• Better Military Housing through Sustainable Building

      Buchele, Shannon; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      Significant issues have come to public light in the past three years regarding privatized military housing. Inefficient design and building practices, combined with poor management and maintenance have contributed to unsatisfactory energy performance in houses and significant health, life, and safety concerns for military families. However, sustainable building practices can be utilized to improve the overall function and living conditions for our military members and their families. This capstone collected data through a literature review, resident survey, and a case study to understand the scope of issues that military families face while living in privatized housing. Recommendations based on these results point toward a more sustainable future for military housing that could help improve living conditions and welfare for military families.
    • An Alternative Approach to a Achieve Water Resiliency

      Anderson, Jack; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      This case study of Auckland, New Zealand, examines an alternative method of water supply. Centralized water utility networks supply the majority of water to all municipal sectors. Increased population and an outdated and failing distribution system mean water shortages and restrictions are becoming more frequent occurrences for the cities around the world. The uncertainty of water resiliency must be brought into question regarding the future supply of water for Aucklander’s who are becoming increasingly subject to restrictions placed on water use. This study looks at rainwater harvesting as an alternative method of water supply to the failing centralized system. Water supply, obtained from flow data provided by the utility, indicate seasonal water use patterns. GIS analysis of each distribution zone in Auckland provides a clear analysis of each structure’s roof area. Runoff Data compiled from 70,834 structures suggests that runoff from precipitation events would be sufficient to fully replace centralized supply in months of higher rainfall. Partial offsets of ≥ 75% were also simulated in 5 of the 7 distribution zones studied. The correlation between roof area + runoff produced and water supplied from the utility is also examined to determine the best zone for implementing this alternative approach.
    • Finding a Place to Plug: A Review of Factors Influencing Optimal Electric Vehicle Charger Locations

      Newman, Taira; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      This paper explores the factors that should be considered when selecting a new location to place an Electric Vehicle (EV) charger. To increase the confidence in EV driving ranges and encourage the adoption of EVs the supporting infrastructure will have to rise to meet demand. Charging stations need to be optimized to account for driver preferences with regards to location and rate of charge. Variables such as proximity to trafficked routes and short wait times can attract drivers looking to recharge. The implementation of renewable energy to power EV charging can reduce the strain on the grid and lower energy costs while enticing drivers to use ‘greener’ stations. By understanding common characteristics of EVs drivers and identifying populations with these same traits’, stakeholders can target potential markets for successful projects. Using major findings of current EV studies and a dataset of existing EV locations in Tucson, Arizona, it is possible to determine that the stated research supports the existing data. Keywords: Electric Vehicles, EV Charging, Renewables
    • Creating a Secure Data Architecture and Digital Platform for the Borderlands Observatory Collaborative

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Bristol, Warren (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      The Borderlands Observatory Collaborative is a group of advocates, NGOs, and academics that want to promote ethical, horizontal research on border militarization. This collaboration created a data architecture and digital platform for NGOs, advocacy groups, and academics to communicate their information to the public. ArcGIS Hub provided an interface to create a user-friendly platform to store, mix and display spatial and other information and keep data secure and private for collaborators. It takes untold sums of human effort, labor, technical know-how, people power, and geospatial tools to create datasets used in the region, including humanitarian, social, and environmental, as well as ongoing monitoring of changing issues. The purpose of this Master Project is to detail the creation of this Hub site and one case study from the project on mapping the construction, litigation, and environmental policies associated with Trump and Bush era border walls. The case study focuses on the collaborative work performed with The Sierra Club utilizing ArcGIS Hub and AGOL tools. This study utilizes Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) feedback from collaborative members to guide the creation of a secure data architecture. This study explains the techniques used from PPGIS feedback to create a Hub and applies PPGIS to construct a border wall AGOL Dashboard. The collaboration in this study is ongoing, but a noted finding from this PPGIS experience was with information that is highly sensitive, personal, and political, the collaborative tended to prefer less centralization and a diffused data sharing platform and power structure for ethical reasons.
    • Planting the Seed: How Urban Agriculture Grows a Stronger Community

