Now showing items 38507-38526 of 39117

    • W7 MODEL OF PROVENANCE AND ITS USE IN THE CONTEXT OF WIKIPEDIA

      Ram, Sudha; Liu, Jun; Goes, Paulo; Durcikova, Alexandra (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      Data provenance refers to the lineage or pedigree of data, including information such as its origin and key events that affect it over the course of its lifecycle. In recent years, provenance has become increasingly important as more and more people are using data that they themselves did not generate. Tracking data provenance helps ensure that data provided by many different providers and sources can be trusted and used appropriately. Data provenance also has several other critical uses, including data quality assessment, generating data replication recipes, data security management, etc.One of the major objectives of our research is to investigate the semantics or meaning of data provenance. We describe a generic ontology of data provenance called the W7 model that represents the semantics of data provenance. Formalized in the conceptual graph formalism, the W7 model represents provenance as a combination of seven interconnected elements including "what," "when," "where," "how," "who," "which" and "why." The W7 model is designed to be general and comprehensive enough to cover a broad range of provenance-related vocabularies. However, the W7 model alone, no matter how comprehensive it is, is insufficient for capturing all domain-specific provenance requirements. We hence present a novel approach to developing domain ontologies of provenance. This approach relies on various conceptual graph mechanisms, including schema definitions and canonical formation rules, and enables us to easily adapt and extend the W7 model to develop domain ontologies of provenance. The W7 model for data provenance has been widely adopted and adapted for use within Raytheon Missile Systems and the iPlant Collaborative, as well as the US Army's ATRAP IV (Asymmetric Threat Response and Analysis Program) system.We also developed a domain ontology of provenance for Wikipedia based on the W7 model. This domain ontology enables us to extract provenance for each Wikipedia article. We present a study in which we use their provenance to assess the quality of Wikipedia articles. Assessing and guaranteeing data quality has become a critical concern that, to a large extent, determines the future success and survival of Wikipedia since the quality of Wikipedia has been continuously called into question due to various incidents of vandalism and misinformation since its launch in 2001. Our study shows that the quality of Wikipedia articles depends not only on the different types of contributors but also on how they collaborate. We identify a number of contributor roles based on the provenance. Based on the roles and provenance, our research identifies several collaboration patterns that are preferable or detrimental for data quality, thus providing insights for designing tools and mechanisms to improve Wikipedia article quality.
    • Waimiri Atroari grammar: Some phonological, morphological, and syntactic aspects

      Hill, Jane; Langendoen, Terry; Bruno, Ana Carla (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      The Waimiri Atroari people, who call themselves kinja 'people' and whose language belongs to the Carib family, live today in an area in the northern part of the State of Amazonas and in the southern part of the State of Roraima. Like many other languages of the Carib family, Waimiri Atroari is a chronically underdescribed language. There are few linguistics studies about Waimiri Atroari, most of them being phonological sketches (Hill and Hill 1985; and Lacerda 1991, 1996). Taking this situation into consideration, this dissertation intends to describe some phonological, morphological, and syntactic aspects of the Waimiri Atroari grammar. First, in the introductory chapter I provide some information about their language and culture, and I discuss their experience with formal education. Second, I describe the segmental phonology and analyze the syllable structure and reduplication process under Optimality Theory. Next, I present the word classes and a description of their morphology. Then, I investigate the system of case marking. Finally, in syntax I analyze the phrase structure and the word order under the framework of X-bar theory. The appendices contain a set of verbal paradigms and a collection of texts.
    • WAITING IN SERVICE ENVIRONMENTS: INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF PREDICTED VALUE, WAIT DISCONFIRMATION, AND PROVIDERS' ACTIONS IN CONSUMERS' SERVICE EVALUATIONS

