Now showing items 39033-39052 of 39117

    • Y chromosome polymorphisms and the peopling of the Americas

      Hammer, Michael F.; Vuturo Brady, Jennifer Ann, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Polymorphisms at four paternally-inherited loci (DYS287, SPY1, DYS199 and DXYS156) were surveyed in twenty-seven populations (n = 997) world-wide to trace the origins of Native Americans. One of the haplotypes (6) is found at relatively high frequencies in all seven Native American populations representing two of the major linguistic divisions in the New World. The same haplotype was found at low frequencies in Siberian Eskimos and was absent from eleven other Asian populations. A second haplotype (7) was present at high frequencies in all the Native American and several Siberian populations. It was present at moderate frequencies in European populations and at low frequencies in several Asian populations. These data best support the hypothesis of a single male-mediated migration wave for the early peopling of the Americas, although a multi-wave hypothesis is not rejected.
    • Yaqui Coordination

      Langendoen, Terence; Martínez-Fabián, Constantino; Langendoen, Terence; Harley, Heidi; Carnie, Andrew; Karimi, Simin; Dooley, Shelia (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This research describes and explains in the OT framework the Yaqui coordination. It is assumed that coordinate structures are asymmetric and, based in the Yaqui data, I propose that the coordination is the result of an adjunct-host relation. This work shows that the ConjP is inappropriate for explaining the place that the Yaqui coordinator into 'and' occupies in overt syntax. It demonstrates that the proposal which suggests that coordinators in second position are clitics (Agbayani and Goldston 2002) can not be maintained in Yaqui because such position is generated by fronting a topicalized constituent. If we depart from the idea that clitics and topics move to different positions, then a different explanation is required. The proposal is extended to the analysis of unbalanced verbal chaining structures. It is shown that some --kai constructions are marked syntactically as subordinated but actually they are coordinate structures. In the final part of this work I describe and analyze the agreement between coordinate nominals and verbs. The analysis indicates that Yaqui responds partially to the system of CONCORD and INDEX features proposed by Halloway King and Dalrymple (2004). However, its whole explanation requires the use of constraints in order to explain the coordinate patterns of the language.
    • Yaqui voices: Schooling experiences of Yaqui students

      Sonnleitner, Theresa Ann Mague.; McCarty, Teresa L.; Ruiz, Richard; Zepeda, Ofelia (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This ethnographic study examines the unique schooling experiences of Yaqui students in an urban public school setting in Tucson, Arizona. The dissertation focuses on life narratives as a means of understanding how contemporary Yaqui adults view formal education, the struggles they endured to maintain their cultural identity within a mainstream educational environment, and Yaqui-defined factors contributing to the diminished and differential school success experienced by present-day Yaqui youth. The study enlisted 10 Yaqui individuals who resided in Old Pascua at the time of their elementary and secondary schooling, and who represented a range of ages and schooling levels. Old Pascua was chosen because it was established as the first Yaqui community in Tucson and because of Yaqui student attendance in specific schools. Critical theory provides the study's theoretical framework. Such a framework illuminates both the institutional practices and policies which contribute to the limited success of minority students, and the means of transforming those limiting conditions. Yaqui oral narrative accounts serve as the primary documentation and critique of existing educational institutions. The individual and collective struggles revealed in these first-hand accounts, as well as the social, political, and historical factors impacting the lives of Yaqui individuals, are examined. This documentation and a thematic analysis of the accounts suggest several institutionally produced factors that contributed to Yaqui students' lack of school success: the hidden curriculum of school; family support for education; and perceptions related to success. These themes are explored relative to the lives of Yaqui individuals, to research literature, and to critical theory. Finally, participant-generated recommendations for institutional change are discussed. These include changes in school and community relations, relevance of schooling, and economic factors. This study provides insights into the uniqueness of Yaqui school experiences and extends the current body of literature on American Indian/Alaska Native education by considering schooling from a neglected perspective--one informed by Yaqui individuals themselves. By examining the complex array of factors contributing to Yaqui students' diminished school success, the study also joins microethnography, macroethnography, and critical theory in a unified, systemic approach.
    • Yaqui-Mayo language shift

      Hill, Jane H.; Moctezuma Zamarrón, José Luis (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The process of language shift and maintenance of Yaqui and Mayo against Spanish is analyzed through an empirical study of the social network of four families (in each group a more conservative family in the use of the native language, and the other using more Spanish in everyday interactions). This interpretative analysis integrates a multidisciplinary system that incorporates the model of political ecology, along with the postulates and methodology of the ethnography of communication, linguistic conflict, social networks and the relationship between language and identity, through ideology. This empirical approach follows the model of linguistic anthropology, giving an account of the dynamic relationship between the social phenomenon and the linguistic one. A microanalysis allows us to observe the external, and mainly internal, processes articulated to the linguistic conflict developed within the family social networks. Thus, it is possible to do an objective approximation to the heterogeneous linguistic practice of the members of each family, and the social networks they are immersed in. In this sense we require not only a synchronic approach, but also a diachronic one, in order to construct brief lingual life histories of the members of the families, in which the matriarchs have played a very important roles in the process of language shift and resistance. Moreover, within each family, there is a considerable variety in the uses and functions they give to each language, linked to identities established by ideologies in permanent elaboration.
    • Yasuo Kuniyoshi: his life and art as an Issei