      Kramer, Sean; Crawford, Teja Lee; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-08)
      Urbanization, food miles, and food deserts are all factors that call for a reconstruction of the way we think about food. This report examines three potential methods of urban agriculture that can be used to create a more dynamic food system. This is done first through a literature review that examines three main concerns of urban agriculture: the benefits to the community, lack of space, and need for government involvement. Each method is then explored through a case study. Peri-urban agriculture is looked at in the Greater Melbourne area. Traditional agriculture is examined through Seattle’s P- Patch system of community gardens. Finally, innovative urban agriculture is seen in New York’s collection of controlled environment farms.
    • Strategies to Create and Maintain a ‘Sense of Place’: Addressing Developmental Impacts That Have Resulted in Gentrification Through Time

      McClean, Kayla; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Daughtrey, Cannon; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-06)
      The purpose of this study is to address the impacts of development/redevelopment that have resulted in gentrification and community displacement throughout history. Upon analysis of the impacts of historical development policies, it was found that prior policies and strategies exacerbated effects such as gentrification and displacement. However, through examining two case studies and a participatory survey, solutions to developmental impacts can be drastically improved through participatory planning and inclusion of existing residents. The conclusions propose strategies that have successfully reduced adverse impacts and set up avenues for future research and policy to continue these successes.
    • Applying Design Improvement Guidelines to Bus Stops in Tucson, AZ

      Loh, Isabelle; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-05)
      Public transit is a complex system with various factors that affect its service and use, such as regional geography, socioeconomic factors, land uses, and demographic characteristics. This paper aims to only examine and discuss the role of design in the public transit experience and apply more contemporary approaches of design that goes beyond traditional functionality at bus stops. The topic of bus stop design is significant because previous studies have shown that design plays an important role in maintaining and increasing ridership by improving public perception of transit. Improvements in the immediate physical urban environment can also encourage other modes of active transportation. Through an analysis of preliminary pilot study data and an in-depth literature review into the role, components, and techniques of bus stop design, feasible approaches of design are extracted and applied to local bus stop sites in Tucson, Arizona. Beyond implementation, this paper hopes to convey that bus stop improvements should be approached with moderation—considering what is truly needed based on ridership volume, price point, availability of space, technological advancements, or other extraneous factors. This study ultimately is of the view that the bus stop is a complex yet rarely studied space full of opportunity and hopes that novel approaches in design will take advantage of said opportunities to turn transit zones into coveted community spaces rather than zones of lower value.
    • Food Deserts & Multifamily Greenhouse Design

      Bazua, Tiburcio Jr; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-04)
      World hunger, global climate change and human population growth provides the need to reinvent the built environment and the agriculture industry by combining both in a sustainable manner. This research project explores the challenges and provides clarity on growing food indoors with recycled rainwater. While simultaneously providing insights into the aspects of net-zero energy structures and their designs in the missing middle housing sector. The proposed eco-plex building can support 845 crops while recycling 88% of all gray water, saving 146,000 gallons of water per year.
    • Recommended Design Strategies for a Sustainable Library Retrofit

      Cowling, Ethan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      Using the third floor of the University of Arizona Main Library as a model, this project aimed to identify energy efficiency measures, design strategies to improve occupant comfort, and modernizing library spaces for current functionality. The project identified eight Energy Conservation Recommendations (ECR's) and fourteen Architectural Improvement Recommendations (AIR's). More strategies are identified over the course of this project; however, the following implementations were determined to be the most pertinent for future designers to consider in a library retrofit.
    • A Habitat Suitability Analysis of Texas Horned Lizards in Texas and New Mexico

