• “Das Hätten sie mal Richtig Übersetzen Sollen!“ [“They Should've Translated that the Right Way!”] – Folk Myths and Fanscaping in German Dubbing

      Gramling, David; Warner, Chantelle; Ploschnitzki, Patrick; Colina, Sonia; von Ammon, Frieder (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      “Somebody translated it wrong at some point, and then everybody started talking that way.” is one of the many constantly perpetuated folk myths arising around dubbing, i.e., lip-synchronized audiovisual translation. This dissertation investigates this and other assumptions in a German-German context, especially the notion of “wrong translations” that is particularly present in fan-made review platforms of television dubbed into German. Contrasted with interviews with agents of the current German dubbing industry, the dissertation further explores online amateur commentary on canonical episodes of the US-American animated sitcom The Simpsons and the fan-translator relationship in a globalized, networked, enlightened context. Central to this research is the concept of fanscaping: unsolicited lay revisions of professional translations, usually generated on (proprietary) online platforms by enthusiast communities insisting, often inconsistently, on intercultural accuracy and semantic precision over translators’ deliberate, pragmatic compromises.
    • Enabling Rapid Response Observations in Time-Domain Astrophysics and the Science It Can Achieve

      Sand, David; Wyatt, Samuel D.; Matheson, Thomas; Melia, Fulvio; Rozo, Eduardo; Gralla, Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Time-Domain astronomy is the study of astronomical objects whose brightnesses change as a function of time, and like the objects that it encompasses, the field is also constantly changing. With the expectations of large-scale surveys (e.g. ZTF and LSST) and alerts associated with non-localized events (gravitational waves), it must prepare to meet the challenges associated. Within this dissertation, we discuss the work done to address these needs within the community and locally at Steward Observatory, followed by the scientific results that rapid responses can produce. We present the Gravitational Wave Treasure Map, a tool designed to alleviate efforts in searching for counterparts associated with gravitational wave events. We describe the infrastructure established at Steward Observatory's telescopes by developing the software to facilitate rapid responses at the MMT along with efforts with the Arizona Robotic Telescope Network. And finally, we overview two SNe Ia studies that highlight the important science achieved when transients are discovered, classified, and characterized during the earliest times since their explosions. We conclude by discussing the future directions of the field of time-domain observational research, what is expected from observatories to achieve early science, and reflecting upon the ecosystem of the field.
    • Commercial Green Roof Systems in New Orleans

      Boone, Emma; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-10)
      Green roofs have been greatly underappreciated for their ability to provide environmental and economic benefits to a building. This method of green infrastructure utilizes unused roof space to prevent climate risks and provide savings toward water costs. Climate change has caused many environmental, social, and constructional issues that have hindered the integrity of the city of New Orleans. The city has been looking for alternative routes to prevent these negative effects. The research presented focuses on how green roofs can benefit cities with high storm exposure, such as New Orleans. These benefits were measured through a proposed green roof located atop the Columns Hotel in New Orleans, LA. This proposed green roof was created using information gained from the Hanging Gardens LLC and their project located at the Sewerage and Water Board’s administration building. Although this method of green infrastructure is not the most cost-efficient, it has proven to be a great implementation for flood prevention. By slowing the water flow during storms, pressure can be taken off the already stressed pipes and pumps. Land subsidence will also decrease with green roofs as stormwater will now have time to infiltrate through the clay-like soil. Finally, adding a green roof may bring additional customers to the hotel.
    • Optimizing Building Performance: Recommended Design Strategies for the University of Arizona Mathematics Building

      Baker, Slade Caspe; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-09)
      This study focuses on design intervention strategies for the University of Arizona Mathematics building to increase building energy efficiency through a reduction of electric energy loads. Through a post occupancy evaluation of the Mathematics Building, problem areas pertaining to inefficient placement and function of overhead lighting and lack of exterior shading devices were found to cause unnecessary energy demands which can be avoided. The post occupancy evaluation was guided by literature reviews and case studies showing successful implementations of smart building interior lighting and the reduced electric energy demands following implementation of effective exterior shading. These findings justify design recommendations that can be applied to the Mathematics Building.
    • How Can we Learn from the Pandemic to Design Healthier Shopping Malls?

