were very likely aware of the EEC's genre-defining status since they consistently and systematically undermined it. Further, whereas in the late-eighteenth-century repertoire S-C complications were rarely employed, in the nineteenth century they became more normative, and thus non-deformational. In addition to discussing the phenomena's dialogic relationship with eighteenth-century norms, I also address their effect on tonal structure and formal syntax, concluding that S-C Complications frequently have the effect of expanding closure beyond the scope of one cadence. For practical reasons I have limited the scope of this study to non-concerto movements written primarily by Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Brahms.
    • S-parameter VLSI transmission line analysis.

      Prince, John L.; Cooke, Bradly James.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Cangellaris, Andreas; McCullen, John D. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      This dissertation investigates the implementation of S-parameter based network techniques for the analysis of multiconductor, high speed VLSI integrated circuit and packaging interconnects. The S-parameters can be derived from three categories of input parameters: (1) lossy quasi-static R,L,C and G, (2) lossy frequency dependent (dispersive) R,L,C,G and (3) the propagation constants, Γ, the characteristic impedance, Z(c) and the conductor eigencurrents, I, derived from full wave analysis. The S-parameter network techniques developed allow for: the analysis of periodic waveform excitation, the incorporation of externally measured or calculated scattering parameter data and large system analysis through macro decomposition. The inclusion of non-linear terminations has also been developed.
    • S.A.B. Manufacturing: Business Plan

      Masschelein, Ariane Machteld; Hulstrom, Brittany; Wade, Sylvia (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)

      Schluntz, Justine Oakley; Seaman, Walter; Leavy, Matt; Bronson, Will; George, Tim (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)
    • Sabino Canyon UAV

      Shkarayev, Sergey; Steinke, James David (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Sabino Canyon UAV

      Shkarayev, Sergey; Pineda, Stephen Michael Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Sabino Canyon UAV

      Shkarayev, Sergey; Palo, Cassie Marie (The University of Arizona., 2014)

      CAMACHO-SERNA, MIGUEL (The University of Arizona., 2002)
    • Sacred Sites and the Perpetuation of Religious Beliefs: Indigenous Understandings and Western Perspectives within Legal Frameworks

      Luna-Firebaugh, Eileen; Avila, Rosemary Michelle; Begay, Manley; Rodriguez, Roberto (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      The way in which land is understood and perceived among American Indians and non-Indians is the cause for vast cultural misunderstandings and divisions between the two groups. For American Indian communities, attachments to place are at the core of religious practices, therefore intrinsically linking the importance of one to the other. This thesis attempts to better understand the way in which American Indians maintain connections to sacred sites, the challenges of access to those sites, and how their conceptualizations differ from Western models of value. This thesis examines the ability of federal policies, cases, legislative processes, and legal frameworks to protect American Indian sacred sites when the cultural context in which this protection is afforded has undeniable discrepancies to American Indian beliefs.
    • Sacrificial Undertones in the Martyrdom of Polycarp

      Friesen, Courtney; Swanson, Jordan Ashton; White, Cynthia; Waddell, Philip (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This thesis examines the use of sacrificial language in the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Mart. Pol.). At several points in the text, the author of Mart. Pol. uses language that demonstrates that he interprets Polycarp’s martyrdom as a sacrifice. To support my argument, I analyze descriptions of self-sacrifices in Hellenistic Jewish, Greek, and Roman texts to show their impact on the writing of Mart. Pol. and to help interpret Mart. Pol.’s use of sacrificial language. In Chapter 1, I review secondary literature written about sacrifice and martyrdom. I start by examining various authors who have provided anthropological theories surrounding the origins and purpose of sacrifice in society. I then turn to scholarly literature regarding martyrdom, which likewise has sought to determine its origins and central purpose. I end this chapter by discussing how sacrifice and martyrdom, as theories, can be synthesized, contending that sacrifice and martyrdom should be considered narrative constructs used to apply religious interpretations to a death. In Chapter 2, I examine Mart. Pol. in comparison to Hellenistic Jewish sacrificial texts. I analyze language in Mart. Pol. that bears similarity to descriptions of Levitical sacrifices in the Septuagint and Hellenistic Jewish writers, such as Philo of Alexandria. I then show that the author of Mart. Pol. interprets the effects of Polycarp’s martyrdom in a manner that is reminiscent of the Maccabean martyrs in 2 Maccabees and 4 Maccabees. Chapter 3 examines Mart. Pol. in comparison to Greek and Roman descriptions of self-sacrifice. I focus particularly on Euripides’ tragedies Alcestis, Heraclidae, Iphigenia at Aulis, Hecuba, and the Phoenissae, Livy’s depiction of the devotio ritual, and Statius’ description of the Menoeceus’ death in Thebaid. I conclude this thesis with a review of my argument as well as areas to consider for future research.
    • "Sadness is a Great Pain for the Body": The Emotional Trauma and Embodied Impacts of Migration from Mexico to Tucson, Arizona

