• A Rhetorical Analysis of Selected Motets of Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703)

      Chamberlain, Bruce; Brobeck, John T.; Vanderlee, Jeffrey Keith; Schauer, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The motets of Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703) represent a small, but richly expressive body of work that has fallen out of regular performance in the modern day. In the generation just following his life, however, Bach was lavished with praise for his colorful text setting in historical family documents compiled by his younger cousin Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and his son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788). Composers of Lutheran sacred vocal music studied rhetoric as part of the Lateinschulen curriculum, and developed a method of applying the rhetorical process of spoken oratory to the process of musical composition. This included the equation of specific musical gestures to ornamental figures of speech, known as musical-rhetorical devices, which composers utilized to bring text to emotionally stirring, persuasive delivery.The motets of Bach were composed in the midst of a large-scale reconceptualization of harmony spurred by the codification of the harmonic triad as the basic unit of harmony, rather than the melodically based modal system of the Renaissance. This is the transitional period between modality and modern tonality. Bach actively composed near the end of this century-long transition, and his harmonic language contains elements of both harmonic systems. I provide an exploration of the expressive techniques of Johann Christoph Bach as seen in a sample selection of three motets that were composed amidst the transitional harmonic atmosphere of seventeenth-century Germany, and focus on Bach’s varied application of musical-rhetorical devices to render each clause of text persuasive and memorable.
    • A Comparative Study of Vladimir Leyetchkiss's 1985 Piano Transcription of Igor Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps

      Woods, Rex; Linder, Daniel; Dong, Minjun; Knosp, Suzanne; Cockrell, Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Vladimir Leyetchkiss was a pianist, composer, and teacher born in Russia on August 8, 1934. It was Leyetchkiss’s love for transcriptions that led him to study with Heinrich Neuhaus. His passion for writing and playing piano transcriptions was fueled by his strong interest in orchestral music and conducting. His transcription work was facilitated by his impressive technique as well as his ability to produce an orchestral sound at the piano. He transcribed numerous orchestral works for the piano including Trois nocturnes by Debussy, L’Apprenti sorcier by Dukas, Tasso: Lamento et Trionfo by Liszt, symphonies of Taneyey and Prokofiev, and most notably, Igor Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps. This study shows that Leyetchkiss’s piano transcription of Le Sacre du printemps is superior to three existing transcriptions of the same work by other composers, because of its fidelity to the original orchestral score. The three existing transcriptions are: Le Sacre du printemps for Piano Four Hands by Igor Stravinsky; The Rite of Spring: Complete Ballet for Piano Solo by Sam Raphling; “The Rite of Spring: An Original Solo Piano Transcription of Stravinsky's 1913 Ballet with Annotations and Historical Notes” by William Norman Fried. Leyetchkiss’s piano transcription not only includes as many elements and voices as possible from the orchestral score but is also practical and accessible for the performer. Studying and performing this repertoire is a rewarding process for pianistic and musical growth. A comparative analysis of these four transcriptions will follow a brief history of the development of the piano transcription (Chapter 2), and an introduction to Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 includes comparison of selected passages from five representative sections of Le Sacre du printemps: “The Augurs of Spring,” “The Ritual of Abduction,” and “Dance of the Earth” from Part I and “Naming and Honoring of the Chosen One” and “Sacrificial Dance (The Chosen One)” from Part II.
    • Development of Wireless Implantable Micro Flow Sensor for Conditional Monitoring of VP Shunts

      Enikov, Eniko T.; Edes, Gergo; Anton, Rein; Nikravesh, Parviz E.; Tharp, Hal S. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This dissertation describes the development of a self-contained high-frequency high sensitivity implantable microfluidics flow sensor using MTJ magnetic sensors to detect motion of slow-moving fluids. A motivating application for the proposed device is the development of an implantable flow sensor, capable of monitoring the amount of cerebral spinal fluid drained from the ventricles of the brain. Micro-fabricated ferromagnetic flaps are used to detect motion of the surrounding fluid. The deflection of the flaps is detected by an ultra-sensitive MTJ magnetic field sensor placed outside of the lumen of the catheter. Numerical and experimental results are provided demonstrating a resolution of 0.4 ml/h, a working range of 0-40 ml/h, and a maximum uncertainty of 4% RMS. The present study identifies thermal noise as the main source of low-frequency drift. Using thermal compensation, it was found that the drift can be reduced below 2 ml per 24-hr. Combining an array of four transducers operating in series, it has been demonstrated that a sensitivity can be increased 10.9-fold. Furthermore, the report examines the long-term structural stability of the sensors and produces a corrosion report suggesting a lifespan of 15 to 55 years. MRI compatibility analysis showed a sensitivity reduction of 64% in the device. Several in vivo recalibration methods were introduced to eliminate the calibration error. A protein deposition study showed stable sensor performance under 1.5 mg/ml protein concentration.
    • Probabilistic Graphical Models for Crowdsourcing and Turbulence