      Lotz, Sherry; Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Lotz, Sherry; Shim, Soyeon; Janakiraman, Narayan (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Management of consumer waiting experiences is critical for practitioners in that unpleasant waiting experiences may result in negative service evaluations. This study focused on consumers' queue waits during the pre-process phase of waiting experiences, i.e., before services are received, and investigated the extent to which relevant variables during this process may impact consumers' subsequent service experience evaluations. The investigation purported to expand and refine the expectation-affect-service evaluation relationship. Specifically, the framework examined the influence of predicted value of service on wait expectations (conceptualized as "consumer zone of wait tolerance" derived from the service literatures), the effects of consumers' comparisons between wait expectations and perceptions (i.e., wait disconfirmation) and perceived wait duration on affective responses to waiting, and the impact of affective responses to waiting on service experience evaluations. In addition, this study predicted the moderating role of actions of the service provider from a social justice perspective in the relationship between affective response to waiting and service experience evaluation.Data were collected at two points in time (i.e., during waiting and at completion of service) via surveys completed by 393 adult consumers intercepted at three restaurants located in a southwestern city in the U.S. Hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling, MANCOVA statistical techniques, and additional post hoc analyses. Findings suggest that both wait disconfirmation and perceived wait duration influence service experience evaluation through affective response to waiting. Results also revealed a positive relationship between predicted conditional value and zone of wait tolerance. The study provides support for social exchange theory and better understanding of the role of actions of the service provider in the relationship between affective response to waiting and service experience evaluation. Lastly, post hoc analyses lend credence to the concept that consumers' affective responses to waiting and service experience evaluations vary across the wait disconfirmation groups. Both theoretical and managerial implications are discussed and directions for future research are also provided.
    • Waiving Nepa to Build A Border Wall: From Conflict to Collaboration on the Arizona-Mexico Border between 1990 And 2017

      López-Hoffman, Laura; Rodriguez-McGoffin, Mariana Sofia; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Marsh, Stuart (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Signed in 1969, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the cornerstone of US environmental law. It requires the government to complete an environmental review for every planned action that may have a significant impact on the environment. It also requires extensive public input. Thus, NEPA enables citizens to participate in environmental decision-making. But, in 2005, Congress passed a law—called the REAL ID Act—that gave the Department of Homeland Security, which oversees the Border Patrol, the right to waive NEPA for any action taken along the border. This essentially cut border communities off from the ability to influence Border Patrol decisions. Subsequently, the Border Patrol built a network of communication towers linked by 550 miles of barriers and roads without formally consulting the public. Despite popular perceptions that the Border Patrol has overlooked environmental concerns, in one instance the Border Patrol provided funding to the Fish and Wildlife Service to build a fish barrier to prevent invasive species from entering the San Bernardino Wildlife Refuge. This action helped protect the most ecologically intact watershed, and the only undammed watershed, in the whole southwestern United States. And yet, because of the absence of NEPA, which would have required informing the public, no one seems to know about this and other steps the Border Patrol has taken to mitigate environmental damages. This study highlights some of the ways in which NEPA enhances cooperation between agencies, strengthens accountability mechanisms and facilitates public participation.
    • The wake of bluff bodies in the presence of combustion

      Blumenthal, Donald Kamp, 1930- (The University of Arizona., 1965)
    • A Walk on the Wild Side: Incorporating Ecological Design and Ethnobotany Interpretation in Morris K. Udall Park

      Hatch, Dionna (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Parks have the potential to be educational, athletic, aesthetic, and artistic places. This work focuses on the linking of art, ecology, ethnobotany and socialization within a portion of a recreational park. The project utilizes the framework of Sonoran ecology and ethnobotany, while integrating the elements of Citizen Science programs and social environments within a new trail. The framework will be applied to a public recreational park, Morris K. Udall Regional Park, to develop a unique socially dynamic, educational and artistic space that inspires users about the natural environment. Methods include: literature review, site analysis, and design guidelines. Final outcomes will include an on-line resource for Citizen Science programs, master plan design for Udall Park, revegetation techniques, and a social ethnobotanical center for the east side of Tucson. Recommendations for the integration of Citizen Science programs and educational art installations are included throughout the design.
    • WALKABILITY AND PEDESTRIAN SAFETY IN SOUTH TUCSON

      Iuliano, Joey; Valenzuela, Carlos Francisco; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Adkins, Arlie; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05-08)
      In the United States, from 2015 to 2016, a nine percent increase was recorded in pedestrian-related fatalities from motor vehicle crashes (NHTSA 2017). To reduce the number of pedestrian-related accidents, and to reduce the dependence of the motor vehicle for primary transportation, the roadway infrastructure needs to be centered around pedestrian usage, multiple modes of transportation need to be offered, and the environment needs to be made exciting and comfortable for all users. This study provides an overview of factors that contribute to pedestrian-related accidents and reduce walkability in South Tucson. This study also provides an overview and a step-by-step process of solutions and recommendations for future development in troubled areas. This work will be accomplished through a) US census data analysis, b) crash data analysis, and c) an assessment of roadway/pedestrian infrastructure design. It found that there were some trends between the two zip codes 85713 and 85704 which are; the zip code 85713 had higher poverty status rates, the household income was significantly lower than in zip code 85704, the average population age was younger than in zipcode 85704, and that more people were cycling to work than in zip code 85704. The mapping of the crash data showed there were more pedestrian-related accidents within a South Tucson location than in a location in North Tucson. It also found that the roadway design and pedestrian infrastructure in South Tucson offered significantly fewer safety elements to pedestrians than in North Tucson. To make South Tucson more walkability and pedestrian-friendly, the roadway, which includes; the intersection, streets, crosswalks, and bikeways, needs to be redesigned.
    • WALKABILITY IN TUCSON: AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT TRENDS AND GROWTH POTENTIAL