      Fujikawa, Fujie, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
    • Year One at "City" High School: An Ethnographic Study of Heritage Language Learners at an Innovative Charter School

      Helmer, Kimberly Adilia; Wildner-Bassett, Mary; Wildner-Bassett, Mary; Philips, Susan U.; Gilmore, Perry; Carvalho, Ana (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Packer and Goicoechea (2000) and Wortham (2006) propose that academic learning is both personal and social transformation. This transformation is continuously negotiated through classroom interaction and curricular choices. The current ethnographic study of an urban southwestern charter high school investigates academic learning in two contexts: a Spanish heritage-language (SHL) class and a humanities class.The study examines Mexican-origin students' resistance to studying their ancestral language. From the first day of their SHL class, students refused to speak Spanish (despite their proficiency), rejected published Spanish-language materials, and acted out. Student resistance was rooted in their perceived lack of relevant tasks and materials, teacher-respect for their home language and culture, and student belief that learning "proper Spanish" could threaten social and familial relationships (see also Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Labov, 1972a; Mehan, Hubbard, & Villanueva, 1994).The resistance of the heritage language learners contrasts sharply with the engagement of the same students in their Humanities course in which students connect enthusiastically with subject matter and instructor. Findings suggest that engagement was fostered through the teacher's strict adherence to the principles of place-based learning (Gruenewald, 2003a, 2003b), critical democratic pedagogy (Shor, 1992), and the instructor's teacher ethos.Latinos have the greatest high school dropout rate in the United States while simultaneously being the largest growing demographic group (Carreira, 2003; "US Census Report," 2004; Waggoner, 2000). The pairing of these two statistics should draw alarm. Thus the study of Latino student engagement and resistance to academic learning is crucial for understanding this problem as well as exploring what pedagogies hold most promise. In terms of HL instruction, analyses reveal that a critical place-based approach to heritage-language instruction holds such promise.
    • Years of Life Lost (before they can ossify)

      McMahon, Ellen; Kaufmann, Dorsey Bromwell; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica; Coleman, Aaron S.; Widdifield, Stacie (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The forced extraction of raw materials and life forms from the Earth’s biosphere sustains human feats of modernity. From precious metals to fossil fuels, from copper to uranium, and the rare earth minerals essential to modern infrastructure and electronics, the history of mining is deeply rooted in the unfolding sociopolitical climate of the Sonoran Desert. By transforming ore into commodities, corporate mining throughout the Sonoran Desert has been a source of immense wealth for some, but has also led to waste, environmental contamination, illness and premature death in rural, low-income, predominantly communities of color. Years of Life Lost (before they can ossify) is a multimedia art installation that visualizes this toxic aftermath through slag rock, a mining byproduct left behind in massive mounds of waste, and glass bones that both represent the years of life lost by people living near waste due to the harmful chemicals that enter their body without their consent. The promise of industrialization to modernize and improve our lives is contrasted with the reality of the underlying intentions of corporate operations that produce and prioritize value in monetary form while devaluing and harming ecosystems necessary for life and the environmental health of local communities. The state’s supporting role is revealed through a mathematical calculation used in policy decision-making that figures the years of life lost in relation to human productivity and profit. Within the exhibition, the viewer is witness to the political and economic forces that are enmeshed in constellations of flesh, tissue, rock, bone, soil, and precious moments of life that were never lived.
    • Yellowcake Fields

      Farling, Brian; Marriott, Andrew Rey (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The project is located along the Colorado River in Moab, Utah; formerly home to the nation's largest Uranium mill. Through its architecture and land art interventions, the project seeks to reflect upon and memorialize certain aspects of the site, while simultaneously erasing the effects of destructive industrial practices. Memorialization takes form in four architectural pieces which tell four stories: the history of Moab and the site, the story of Charles Steen (Uranium King of Moab), the impact of the Uranium mining and milling process, and the larger role of this site in our Nation's atomic age. Erasure of negative environmental impacts is facilitated by a massive land art intervention, which collects and focuses seasonal flood waters of the Colorado River to promote regrowth of native vegetation and life. Over time, what was once the most destroyed part of the landscape will become the most alive again. Festival space is designed to celebrate this returning of the site to the natural world. The project's goal is to teach visitors of the destructive nature of our industrial practices, while contrastingly showing that their impacts can be erased over time through careful designs which promote nature and amplify naturally occurring cycles and events.
    • Yemen's Migrant Networks as Critical Factor in Political Opposition to the Imamate