      Yin, Junming; Luo, Zhaorui; Watkins, Joseph C.; Zhang, Hao; Chertkov, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Graphical models provide a useful framework and formalism from which to modeland solve problems involving random processes. We demonstrate the versatility and usefulness of graphical models on two problems, one involving crowdsourcing and one involving turbulence. In crowdsourcing, we consider the problem of inferring true labels from a set of crowdsourced annotations. We design generative models for the crowdsourced annotations involving as latent variables the worker reliability, the structure of the labels, and the ground truth labels. Furthermore, we design an effective inference algorithm to infer the latent variables. In turbulence, we consider the problem of modeling the mixing distribution of homogeneous isotropic passive scalar turbulence. We consider models specifying the conditional distribution of a coarse grained node given its adjacent coarse grained nodes. In particular, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a higher order moments based extension of the Gaussian distribution.
    • The Engineering of Reversible Thermoset Resins Based on the Reversible Photodimerization of Coumarin

      Loy, Douglas A.; Frederick, Kevin Michael; Potter, Barrett G.; Pyun, Jeffrey; Ratcliff, Erin L. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This dissertation details the development of new UV light triggered reversible thermoset polymers utilizing the reversible photodimerization of coumarin. Thermoset polymers like epoxy resins are widely used for their many favorable properties including high dimensional stability, strength, and the ability to be cured from nonvolatile liquid precursors. However, the insolubility and intractability of these crosslinked polymers limit their use in applications where removability and repairability are necessary features. To address this limitation, our research explores the use of coumarin to create thermosets with photo-reversible crosslinks. The molecule coumarin is capable of forming a dimer when exposed to long wavelengths of UV light, and when exposed to short UV wavelengths this dimer is cleaved back into monomeric form, offering a promising way to make or break polymer crosslinks on-demand. In this research, three complementary approaches are taken to create materials that take advantage of three functions provided by coumarin: photodimerization, dimer photocleavage, and dimer thermal cleavage. Special attention is paid to the design of UV-reversible adhesives.In Chapter 1, a review of coumarin’s fundamental photochemistry is presented, followed by a discussion of how this chemistry can be utilized to engineer light-responsive polymers. Chapter 2 describes the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new liquid photocurable resin using coumarin photodimerization. An epoxy-functionalized coumarin monomer was reacted with diamines to produce tetrafunctional precursor materials, leading to a liquid precursor resin that could be photocrosslinked and utilized as a photocurable adhesive. Adhesive strength was shown to increase with exposure time as a direct consequence of photodimerization. Inefficiencies in the network forming ability of the material were studied, suggesting that photooxidative chain scission and intramolecular dimerization are partly responsible for limiting efficient photocuring of the material. In Chapter 3, pre-assembled coumarin dimers bearing epoxy groups were used to create resins that could be cured like a conventional epoxy resin. Upon irradiation with 254 nm UV light, the coumarin dimers could be efficiently photocleaved and the thermoset network broken into fragments, yielding a liquid at the surface being irradiated. Irradiation with 254 nm light was demonstrated to release an adhesive bond to a UV transparent substrate within minutes of exposure. The adhesive strengths of these coumarin dimer epoxy resins were comparable to those made with the conventional epoxy resin, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-a. In Chapter 4, the thermal cleavage of coumarin dimers and its potential use in reversible thermoset polymers was studied. Coumarin dimers are known to undergo cycloreversion back to monomers at high temperatures, but this has never been studied in detail. Kinetic parameters for the thermal cleavage of syn head-to-head and syn head-to-tail 4-methyl-7-glycidyloxycoumarin dimers were measured, allowing the behavior of materials crosslinked by coumarin dimers to be predicted at high temperatures. The syn head-to-tail dimer was found to be significantly more thermally robust than the syn head-to-head dimer. The epoxy resins developed in Chapter 3 were used to demonstrate that thermal dissociation of coumarin dimers is an effective way to break crosslinks in a thermoset polymer; upon heating the polymer was reverted to liquid, releasing adhesive bonds.
    • Evidence Retrieval for Explainable Question Answering