      Iuliano, Joseph; Abou-Zeid, Gabriella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Currans, Kristina; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      In the United States, the transportation sector was responsible for 28% of 2016 GHG emissions—the largest contribution of any industry (U.S. EPA, 2018). To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate their effects, active modes of transportation, like walking, need be planned for. This study provides an overview of walking in Tucson, AZ and subsequent guidance for future development through a) an assessment of walk-mode splits, b) a survey on residential preferences for walking, and c) a built environment case study analysis. It found that walking constituted 11% of all trips, compared to motorized vehicles, which accounted for more than 80% of all trips. Percentage of respondent walk and car trips varied significantly by income and trip purpose. Both Tucson residents and existing literature identified destination proximity as the most important built environment factor considered in deciding to walk. A complete streets project that incorporated many built environment features found to improve walkability (e.g., street connectivity, accessibility, walking infrastructure) but failed to account for destination proximity had little impact of walking behavior. To better promote walkability in Tucson, emphasis on coordination between transportation and land use planning and connection of walkability to social and cultural values is necessary.
    • Walking the Margin: Gender and Urban Spatial Production in La Paz, Mexico

      Babcock, Barbara A; Tang, Donna Taxco; Babcock, Barbara A; Doxtater, Dennis; Marston, Sallie A.; Alvarez, Maribel (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This comparison of two urban public spaces in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, examines the production of gendered space within an ethnohistorical context of material and discursive practices related to socio-spatial order, cultural and biological reproduction, and the construction of urban scale. The focus of the study of these two “commons” is on the liminal spatiality of the central plaza and the seaside promenade, the role of everyday life and consumption in the production of these spaces, and the role of women in these successive spatial transformations. In order to understand the relations and practices that produce these commons, the various spatial transformations that have affected the southern Baja California Peninsula are described and discussed. It is a place that has been constituted and reconstituted within successive globalizing forces since at least the beginning of the sixteenth century, up to and including contemporary international tourism. The city of La Paz, its people, and its sense of itself as expressed in its public spaces have emerged from these historical and cross-cultural processes. By examining and comparing the Parque Velasco and the Malecón as the products of both past and emerging patterns of spatial discourse in the negotiation, rehearsal and affirmation of gender identities, the following specific questions are addressed: What is the role women play in the cultural production and reproduction of these public spaces in a borderland? How do the spaces differ--materially, discursively, and in usage? What or whose purposes do they serve? How do they position peripheral agents within a hegemonic globalizing process? Finally, the study considers the question of what future can be envisioned for La Paz and its commons as border spaces.
    • Walking Two Worlds: Integrating Lumbee Indian Values and Practices in Education

      Arenas, Alberto; Lucas, Sandy; Arenas, Alberto; Taylor, John; Fox, Mary Jo (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study investigates how Lumbee values and practices are integrated in a formal schooling system. A qualitative study was conducted to determine how Lumbee school administrators experience their work, and how Lumbee values and practices are integrated in formal education, and what they thought these values and practices were. The main instruments used to collect data were in-depth interviews and a survey designed by the researcher. The data was collected in Pembroke, North Carolina at the School District's Indian Education Office during 2004 and 2005.The four participants in the study are all Lumbee education administrators, employed with a school district in southeastern North Carolina. Ironically, all four administrators received their undergraduate degrees from the tribe's university, the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, UNCP. The research study focused on the Lumbee tribe, the largest tribe east of the Mississippi river, which has organized the largest Indian education program of any public school district in the United States, with approximately 11,500 Indian students.This is the researcher's personal synthesis of stories and "shared metaphors" that Lumbee Indians hold in common with regard to Tribal education and Indigenous education. This research examines the creative possibilities inherent in the introduction of an Indigenous frame of reference toward the development of a contemporary philosophy of American Indian education. Also, this study explores a "culturally-informed alternative" in education that advocates the development of a contemporary community-based education process, which is founded upon traditional Tribal values, orientations, and principles, but simultaneously utilizes the most appropriate concepts and technologies of modern education. This study offers a creative option for thinking about the evolving expressions of American Indian values and the education of Native American students as they attempt to walk in two worlds, their own and the Non Native.
    • WALL JETS ON CURVED SURFACES