      Sheridan, Thomas E.; Crocker, Rebecca; Sheridan, Thomas E.; Sheridan, Thomas E.; Pike, Ivy; Gonzales, Patrisia; Shaw, Susan (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      A considerable body of evidence links social and economic inequities to poor health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This thesis is a historically contextualized study of how migration from Mexico to southern Arizona is experienced at the site of the body. In this dissertation, I outline the ethno-historical background of traditional medicinal usage and concepts of health and healing in northern Mexico, the primary sending region to southern Arizona. This historical grounding enables a richer exploration of how Mexicans understand migration to effect their physical and mental health. I then examine migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and report on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Finally, I use the illness narratives of my participants to move more deeply into the connections between these experiences of emotional suffering and physical health. Here I employ immigrants' own words to draw a link between group level epidemiological data on health declines in the immigrant community and established research in biological anthropology and neurobiology that identifies individual emotional hardship as a biological pathway to disease. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security has had on well-being, this thesis argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community.

      Winters, Elizabeth Hamlink, 1952- (The University of Arizona., 1986)
    • A Safety and Efficacy Meta-Analysis of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

      McBride, Ali; Abraham, Ivo; Abrego, Jordyn; Alvarez, Krizol; Howdeshell, Joseph; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Specific Aims: The objective of this study was to compare the median progression-free survival and safety profiles of the immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Other analyses included the incidence of any grade adverse event, any grade nausea, fatigue, and diarrhea. Methods: This meta-analysis included the original Phase II and Phase III clinical trials that lead to the approval of these agents. A screening tool was used to identify studies to be included, and a data extraction tool was utilized for data collection. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Main Results: Median progression-free survival was not equal between the three drugs (p=0.0007). Pembrolizumab provided the longest median progression-free survival of 9.6 months compared to both atezolizumab (3.1 months, p=0.029), and nivolumab (3.3 months, p=0.041). Despite its efficacy, pembrolizumab had a higher incidence of adverse events leading to discontinuation than both atezolizumab and nivolumab (p<0.00001). While there was not a significant difference in the incidence of any grade adverse events between pembrolizumab and atezolizumab (p=0.24), nivolumab showed significantly less incidence than the other drugs (p<0.00001). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab are not equally effective or safe. While pembrolizumab provided the longest median progression-free survival, it also had the highest rates of discontinuation due to adverse effects. These differences in efficacy and side effect profiles can aid oncologists in choosing the most appropriate agent for their patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
    • Safety and Efficacy of Commercially Available Pre-Workout Supplements

      Kennedy, Amy; Dudley, Steven; Hudson, Eric; Kennedy, Amy; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Objectives: The purpose of this review was to determine the safety of various pre-workout supplements that utilize proprietary blends in comparison with some of the most common individual ingredients; caffeine, creatine, and B-alanine. We hypothesized that there will be a greater number of adverse events reported for proprietary products than for the individual active ingredients. Additionally, we also wanted to look at the efficacy of the same aforementioned products. We hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant differences in performance between the two arms. Methods: Four databases were searched for subjects that were 18-35 years of age that were already physically active. The number of participants included in each trial ranged from 6 to 98. Results: Caffeine was the only individual compound that affected health markers, increasing mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P<0.05), and HR in 2 of the 3 studies (P<0.05) significantly. Both caffeine and creatine showed a benefit in maximal exertion, but only caffeine improved endurance at doses of 3mg/kg (P<0.05). Proprietary blends did not show a benefit, but serious adverse events such as liver failure were reported. Conclusions: Individually caffeine, creatine, and B-alanine all look to be safe at the recommended doses in healthy and active individuals, with caffeine and creatine benefitting performance. Pre-workout blends should be safe in theory, but due to the unregulated nature of the supplement industry there are a number of serious adverse events that occur. Untested amphetamine-like compounds seem to be the most common addition, with contamination of other ingredients such as anti-depressants occurring as well.
    • The Safety and Efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom) Cultivation on Prosopis spp. Products