      Bethard, Steven; Surdeanu, Mihai; Yadav, Vikas; Morrison, Clayton; Cui, Hong (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Explainability in machine learning remains a critical unsolved challenge that slows the adoption of machine learning systems in real-world applications. Machine learning approaches are widely applied to complex natural language processing tasks such as question answering (QA) where explainability directly impacts end users understanding and trust. This thesis is particularly focused on improving the explainability of question answering systems via textual evidence retrieval and explaining learned representations within QA systems. Evidence retrieval in question answering (QA) is necessary not only to explain the decisions but also improve QA performance. We present 3 simple but effective unsupervised techniques for retrieving evidence texts necessary for explaining the QA inference process : Relevance-Overlap-Coverage Retriever (ROCC), Alignment Retriever and Alignment based Iterative Retriever ({\bf AIR}). ROCC (a) maximizes the relevance of the selected sentences, (b) minimizes the overlap between the selected facts, and (c) maximizes the coverage of both question and answer. Alignment retriever computes similarity between query and evidence facts by computing cosine similarity of individual tokens in embedding space. AIR extends the alignment retriever by combining two techniques: (a) adding an iterative process that reformulates queries focusing on terms that are not covered by existing justifications, which (b) stops when the terms in the given question and candidate answers are covered by the retrieved justifications. We show that, when evidence retrieved by ROCC, Alignment retriever and {\bf AIR} are fed to state-of-the-art transformer based QA methods, we substantially improve the state-of-the-art QA performance on multiple QA datasets. We further improve the state-of-the-art performance by adding supervision for evidence retrieval and show several representational analyses of the supervised retrieval based QA model.
    • Operational Short-Range to Long Range (SR2LR) Streamflow Forecasting for Poorly Gauged Basins: The Unexplored Dimension of Variational Ensemble Forecasting, the Spatio-Temporal Structure of Modeling Paradigms, and the Role of Machine Learning Strategies to Improve Hydrological Hypotheses

      Valdés, Juan B.; Ferré, Ty; Valdes-Pineda, Rodrigo M.; Troch, Peter; Trouet, Valerie (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) Initiative was created to advance scientific understanding and estimation of hydrological processes, as well as associated uncertainties, to improve prediction capabilities in basins which are poorly gauged (Sivapalan et al., 2003; Blöschl et al. 2013; Blöschl, 2016; Blöschl et al., 2019). The main objectives defined by the PUB Initiative were to (1) improve the ability of existing hydrologic models to predict with reduced uncertainty, and to (2) develop new and innovative models representing the space–time variability of hydrological processes (Hrachowitz et al., 2013). Despite the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) dedicated an entire decade (2003-2012) to advance the problem of Prediction in Ungauged Basins (Hrachowitz et al. 2013), the central goal remains largely a challenge (Kratzert et al., 2020).This dissertation discusses the main steps and decisions required to implement, calibrate, and validate an operational (real-time) Hydrological Forecasting System (HFS), for short-range to long-range (SR2LR) daily streamflow forecasting. The HFS was implemented under an operational context, and experimentally evaluated in the “poorly-gauged” Upper Zambezi River Basin (UZRB) and its “ungauged” sub-basins. The state of art focuses on describing several hydrological modelling strategies (HMS), discussing the way hydrological ensembles have been traditionally performed, and how meteorological and hydrological uncertainty have been quantified. Additionally, a novel Variational Ensemble Forecasting (VEF) approach was applied and evaluated assuming that any combination of multiple inputs, models, and optimal parameters sets, is a practical hydrological ensemble that can be used to reproduce daily streamflow forecasts with reduced total uncertainty. The VEF approach implemented allowed for increasing the number of hydrological ensembles (outputs) from all possible combinations of multiple satellite products (or multiple climate models), hydrologic models, and optimal parameter sets. The performance of VEF was compared and evaluated with classical approaches used to develop hydrological ensembles (input-model-output). To complement the application of the VEF approach, three hydrologic processing hypotheses (HPH) to quantify the hydrological uncertainty propagated from the components of a modelling chain were used: (1) Hydrological Pre-Processing (HPR); (2) Hydrological Processing (HP), and (3) Hydrological Post-Processing (HPP). These HPH’s were evaluated with practical examples in the UZRB and its sub-basins, proving to be a more efficient and systematic way to quantify and reduce the uncertainty propagated from an operational VEF implementation. To inform the development of reliable operational hydrologic forecasting products, the HPR hypotheses are evaluated through the analysis of the spatio-temporal structure of meteorological uncertainty. This analysis allowed determining what factors dominate the propagation of meteorological uncertainty for the operational implementation of distributed hydrologic modeling strategies i.e. the spatial resolution of a meteorological input, the leading time of the forecasts associated to it, and the size of the basin under evaluation. The role of machine learning (ML) approaches for daily streamflow forecasting was also evaluated by coupling VEF with ML techniques (VEF-ML approach). In doing so, several hydrologic learning strategies (inference versus pattern-based) were compared and evaluated to improve the HFS performance through hydrologic post-processing hypotheses (see i.e. Nearing et al., 2020 a, b; Gauch et al., 2020). Lastly, we will discuss how the properties of hydrologic forecasts can be improved by applying Hydrologic Forecast Skill Analysis (FCA) to answer the following question: How to perform a Skill Analysis of Seasonal Hydrologic Streamflow Forecasts? The main contributions and results of this dissertation highlight several opportunities and challenges for future research aimed to advance the main goal and the corresponding objectives of the PUB initiative.
    • Modification of the Hot-Dry-Windy Index Using High Resolution Rapid Refresh Model Data