      Coxon, Moran, 1930- (The University of Arizona., 1971)
    • Wall Street Wise: An Entrepreneurial Venture

      Pancrazi, Lauren Nicole; Ben-Zvy, Orr; Harrison, Michael; Delinko, Dan (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      Through primary research our team determined that there was a need for an interactive tool that would teach university students about investing in the stock market. As a result, we created Wall Street Wise, an interactive online stock market simulator that allows students to learn about investing by utilizing a distinct hands-on approach. Unlike a textbook, students are able to invest money and compete against other students in their classroom to test the investment knowledge they have acquired. Ultimately we hope that our product will help students to learn about the different types of long-term sustainable investment strategies.
    • Wallace Stegner's "Angle of Repose": One reader's response.

      Dryden, Edgar; Hepworth, James Ralph.; Evers, Lawrence; Momaday N. Scott (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      This dissertation reads Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose by combining objective and subjective critical approaches in an attempt to bridge the gap between storytelling understood formalistically and story in its moving immediacy. The study combines a close textual analysis of the novel with a detailed and extensive account of the critic's personal and emotional responses to it, and these two interpretive perspectives are supplemented by a series of three interviews conducted with the novelist over a period of ten years as well as by an exchange of letters between Stegner and Bernard DeVoto just prior to the publication of Stegner's Beyond the Hundredth Meridian (1951-1953). The study opens with a survey of Stegner's career and argues that his critics have misperceived him as a "regionalist" and undervalued him as a world-class American writer whose work transcends the limitations of place. The ensuing chapters focus on the relationship between the journal form of Angle of Repose and the westering tradition in American letters and on the way the novel situates itself in relation to native American aesthetics and the oral tradition. The burden of these early chapters is to demonstrate that the form of Stegner's novel is symbolic, not only in the formal sense of standing for something other than itself but also in the more subjective sense of figuring the emotional rhythms that it generates in the reader. Later chapters examine in detail the relations between the personal and emotional life of the critic and such technical and thematic issues as unreliable narrator, the Doppelganger motif, and the problems of origins and originality in American fiction. Taken together, the individual chapters are designed to show that Stegner is a postmodern storyteller with postmodern concerns, that he has, in fact, created Angle of Repose as a "counter-subversive novel" by employing the techniques of the so-called "chaos drunk writers" of the 1970's against themselves to produce a work of art that is at once highly original and self-consciously traditional.
    • Wandering Behavior in Manduca Sexta: Investigating Steroid Hormone Effects on Neural Circuits For Locomotor Behavior

      Levine, Richard B.; Miller, Julie Elizabeth; Levine, Richard B.; Tolbert, Leslie P.; Rance, Naomi E.; Yool, Andrea J.; Gruener, Raphael P.; Fregosi, Ralph F. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Steroid hormones alter the excitability of neural circuits for motor behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates. The insect Manduca sexta, with its well-characterized developmental and endocrinological history, is a useful model system to study these effects. The wandering behavior is a stage-specific locomotor behavior triggered by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and consists of crawling and burrowing movements as the animal searches for a pupation site.The results of this dissertation show that 20E acts on the isolated larval nervous system to induce wandering activity. The mechanisms underlying the generation of this activity share features similar to other invertebrate systems, including the presence of segmental central pattern generating circuits. The time course for the nervous system response to 20E is long, suggestive of a genomic mechanism of action, and there are no earlier rapid effects of 20E on the intrinsic membrane properties of the abdominal motoneurons. The site of 20E action in inducing wandering locomotion is unlikely to be the abdominal motoneurons, but interneurons presynaptic to these motoneurons. One possible site of 20E action is the brain, which shows stage-dependent expression of ecdysteroid receptors in certain populations of neurons.Descending regulation by the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SEG) is exerted over the segmental motor circuits for crawling and burrowing and reflects stage-dependent differences. Prior to wandering, the brain exerts inhibition over the segmental motor circuits for crawling, but this inhibition is not present during wandering. Removal of the brain, SEG, and thoracic ganglia during on-going fictive locomotion alters the phase relationships between abdominal segments. Further alterations of fictive crawling motor output are observed in more reduced preparations, indicating the importance of intact connections between abdominal ganglia in the production of a reliable motor program. The SEG drives the fictive burrowing motor program. The burrowing motor program is more robustly expressed in nerve cords from wandering larvae, suggesting a stage-dependent difference due to 20E exposure. Subsequent future experiments will use electrophysiological methods and genetic manipulations in Manduca sexta and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively, to explore target sites for hormone action in the brain and the characterization of brain neurons that drive wandering behavior.
    • Wandering on a Foreign Strand