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Piehler, Reid (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      The Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) is a state-protected lizard native to the American Southwest. To rebuild the Texas Horned Lizard population, they are bred in captivity and released into the wild. Identifying factors that impact habitat suitability is vital to finding the proper areas for release and reintroduction. Environmental and human factors were examined in Texas and New Mexico counties native to the Texas Horned Lizard, as well as counties without known sightings, to determine which factors most impact habitat suitability. Four statistical and geospatial software packages were used to map, analyze, and evaluate 24 potential variables and it was discovered that elevation, road density, natural gas pipeline density, seasonal rainfall, land use category, and proximity to Red Harvester Ants are all statistically significant to Texas Horned Lizard habitat suitability at a 95% confidence level. Texas Horned Lizards are most prevalent in counties with low elevation, high percentage of open water or snow, low precipitation levels, and native habitats for Red Harvester Ants. Horned Lizards are also less prevalent where road density or natural gas pipeline density is high. No significant difference was detected in habitat suitability relative to Imported Fire Ants as suggested in previous studies. To protect viable environments for Texas Horned Lizard reintroduction, pipeline and road construction should be limited in the most suitable regions: eastern and southern New Mexico, the southern Gulf Coast, the Texas Panhandle, Edwards Plateau, and along the Rio Grande.
    • Food Security in Nepal: Improving Food and Nutrition Security

      Heard, Evan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      This paper assesses the lack of food security and the high level of poverty within Nepal. It will look at what factors influence these poor living conditions through research and data analysis. Data will illustrate the levels of improper nutrition and poverty compared to food production and supply throughout Nepal. Additionally, data will present information on Nepal’s main commodities. With this information, solutions focusing on the issue of food security and poverty will be constructed. Furthermore, crops with the potential to provide economic and nutritional benefits to Nepal’s communities will be identified and assessed. Ultimately, this paper looks for potential strategies for improving the poor conditions within the rural communities of Nepal.
    • Climate Mitigation for Arid Region Vineyard

      Brown, Waverly; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      The global wine industry takes up to 7.4 million hectares (18.3 million acres) of land worldwide (“Leading Countries in Global”). The climate, terrain, and soil composition are major determining factors of the quality of wine produced. Most of the wine grapes produces are found within Mediterranean climates; however, the amount of arid to semi-arid region vineyards has increased (Vukicevich). The biodiverse hotspots that contain the proper growing parameters for grape growing are at risk due to climate change (Hannah). The current regions that could support viticulture reduce 25% to 73%, with projects being up to 62% crop decline by 2050 (Hannah). Increased temperatures, frequent storms (hail and frost included), and varietal loss were the main concerns reported (Callaghan). Climate change impact reduction within arid region vineyards, mitigation efforts must be applied by vintners or with the interaction of local government conversation programs or tax credits. This study provides a review of viticulture within arid regions through an assessment of current climate change impacts and mitigation efforts, local interviews with Arizona vintners to understand which areas are most vulnerable, which mitigation activities are used, an analysis of legislation and government aid to increase adaptation practices within arid region vineyards. It found that local vintners reported 20%-30% crop loss in 2020 due to hail storms (Callaghan). Not only is crop loss a significant result of climate change, but the varietals that survive the thermal stress and lack of precipitation on-site will also result in a reduction of wine quality and vine longevity (Cardell). Both existing literature and local vintners report hail damage as the most critical production risk to their crop yield. Mitigation efforts were successful on a site-by-site basis. Neighboring vineyards reported varied responses in the peak vulnerability of their fruit farming (e.g., cover crop, soil amendments, increased temperatures, hail management, varietal loss, varietal shifting, spatial diversification). However, tac credits, policies, or education on these hazards have room for improvement**. To increase climate mitigation in arid region vineyards, government agencies must anticipate the indirect effects of climate change on the wine industry and respond with vintners to emphasize agricultural adaptation and conservation action.
    • Foraging in Tucson's Parks: Interest, Barriers, and Opportunities