      Hudson, Leila; Hertzman, Rachel; Farwaneh, Samira; Lucas, Scott; Marston, Sallie (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Nineteenth and twentieth century migratory networks had a formative, yet unrecognized, impact in the lead-up to the 1962 establishment of the Yemen Arab Republic. Migrants from Northern Yemen to Aden built discursive spaces for contesting economic and political oppression that served as a foundation for later channels of political dissidents and reformists to oppose the Imamic regime, often walking a tightrope between their own calls for reform and the interests of foreign state actors. Those spaces were preserved in the later development of similar networks after 1962 and paved the way for generations of migrants to contest or advance reigning economic and social orders via labor migration to oil-rich states.
    • Yemen's Water Crisis: Approaching a Solution

      Sercu, Jason Alexander (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    • Yield and physiological aspects of 17 varieties of corn grown in runoff farming

      BassiriRad, H.(Hormoz); Stroehlein, Jack L.; Matthias, Allan D. (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      A micro-catchment water harvesting agrisystem in Avra Valley, west of Tucson, Arizona, was utilized to grow 17 varieties of drought tolerant corn (Zea mays). The primary objective of this study was to isolate and evaluate the grain yield performance of these cultivars. Additional measurements were also taken on transpiration rate (TR), leaf water potential (0), stress degree day (SDD), and crop water stress index (CWSI), during the period 24 October to 2 November, between two irrigations, in search of possible physiological mechanisms of drought adaptability and their impact on production. The system's performance in terms of economical crop growth is subject to further research. The analysis of grain yield indicates a significant varietal difference. Physiological parameters monitored also show trends of differences among cultivars. It was found that cultivars capable of maintaining a higher plant water content, by preserving their TR, Ψ1, CWSI, and SDD are not necessarily the better yielding cultivars. Possible justifications of this phenomena are discussed. It is suggested that a distinction has to be made between crop adaptability to drought and preservation of a high grain yield since under limited moisture conditions, one might be attained through the suppression of the other.
    • Yield and quality evaluation of fresh and thermally processed desert grown tomatoes

      MohamedAhmed, ElBushra ElTayeb, 1946- (The University of Arizona., 1978)
    • Yield and value of wild-land resources of the Salt River watershed, Arizona

      Cooper, Charles F.,1924-; Humphrey, Robert; Barr, George (The University of Arizona., 1956)
    • Yield risk in wheat production: A policy study for the Alentejo of Portugal

      Dahlgran, Roger; Trindade, Graca Maria dos Santos, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      This study attempts to determine whether or not Portuguese wheat policies have resulted in a stabilization of the wheat price and/or the stabilization of income for wheat growers in the Alentejo region. It was found that these policies have contributed to a stabilization of price rather than a stabilization of income. It was also found that the income variability caused by yield variability was greater for the Alentejo farmers than that for the country as a whole. Weather uncertainties measured by rainfall were found to be a major source of that variability in both area and yield equations. Therefore, it was concluded that rainfall is significant in explaining variations in wheat supply and cannot be eliminated from the model specification. Finally, this study looked at a policy that would stabilize output returns to Alentejo farmers since high yield variability will continue to constrain farmers' willingness to invest in wheat production. An insurance program may be the policy to implement in this region since yield risks are the predominant source of income variability. However, the cost of financing an agricultural insurance scheme as well as the delineation of homogeneous areas are crucial determinants to the success of an all-risk insurance program.
    • Yield studies on Arizona hybrid #1, buffalo gourd

      Wilkins, Mary Helen (The University of Arizona., 1980)
    • Yield, dry matter production, and nitrogen uptake of drip irrigated cotton

      Ahmed, Sabah Kedar.; Stroehlein, Jack L.; Tucker, T. C.; Bohn, H. L.; Briggs, R. E.; Hofmann, W. C. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The study consisted of two experiments conducted over two growing seasons. Urea ammonium nitrate was used as a source of N at rates of 50, 75, 100 and 150% of levels estimated to be ideal for maximum yield of cotton (Gossvpium hirsutum L.). The nitrogen fertilizer was applied through a drip irrigation system. The yield of seed cotton, flowering pattern, boll set, plant N uptake, and dry matter production were studied in relation to four N fertilizer rates and two plant populations in the 1984 study. Yield of seed cotton, plant N uptake and dry matter production were studied in relation to four N rates, three seeding rates, and three cotton cultivars in the 1985 study. Petiole nitrate patterns were studied both seasons. The effect of N applications on seed cotton yield was dependent upon the initial soil N and the yield possibility. In this study the lower rate of N appeared to be sufficient for the yields obtained. Thinning resulted in reduction of the total number of flowers and significantly decreased yield, but percent boll set was not affected. Nitrogen additions significantly increased plant N uptake and dry matter production as well as petiole NO₃-N levels during the growing season. The N need of cotton under drip irrigation was determined throughout the growing season by using petiole analysis. The levels of petiole NO₃-N for N sufficiency and deficiency which are accepted under furrow irrigation cotton were shown to be applicable for drip irrigated cotton. Yield of DPL-775 and DPL-90 cotton cultivars was significantly higher than that for DPL-41 cotton cultivar in 1985.