      Leipold, William; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-07)
      The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly impacted consumer shopping behavior and dramatically influenced how and where people shop. People shifted to prefer shopping online or at an outdoor mall to shopping indoors during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still a strong preference for shopping in person as people highly value physically evaluating their purchases. Successful shopping districts pivoted to provide outdoor shopping and dining spaces. Through a survey of shoppers in the Tucson area, data shows that some aspects of a shopping mall can strongly influence where consumers ultimately decide to shop. Ample green space and shade, fascinating art features, and overall suitability are all things that people consciously consider during their shopping experience. This study found that elements such as green space can make an area more comfortable, and outdoor public spaces are less likely to transmit disease than indoor spaces. This data should be a significant consideration for the future planning and development of shopping malls. Incorporating outdoor shopping elements can provide a more enjoyable shopping experience and a healthier shopping environment.
    • Adobe Structures in Tucson, AZ

      Schulz, Heather; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-06)
      Different construction materials utilized throughout the built environment influence people’s interactions and levels of connection within a city. This capstone project will detail types of adobe construction, its history and processes, as well as some of the benefits and consequences of utilizing this ancient material. Interviews with current homeowners, people in the market, realtors, adobe specialists and general contractors showcase the different perspectives surrounding the material and capture its relevance within today’s construction field. Case studies on different sites around Tucson, Arizona and MLS listings will help round out the picture of adobe construction in the city and give solid examples of its beauty, integrity, longevity, and importance. Historically, adobe structures were some of the most affordable due to the utilization of on-site materials and the availability of the resources. Today however, adobe construction costs more due to a specific labor force as well as the material, and this research aims to find out why.
    • Energy Storage Systems and Renewable Energy

      Ward, Michelle; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-06)
      As people worldwide race to eliminate polluting sources of electricity production, renewable energy generation has become more widely used. Wind and solar energy production are the most popular sources of renewable energy. However, energy storage systems are a vital part of the puzzle for the renewable energy transition to ensure stable power both at home and grid scales. Large utility companies like Tucson Electric Power Company understand that to become carbon neutral, energy storage systems must be added to our current power grids. TEP is experimenting with this by incorporating two 10MW lithium-type battery storage systems into the power grid and a 2MW solar power generation facility. As technology improves and prices fall, more can be done at home and work to reduce energy demand. By including energy storage and solar energy production in our homes, we can contribute excess energy to the grid while lowering the amount produced by utility companies. When cities work with their utility companies on renewable energy and energy storage projects, we can move toward our goals of becoming carbon neutral.
    • Improving the Circular Economy of Construction Waste

      Wong, Kenny; Malone, Zachary; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-06)
      Using different commercial and residential construction jobsites within California and Arizona, this project highlighted the different methods of waste management used within the construction industry and steps to become a zero-waste industry. This paper analyzes the ground view perspective of industry professionals utilizing the current methods in place for waste management in the construction industry. The project differentiates the policies for Construction and Demolition debris (C&D) recycling and waste management between the two states to better form a plan for an Arizona waste management plan. Utilizing the methods and standards from construction sites, interviews, and common themes from industry professionals (specifically, project managers), this project outlines potential strategies to improve current waste management methods in both California and Arizona. Finally, the paper provides recommendations to state and local municipalities on how best to establish waste management techniques that benefit both the environment and industry professionals.
    • Green Roofs in the Desert: Comparing Grass and Lavender

      Horn, Cameron; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-06)
      Green roofs are an exciting development in modern architecture. Although they have been used throughout history, they are seeing a resurgence as a way to aid in insulation in buildings passively. Since they are a fairly new topic of modern research, there is little information on different plant types for green roofs in desert climates. This paper measures and compares differences between two types of plants for green roof application, grass, and lavender. These two plants will be tested in multiple categories to determine their strengths and weaknesses compared to each other. This paper shows the benefits of choosing one type of plant over another by thoroughly analyzing multiple variables. The tested variables are interior temperature, water use, drought tolerance, initial cost, soil loss, growth, and potential future growth. This paper identified soil as the primary component of insulation in green roofs. Grass and lavender are evenly split on advantages and disadvantages. However, lavender would be a better choice in a desert climate due to its higher drought tolerance and lower water use.
    • Shading Methods and Thermal Comfort in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