      Ortez, Paola; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      This paper considers the negative impact of reducing green spaces in cities on people-nature relationships and how urban foraging can help bridge that gap using Tucson, Arizona, as a case. All park policies, laws, and regulations at both city and state scales and laws that affect trees lining streets are reviewed. A content analysis was performed with questions relating to the following barriers to foragers: behavioral restrictions, management practices, and safety concerns. In addition, University of Arizona students were surveyed to gauge interest in an edible city initiative in Tucson, Arizona, and an interview with an urban land planner gave further insight into the design aspect of incorporating edible landscaping in a city. It was concluded that the language in laws that affect public parks, state parks, and streets is restrictive to foraging practices, with the common theme being that people should not be interacting with vegetation in parks. Moreover, student surveys showed interest in foraging, especially for educational purposes and alleviating food insecurity. It is concluded that for Tucson to start a city-wide edible city initiative, the legal barriers must be addressed first.
    • Wheelchair Accessibility Within Single-Family Homes

      Adolph, Alesha; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Culbert, Mike; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      Single-family homes in the United States often are not wheelchair accessible. Wheelchair users have shared their significant experiences with facing barriers within their homes. This study built a shared understanding of what is needed in homes for wheelchair users and how designers and therapists can influence these needs. Further, it provides examples of how homes can better and more easily be designed or retrofitted to be wheelchair accessible. The data came from a series of semi-structured interviews with Wheelchair Users, Architects, and Occupational Therapists from Tucson, Arizona, on their experiences with accessible design. Each type of interview was given a different series of questions. The results showed that cosmetic changes such as doorways and flooring were the most straightforward changes, while bathroom layout and plumbing fixtures were the most difficult changes. These are essential changes to make, according to all interviewed. These results suggest that single-family homes are still a common barrier for wheelchair users and their caretakers. More attention needs to be made to accessibility from the design focus in order for fewer barriers and changes to be faced. Accessible homes are achievable if designed to be so from the beginning.
    • Improving Community Development Through Sustainability and Affordable Sustainable Housing

      Robinson, Jonathan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      Sustainability is one of the most discussed topics in the world. Sustainability innovation and principles are immeasurable and are remarkably effective if applied correctly. Such principles can impact governmental decisions making on national, state, and local levels. The values of sustainability can always be improved and shared among everyone, not just those with the economic resource to afford its techniques. This study investigated the importance of improving sustainable practices in low-income communities while creating affordable housing through data collection, analysis, and interpersonal surveys. It was found that investing in sustainable communities and affordable housing has both environmental and economic growth benefits all people will enjoy.
    • A Comprehensive Study of Forest Health and Structure Following the West Fork Fire Complex in Southwest Colorado through Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR)

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Rodriguez, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      In June 2013, southwest Colorado faced one of the largest wildfires in state history, the West Fork Fire Complex. Being composed of three separate fires (Papoose, West Fork, and Windy Pass), the wildfire burned approximately 110,000 acres within the Rio Grande National Forest. This project aims to understand how the West Fork Fire affected forest structure and recovery, and measures these impacts using Landsat 8 imagery to analyze NDVI and NBR. NDVI was calculated to understand impacts to vegetation, while NBR was calculated to understand overall burn severities. Specific measurements of NDVI and NBR values were collected across 30 designated control points within each set of imagery. NDVI results showed a 63% decrease in control point values from June to August 2013, indicating immediate impacts to forest structure. The average values fell from greater than 0.20 to less than 0.10, classifying these once sparsely covered lands into areas of barren rock or sand. NBR values saw a decrease of 309% over the same period. ΔNBR values averaged 0.33 which indicated moderate to low severity burns throughout the landscape while ΔNDVI averaged 0.12. NDVI found a 123% increase in July 2016 compared with the 2014 data, and NBR detected a 114% increase. Both analyses presented higher values in 2016 compared with their 2013 data, showing evidence of forest recovery. The results indicated the West Fork Complex had a moderate to low impact. Additionally, results demonstrated how NDVI and NBR helped to classify the severity of wildfires, vegetation health, and how these methods can be reproduced.
    • A Study on Urban Sprawl and Air Quality in the United States