      Castro, Christopher L.; Schulze, Scott; Niu, Guo-Yue; Falk, Donald A. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Fire weather is defined as the meteorological conditions conducive to the rapid spread and intensification of a wildfire. It is generally agreed that sudden and rapid wildfire intensification is one of the greatest hazards facing wildfire managers today. The Hot-Dry-Windy (HDW) Index created by Srock et al. (2018) provides a means for predicting rapid wildfire intensification. A limitation of the HDW index is the temporal output of once every six hours when utilizing the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System Model Version 2 (CFsV2) data. The use of National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model data has the benefits of being able to capture mesoscale processes along with a six-fold increase in the temporal outputs of the HDW index. This assists in the capture of a high fire spread rate due to a rapid change in meteorological conditions that would have been otherwise missed by the coarser resolution provided by the original model. This analysis was made with the meteorological model data in the window of a historic wildfire case featuring Santa Ana winds (SAWs). The HRRR data was found to be much more capable of modeling the terrain of the coastal mountain ranges in the southern California area. The mesoscale modeling capability also aided in the HDW Index not suffering as severely from artificially lowered values near the coast when compared with the CFsV2 output.
    • Using Coupled Hydrogeophysical Modeling to Assess the Relative Value of Proposed Gravity and Water Level Observations to Support Water Resources Decision Making

      Ferre, Paul; Dicke, Tristan; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Kennedy, Jeffrey R. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Decisions about the permitting of new groundwater extractions often depend on the perceived impact of those withdrawals on groundwater levels in wells and flow in nearby streams. Owing to subsurface abnormalities and varying hydraulic flow conditions that can occur in the subsurface, there is much uncertainty when assessing possible impacts. Using an ensemble modeling approach can better inform these decisions, which quantifies both the most likely outcome, and the associated uncertainty given, limits on subsurface hydrogeologic information. The ensemble approach encompasses the uncertainty that is possible in the domain by varying parameters in the model. Each model in the ensemble is weighted to a degree that reduces the uncertainty of future predictions, thereby improving decision making. Groundwater levels in wells are one of the most common hydrologic measurements, but it can be prohibitively expensive to drill wells to add new observation points to inform decision making. Time-lapse gravity measurements provide a proxy method to gain insight into the subsurface hydrologic conditions. While gravity measurements are less direct than groundwater levels, it can be considerably less expensive to add monitoring points. In this study, an ensemble of models is developed for a synthetic catchment. Forecasts of drawdown in one well due to the addition of another well are the prediction of interest (POI). This POI is then converted to a utility value to maximize the satisfaction for decision making. The accuracy and uncertainty of the forecasts are calculated with and without added observations (water levels and gravity). This is investigated for the addition of another well at three different locations. The result is a panel of maps of the basin showing the relative expected value of an added observation at each location for improving the satisfaction of decision-makers. This panel can be used to choose among monitoring well or gravity measurement locations before data are collected, dependent on the location of the additional well. The same approach can be extended to consider multiple measurements of different types.
    • Using Big-Data to Develop Catchment-Scale Hydrological Models for Chile