      Fernandez, Francisco; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-06)
      Through time we have seen that the environment changes due to human activity. This provides a series of problems that puts the survival of humanity at a disadvantage. In this report, you will find the different shading methods used in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Where a questionnaire was used to find the most comfortable shading method for the population of Hermosillo. A quiz containing a series of questions about what shading methods they use. Questions related to the basic principles of sustainability in the home are also added. The results that were answered in the Montecarlo residential will be compared. Located in the southwest of the city of Hermosillo, Mexico, and based on these, give importance if the season defines differently the methods that society prefers. Based on the results, it can be seen that the majority would prefer natural methods, like trees that provide shade. However, the results show that not everyone uses this method. This is critical if people cannot maintain a tree or if the environment disadvantages vegetation growth in dry climates. In the end, more complex solutions are sought where people create or use more regular shading methods such as shade sails. However, the shading methods used by the Montecarlo community are not enough to create a pleasant environment during the Spring-Summer season. But they showed that shading does work in seasons where the temperature is not so high, as is the case in Autumn-Winter.
    • Bridging the Gap: Leveraging Social Media to Drive Proliferation of Sustainable Buildings

      DiNicola, Briana; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-05)
      As we progress in the global fight against climate change, there has been slow adoption of sustainable building practices, especially within the United States. It is vital for the public to become familiar enough with the concepts to generate a demand for sustainable buildings. This study investigates the use of social media as a key tool for filling the knowledge gap between sustainable building professionals and the public. Specifically, it seeks to address why businesses in the industry should utilize social media and how they can use it most effectively. The study investigates the public’s use habits and preferences on six social media platforms with a survey, interviews, platform discourse analysis, and a review of popular press and peer reviewed journals. The study finds that Instagram is ideal for visual content targeting younger populations; Facebook is best for written content targeting older populations; TikTok is the best platform for reaching new audiences using short videos which may direct users to YouTube for in-depth learning; LinkedIn is ideal for interindustry content; and Twitter is best for intra-industry content. Bridging the gap will propel widespread change in the built environment by generating consumer demand for sustainable buildings, enabling all to reap its benefits and contribute to stopping, and reversing, effects of climate change.
    • Building Heat Resilience in Rental Homes

      Simons, Korina; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-05)
      We are already seeing the negative effects of climate change and extreme climate events. However, they are disproportionately affecting certain communities. It is essential that the different qualities and environments in which make people more vulnerable are identified and addressed. This research aims to identify how renters are vulnerable to heat-related illness and death due to the physiological, social, and environmental conditions of living in a rental home. Throughout the capstone, the factors which increase heat risk were identified, compared to the conditions of a renter, and simple solutions for how renters can build heat resiliency in a cost effective and simple way were proposed.
    • Waste Not Rot Not: Landscaping in Tucson, AZ

      Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny; Huerta, Alejandra; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-05)
      Tucson, Arizona’s population has grown quickly in the past few decades, causing the existing population to demand more from Tucson’s aging infrastructure, particularly in the realm of green (vegetative) waste disposal. For the Los Reales Sustainability Campus, the site that houses Tucson’s largest (and Arizona’s 3rd largest) landfill, one reaction to this demand has been to invest in different waste diversion programs, such as green waste, to keep reusable materials out of its landfill. However, the success of these programs relies heavily upon their use by those who have the greatest potential to divert vegetative waste: local landscaping firms. For this reason, this research assesses the barriers to green waste diversion according to Tucson landscaping firms of different sizes in order to determine trends in current green waste disposal as well as commercial behaviors towards green waste diversion. A qualitative analysis of four landscaping companies in Tucson, AZ revealed that the greatest barrier to green waste diversion was the cost of waste diversion and the inability to ensure a 100% green load as required by most green waste diversion programs. Customer preference plays a significant role in deciding the disposal business model and its capacity to change, primarily because most customers prioritize cutting costs over promoting sustainability.
    • Changes at the Great Sand Dunes National Park