      Ries, Suzanne; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Currans, Kristina; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      Urban sprawl and density issues can raise problems related to public health, the environment, and transportation in metro areas. This study looks at urban sprawl levels in 60 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States. It analyzes the relationships between air pollutants and transportation variables and if increasing sprawling development is associated with declines in air quality, and if air pollutants in sprawling cities are decreasing at a slower rate than less sprawled cities. It was discovered that while this relationship is significantly more complex than initially predicted, PM2.5 levels were able to support the hypothesis of that in MSAs that had increasing levels of sprawl, air pollution was higher. However, AQI and ozone levels behaved entirely differently than predicted. Based on these findings, many more questions arose around the relationships between these variables. Are the relationships more complicated than they appear? How can they be better defined?
    • Eddavidite, a New Mineral Species, and the Murdochite (Cu12Pb2O15Cl2)-Eddavidite (Cu12Pb2O15Br2) Series

      Downs, Robert T.; Rosenblatt, Melli; Holliday, Vance; Thirumalai, Kaustubh (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Eddavidite is a new mineral species (IMA2018-010) with ideal formula Cu12Pb2O15Br2. It has cubic Fm3m symmetry; a = 9.2407(9) Å; V = 789.1(2) Å3; Z = 2. Eddavidite is the bromide analog of murdochite, with which it forms a solid solution series. The type locality is the Southwest mine, Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.A. Eddavidite also occurs in the Ojuela mine, Mapimí, Durango, Mexico. Eddavidite forms zones within mixed murdochite-eddavidite crystals. Spot analyses of Bisbee samples show up to 67% eddavidite component while Ojuela samples show up to 62%. Eddavidite-murdochite crystals show forms {100} and {111}; the habit grades from simple cubic through cuboctahedral to unmodified octahedral. Eddavidite is black and opaque with submetallic luster, and visually indistinguishable from intergrown murdochite. Its Mohs’ hardness is 4. Eddavidite exhibits good cleavage on {111}. The empirical formula, normalized to 12 Cu apfu is Cu12(Pb1.92Fe0.06Si0.06) (O15.08F0.02) (Br0.99Cl0.89•0.12). dcalc. = 6.33 g/cm3. dmeas. = 6.45 g/cm3. The crystal structure consists of corner sharing square planar CuO4 units, arranged in Cu12O24 metal oxide clusters, which encapsulate Br atoms. PbO8 cubes share edges with Cu12O24 clusters in a continuous framework. Eddavidite is one of only 10 mineral species with essential Br. Eddavidite crystallizes from bromine enriched fluids leftover from desiccation of paleo-seawater at its two known localities.
    • Lithospheric Structure of the Ecuadorian Orogenic System and Event Location using the Seismoacoustic Wave Field