      Al-Obeidi, Arshed Fahad Ahmed (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
    • Wanting What is Already Gone: Functional Imaging Differentiating Reward Components in Bereavement

      O'Connor, Mary-Frances; McConnell, Mairead H.; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Killgore, W. Scott; Alexander, Gene (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Complicated grief, or persistent complex bereavement disorder, is a condition that affects approximately 10% of bereaved individuals and is marked by intense longing and yearning for the deceased. Little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms contributing to this syndrome, but previous research suggests that reward pathways in the brain may play a role. The present study was designed with this theory in mind, aiming to understand reward processing in those experiencing complicated and non-complicated grief as well as to differentiate the "wanting" and "liking" phases of reward processing in bereavement. Twenty-five older adults were categorized based on grief severity into one of three groups: complicated grief (CG), non-complicated grief (NCG) and non-bereaved married controls (NB). Neural activation was examined using fMRI while participants viewed a countdown on the screen (anticipation) followed by a photo of their (living or deceased) spouse. There was no significantly differential activation between the three groups for the spouse v. stranger photo contrast, nor for anticipation period v. spouse photo. However, these two contrasts were also run separately in the three groups. Each group produced significant activation, in similar and distinct regions, primarily associated with emotion and visual processing. In addition, post-hoc analyses were conducted using self-reported yearning scores as a regressor across all bereaved participants, which revealed that greater symptoms of yearning predicted greater activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). This region of the brain has been previously linked to depression and suggests that symptoms of yearning may present an opportune place to intervene to improve outcomes in CG.
    • War and death: A comparison of Freud's ideas with four works of German World War I literature

      Richter, Roland; Hales, Barbara, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      Sigmund Freud has much to say about the subject of war and death in his later work, written after 1914. Freud explores the effect of war on the soldier, his adjustment to war, his retreat to the primitive, the development of neuroses in combat, and the soldier's reaction to death. War and death are also important subjects found in German literature of the First World War. The aim of this thesis is to briefly review Freud's ideas on the individual in war, and to juxtapose these ideas to various accounts provided by German soldiers of the First World War. The four works of German World War I Literature used in this comparison are: Im Westen Nichts Neues by Erich Maria Remarque, Feuer und Blut by Ernst Junger, Seelenleben des Soldaten an der Front by Ludwig Scholz, and Kriegsbriefe gefallener Studenten edited by Philipp Witkop.
    • War and peace in northern Sung China: Violence and strategy in flux, 960-1104 A.D.

      Tao, Jing-shen; Tsang, Shui-lung, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      This dissertation focuses on a critical factor in historical transformation of medieval China-the dilemma between war and peace. Not only does this dissertation provide a brief and comprehensive account on conflicts, battles, and treaties, but it observes the attitude toward violence and the track of searching peace during Tenth and Eleventh Century China as well. Borrowing the concept of peace by modern scholars studying grand strategy, strategic culture, and pacifism, I regard peace as realistic strategic option, institutionalized establishment, consent behavior mode, and multi-oriented culture. My discussion begins with the exhausting campaigns of the T'ang in Central Asia and the ensuing civil war during the Ninth and Tenth centuries, arguing the Sung non-active posture in external adventure as a conscious avoidance of excessive violence. The relative success of the Sung policy saw in the peace annexation of the Wu-Yueh Kingdom and the conclusion of the Peace of 1005 between the Sung and Liao with modest cost. In addition, the early Sung rulers firmly controlled the military machinery and prevented war-making by internal and institutional causes. Nevertheless, the existing institutionalized peace between the Sung and Liao did not create a norm of behavior and prevent violence proliferation. Unable to contain the Tangut expansionism, the Sung was compelled to reinstate aggressive grand strategy, relieving constrain on its war machinery. Strategic imperative stimulated career military service of the Sung civil officials and gave room to the voice of pragmatic expansionism. Sung military achievement culminated in the success of rearmament during the reform of Wang An-shih. However, the ensuing war eventually ravaged the Sung empire, its opportunity for a great leap toward a pre-modern world missed.