      Mason, Jennifer; Grogan, Andrew; Wade, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-05)
      Sand Dune Geomorphology occurs much faster than most geological processes, and is heavily influenced by the small scale weather events and current climatology. Aeolian forces can be difficult to study directly, but they directly affect areas with large amounts of free sediment not restricted by vegetation. The Great Sand Dunes National Park was upgraded from a national monument in 2000, but the dunes themselves are thought to have formed as recently as 18,000 – 400,000 years ago after a large glacial lake receded from the valley. There is even evidence that large amounts of sediment joined the main dunefield 750 years ago due to a severe and prolonged drought. With improvements in technology, it is now possible to look at the dunes with LIDAR, seeing the changes from 2014 to 2021. Using Lidar data, it may be possible to identify possible causes or variables that influenced the changes that occurred to the Great Sand Dunes over the course of 7 years. Large nearby features like the 14,000 foot (4267 meters) Sangre De Cristo Mountains with their effect on the weather, and creating ephemeral streams from snowmelt. This study tests and identifies variables to ascertain whether they influence the dunes, and may help us predict what may happen in the near future, as well as possibly the far future, and the dunes may reveal secrets about how the climate is changing as they are impacted by the climate.
    • Density in the Desert: Analyzing the Infill Incentive District in Tucson, Arizona

      Nelson, Brad; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-04)
      This study investigates the outcomes of the Infill Incentive District (IID) in Tucson, Arizona. Implemented in 2009, this program was designed to reduce blight and high vacancy rates in downtown Tucson and surrounding areas. The program also had the goal of creating more pedestrian and transit-oriented development along the Sun Link streetcar route. The intention of this study is to determine if the goals sought out by the city at the time of the program’s implementation were realized. Several incentives were offered by the program including reductions in parking restrictions, application fees and setback limitations as well as relaxations on height limitations determined by existing zoning restrictions. There were also financial incentives through tax abatements for developers. The findings of this study were that, as of the date of writing, 2,199 new multi-family units were approved under the program, as well as over 300,000 square feet of new retail, office, restaurant/bar and entertainment space. Additionally, several existing locations have had their parking requirements reduced or eliminated.
    • Spatial Relationship between Demographics and Brownfields in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

      Mason, Jennifer; Lowden, Meredith (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-04)
      The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the sixth largest city in the United States and resides within Philadelphia County. There is a large population within a small area, which can make environmental contamination more impactful to the population. Environmental contamination sites known as brownfields, are common throughout Philadelphia County, which many residents may not realize exist. This project focused on analyzing the spatial relationships between environmental contaminated sites and demographics at the county level. Bivariate and choropleth analysis were used as a way to understand the relationships. Three demographics were used including race, poverty percentage, and median household income. The African American or Black population is greatest in Philadelphia and is also the population with the highest percentage of poverty. In addition, median household income became important as the county has a below average income per household compared to the United States average. When looking at the distribution of brownfields throughout the county it appears that there are an abundance of locations, but when looking at the locations within each census tract, there are only a few tracts with more than 20 locations per area. Both bivariate maps that show the relationship of brownfields versus poverty status and median household income show similar results. African American population and brownfields showed a different relationship, but all three relationships showed at least one census tract where both variables were high. Understanding environmental injustice will help bring awareness and force policy members to address change in communities.
    • Challenges in Laboratory Sustainability Within the Biopharmaceutical Industry

      Bustamante, Apolonia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      Abstract The biotech pharmaceutical industry (Bio-Pharma) is fast growing with drug products that save millions of lives with scientific research and dedication to providing medication to its clientele. With such a high demand and fast paced agenda there is much difficult surrounding the ability to adopt sustainable practices. This research was conducted at Ajinomoto Biopharma, specifically the United States branch, and its challenges with laboratory sustainability practice. A total of 20 (N=20) laboratory analysts were surveyed for this research. Each analyst was asked a series of 3 questions and their responses were recorded. It was found that laboratory sustainability mainly faces challenges due the lack of alternatives that are available. Specifically within the pharmaceutical industry there are many guidelines and standards that must be followed for the health and safety of patients as well as employees. This causes issues when trying to find sustainable tools for conducting research that also are safe for the environment.
    • GIS Analysis of the Bighorn Fire Evacuation Orders