      Beck, Susan; Johnson, Roy; Koch, Clinton; Kapp, Paul; Richardson, Randall (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Seismologists use the seismic wavefield to image the Earth’s structure at a wide range of scales, from a few meters to 1000s of km. Sources (earthquakes, explosions, etc.) of seismic waves can also be located and distinguished using the seismic wavefield. In this dissertation, I utilize both of these aspects of seismology. The major part of this dissertation focuses on the use of naturally occurring seismic sources (earthquakes) to elucidate the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Ecuadorian orogenic system (Appendices A-C). In the final section, I explore the seismic location problem by combining seismic and infrasound phenomena in a Bayesian framework (Appendix D). Ecuador, the focus of the first three studies, is a complex tectonic region spanning several tectonic provinces. Offshore, the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American plate creating major stresses that build up and result in megathrust earthquakes along the boundary between the two plates. Following a magnitude 7.8 earthquake offshore Pedernales, Ecuador in 2016, seismic instruments were deployed to study the seismicity and tectonics of the region. This collaboration between US institutions (University of Arizona and Lehigh University) and the Instituto Geofísico at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador also opened up a wealth of data from the Ecuadorian permanent seismic network which enabled a higher resolution study of the arc region. Appendix A presents a detailed study of the tectonics of the forearc region and the relationship with the megathrust behavior. The results indicate that the complex accretionary history of Ecuador resulted in a forearc that exhibits significant variations in the seismic velocities along the strike of the trench. These variations appear to align with the style and behavior of the seismicity in the region, suggesting that the structure of the upper plate may play an important role in controlling megathrust behavior. Appendix B shifts the focus towards the Andean region and the active volcanic arc. The Ecuadorian Andes contain a broad (~150 km wide), active, arc that extends from the Western Cordillera into the Subandean zone. Here, a map of crustal thickness beneath the Ecuadorian Andes is presented, which shows that it is largely in isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Observed low-velocity regions are beneath several active volcanoes are interpreted as regions of long-term magma storage, consistent with crystal mush zones. To connect the arc and forearc, earthquake-generated surface waves and the Automated Surface Wave Phase Velocity Measuring System are used to measure phase velocities in Ecuador. Appendix C reports on the results of this method. Periods between 25-50 seconds show good coverage across the array and image a faster forearc region and a slower arc region, likely reflecting a thicker crust in the arc region. At periods ≥ 60 seconds coverage is limited to the arc region where a longer period of data was available. These results serve to extend the phase velocity measurements from ambient noise deeper and begin to offer constraints on the upper mantle beneath Ecuador. As more data and more stations are deployed in Ecuador it may be beneficial to revisit this analysis at a later time. In the final Appendix, the focus shifts from lithospheric structure to explore the event location problem. Here, we combine seismic and infrasound observations for locating a seismoacoustic event. A Bayesian framework is developed to better estimate the uncertainty associated with the location. This new method is tested on data from a surface explosion from the Bingham mine in Utah and shows that combining the two phenomena can improve the location beyond what either method can obtain individually.
    • Modernizing Conquest

      Waterstone, Marv; Banister, Jeff; Kinnison, Jedediah; Williams Jr., Robert A.; Perez, Emma; Oglesby, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      My research leads me to the conclusion the international human rights system's separation of the “indigenous problem” from the “colonial problem” is important. It is important to the way in we understand indigenous rights today, and it is important in terms of the ways in which we understand this fundamentally statist system. First, we must first ask in what sense and to whom these "problems" are problems requiring resolution. In theory, the UN system is established to safeguard the basic rights of all peoples to a dignified existence. And yet, to believe that this represents the UN founders’ intentions for the new system would be tantamount to believing that America’s founders intended to protect the equal rights of Black peoples when they drafted Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3—the three fifths clause—of the US Constitution. The issues are further clarified if we ask why the UN posed and then bifurcated the questions of what to do with: (1) colonized peoples, and (2) Indigenous peoples. The world system continues to deem it necessary to push the discussion of the multitude of problems presented by European colonization along two discrete tracks, with neither track on course to reach any destination. As the leaders of the euro-derivative world order strive to convince everyone that they have put an end to the colonial destruction of every Indigenous culture on the planet, a primary strategy is to bifurcate the problem of European overseas colonialism and to treat both of the resulting halves of discussion as if the other half never existed.  This division permits the United Nations (UN) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to engage in discourse regarding Indigenous peoples that are so misrepresentative that they would qualify as farce if the actual problems were not so tragic.  It also facilitates revolutions in social consciousness, producing gaps in social memory that are filled by new narratives celebrating the new tragedies in the making, those posed by hyper-individualism-based market logics and deculturation through statist democracy building and large-scale structural integration programs.  Indigenous societies remain under attack, and post-colonialism perpetuates the status quo of colonial territoriality and neocolonial economic dependency.  The international system and its discourse plays an important role in this perpetuation. The "new" mode of thought and material production that emerged in the prelude to the “decolonization era” puts all life on an omnicidal track.