      Pryor, Barry M.; Jackson, Lauren Wayne III; Pryor, Barry M.; Orbach, Marc J.; VanEtten, Hans (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Improving food safety and food security is imperative to adequately feed a growing population that is expected to exceed 9 billion people by 2050. Mushroom cultivation provides unique opportunities to take advantage of underutilized resources and produce high-quality food from otherwise inedible or unsafe food sources. Pleurotus ostreatus is a ligninolytic and biotechnologically relevant fungus that can be cultivated on a diverse array of lignocellulosic byproducts. Prosopis spp. are abundant in the Sonoran Desert and broadly distributed in semi-arid to arid regions around the globe. Prosopis spp. legumes (pods), and approximately 25% of all commonly cultivated crops, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, a highly carcinogenic and potentially lethal mycotoxin. This work aimed to (1) identify novel lignocellulosic byproducts from the Sonoran Desert for use as substrate materials in Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultivation; (2) evaluate the safety of mushrooms cultivated on plant products that are contaminated with aflatoxin; and (3) measure the amount of aflatoxin that is degraded by P. ostreatus after the contaminated products have been colonized by the fungus. Prosopis spp. pods were identified as suitable substrate component for P. ostreatus production by conducting yield evaluations and finding that the biological efficiency increased with increasing percentages of pods. No detectable quantity of aflatoxin could be measured in mushrooms that were cultivated on maize that was naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 at concentrations up to 2500 ng g⁻¹. P. ostreatus degraded AFB₁ by >85% in maize with initial concentrations of 2500 ng g⁻¹ AFB₁ in repeated experiments. Thus, the cultivation of P. ostreatus on aflatoxin-contaminated products may be a viable method to produce a safe and high quality food from an otherwise unsafe food source, and may double as a means to reduce the aflatoxin concentration in contaminated plant products to levels that are acceptable for use as livestock feed.
    • Safety concerns of southwestern elderly and awareness of police: An exploratory study

      Reich, Naomi; Browning, Bobby Andre, 1961- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of the elderly in the southwest with regard to police, crime and safety. A questionnaire was mailed to 2500 elderly adults residing in the southwestern states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. Five constructs were developed to measure these perceptions: (1) attitudes toward police, (2) attitudes toward safety, (3) awareness of police, (4) awareness of community policing, and (5) awareness of crime and safety. A t-test and Oneway analysis of variance were conducted to test each of the hypotheses. Results indicated that independent variables of gender, ethnic background, state and area of residence have little effect on the variables of attitudes toward police and attitudes toward safety. However, there was a higher level of significance found for the independent variables toward the awareness of police and awareness of crime and safety variables.

      Reinke, Kristen Nicole (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)
    • SAGA Youth and Family: Programs for Support and Advocacy

      Geary, Adam; Sampson, Adelene Wendy; Geary, Adam (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      As my thesis project, I developed and implemented the SAGA Youth and Family Program through the Wingspan LGBT Community Center and the Southern Arizona Gender Alliance. The first chapter analyzes the use of rights discourse by advocates of transgender youth as a means to gain needed protection and concessions. The second chapter introduces the SAGA Youth and Family Program created to build supportive communities for gender-variant and transgender youth and their families and to end unnecessary isolation, discrimination and harassment affecting transgender and gender-variant youth, their families, and their communities. The SAGA Youth and Family website comprises the final chapter and is one of the three components of the SAGA Youth and Family Program.