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Camp, Katrina (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      The Bighorn Fire of 2020 burned 119,978 acres of the Santa Catalina Mountains and threatened urban interface five days into a forty-nine-day burn. Arizona’s Ready, Set, Go! emergency response evacuation plan was activated to ensure the safety of those residing within the danger zone of the wildfire. Evacuation zones were created specifically for this natural disaster which proved confusing for many residents attempting to determine their location in conjunction with the wildfire. This historical spatial analysis depicts the evacuation orders as they were initiated by the Pima County Office of Emergency Management. For each of the twenty-five Pima County evacuation orders initiated during the Bighorn Fire, ArcGIS Pro was used to map each zone by evacuation order and the correlating evacuation status (Ready, Set, Go!). The evacuation meeting point, as well as the animal sheltering location, have been digitized on each map displaying the distance between the evacuation zones and the meeting points. An ArcGIS StoryMap has been created to narrate the events of the Bighorn Fire. An interactive evacuation map was developed using ArcGIS Web App Builder. Users can enter their address and choose a point on the map to determine the distance, route, and length of time from their house to a safe point outside of the evacuation zones. This project will improve understanding of the events that occurred during this natural disaster and the emergency responses used to ensure the safety of citizens near the urban interface. Additionally, it can be used as a learning tool to improve wildfire evacuation communication with the community as well as community safety education.
    • Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Urban Sprawl Assessment Using Shannon's Entropy

      Mason, Jennifer; Stuht, Casey M (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      A population center’s growth, known as urbanization, can pressure delicate environments and place strain on a region’s natural resources. Remote sensing combined with Geographic Information Systems can analyze and map the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This study quantifies growth within the Las Vegas, Nevada urban boundary using the aforementioned tools and Shannon’s Entropy method for 2000 and 2020. Shannon’s Entropy measures urban morphology, calculating compactness and dispersion of binary categorization, in this case, ‘developed’ and ‘undeveloped’ land cover. Eighteen multi-ring buffers were placed around Las Vegas City Hall at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of 1.10 and 1.15 respectively. In comparison for the same years mentioned, five multi-ring buffers were set around the study area’s three main highways at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of .608 and .628 respectively. All entropy values using the multi-ring buffer method were > 50% of log(n) for each dataset, meaning that the ‘developed’ land cover spatial variable is evenly dispersed across the study area with compactness or clustering of the ‘developed’ class found within each buffer zone. Temporally, over the 20-year period, the dispersion of development continued, with an increase in entropy values. Further, a geographic quadrant assessment revealed that the greatest land cover change-over from ‘undeveloped’ to ‘developed’ occurred in the northwestern and southwestern portions of the study area. This exercise provides a framework for developing municipalities that seek a cost effective, accessible, and expeditious method to better recognize sprawl patterns with the aim of correcting inefficient land and resource management.
    • ANALYZING THE AGRICULTURAL DEMAND OF H-2A FARM WORKERS IN LABOR-INTENSIVE SPECIALTY CROPS

      Mason, Jennifer; Camacho, Nicholas (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      The United States has a long history of relying on foreign farm labor to sustain and support its agricultural industry. In 1942, the first agricultural guest worker program was initiated and named the Bracero Program, which implemented the means of temporarily importing workers from Mexico to fill labor shortages in the United States during World War II. In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act established the H-2 Non-Immigrant Visa Program, which allowed foreign workers to be admitted into the United States to fill seasonal and temporary employment. The H-2A agricultural worker visa is a guest program that allows employers in the agricultural sector to bring foreign nationals to the United States to fill temporary agricultural jobs. Today, the H-2A program continues to be in high demand and is the best source for legal and reliable farm labor in the United States. This project uses bivariate analysis to explore agricultural demand of H-2A farm workers in vegetables, fruits and tree nut commodities throughout the United States. Bivariate analysis identified Monterey County, California as the largest producer of vegetables and had the second highest demand of H-2A workers in the United States. Maps also revealed, Moore County, North Carolina as both the number one requestor and employer of H-2A workers in the United States with over ten thousand by North Carolina Grower's Association, Inc. This project contributes and further strengthens the reality there is an increasing demand of H-2A workers in agriculture, especially those sectors producing vegetables, fruits and tree nut commodities.