      Gupta, Hoshin V.; De la Fuente, Luis Andrés; Condon, Laura E.; Ferré, Paul Ty (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Streamflow prediction is very important to the economic and human development of a country. For example, it is used in the quantification and distribution of the water resource, and in the design of new hydraulic infrastructure, risk quantification, rapid response to mitigate flooding, etc. For this reason, learning how to improve our estimation of streamflow must be one of the aspirations of any surface hydrologist. Chile has an extensive stream gauge network, which is part of the new CAMELS-CL database. This database also includes data about several static attributes for each of the 516 catchments represented within it, which provides us with a valuable database that can be used to develop process-based and data-based models with the ultimate goal of implementing a national hydrological model.Recent studies have shown that Machine Learning (ML) can provide better predictive performance than traditional process-based (PB) models. In hydrology, Kratzert et al. (2019), Nearing et al. (2020a), and others have reported similar results when comparing an ML-based model with the extensively studied and calibrated SAC-SMA and other benchmark models over the USA. This finding creates the opportunity to bridge the gap between ML-based and PB models by transferring insights gained via the process of developing a ML model into improvements of the PB model(s). With this in mind, we implemented the GR4J process-based catchment model as a baseline, and two ML-based models, Random Forest (RF) decision tree approach, and the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) dynamic state variable approach, on 322 selected Chilean catchments. The three models were compared in detail to examine their strengths and weakness, and to determine the best candidate for a national model. Our results showed that none of the three models performed “best” across the entire country, and all of them had problems in the north of Chile, indicating that additional informative attributes and variables must be incorporated into the database. Furthermore, the models showed complementary performance abilities, which opens the opportunity to develop an ensemble of the three or more models in the future to merge their respective strengths. Overall, the model performance results were found to be related to the meteorological forcings, but also with certain climatic conditions such as aridity, which emerges as an important variable to characterize the behaviors of different catchments.
    • Exploring the Relationship Between Resource Allocations and Student Success Programs from the Perspectives of Student Affairs Staff

      Cabrera, Nolan; Thomas, Devon L.; Rhoades, Gary; Deil-Amen, Regina; Henry, Kevin (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The purpose of this study is to explore the racial dynamics of the resource allocation process for co-curricular student success programs, the experiences of Student Affairs staff who work with these programs, and the implications this has on their efforts to support student success. Interviews with professionals from various student success programs at one large, public, historically White university revealed the relationship between student participant demographics and the resources their programs are allocated, as well as how this relationship reinforces Whiteness and racial capitalism through institutional logics, which rationalize and perpetuate resource inequities across centralized university retention programming. Racialized resource inequities across student success programming and the meaning making staff generated from strategic plan funding, space, and staffing for programs which explicitly support Students of Color compared to programs which are designed for all students was uncovered. Implications regarding the efforts of staff to disrupt narratives which reinforce systemic racialized inequities are discussed.
    • The Effect of Institutional Articulation Agreements and Proximity on Total and Underserved Minority Student Transfer: A Fixed Effects and Mixed Effects Panel Gravity Model

      Rhoades, Gary D.; Brenden, Scott; Deil-Amen, Regina J.; Lopez, Jameson D.; Sesate, Diana B. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      To complete the bachelor’s degrees that 82% of community college students aspire to and that the knowledge economy needs, there is an obstacle: most students have to transfer to a four-year institution. But less than one third of all students and about one sixth of Black, Latinx, and Native American, or underserved minority (USM), students get around the obstacle and transfer. Civil rights lawyers and a higher education review commission in California argued that institutional articulation agreements (IAAs) would remove one barrier: credits that do not transfer and would increase both overall and USM student transfer. Lawmakers echoed their claims. But almost no research has been done to test whether that is the case. Because many community college students are place-bound, a second barrier, geographical distance, keeps them from transferring. The physical proximity of four-year institutions was expected to influence both transfer and the efficacy of IAAs. However, no research has addressed those connections, either. Research questions addressed how three treatments, (1) the number of IAAs, (2) proximity, and (3) the interaction of IAAs and proximity, affect the number of total and USM students who transfer. A gravity model, using Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood high-dimensional fixed effects (PPMLHDFE), was used to analyze a panel of 3,022 California community college-university pairs from 1991-2010 (57,232 pair-years), using fixed effects for IAAs and random effects for proximity. A theoretical framework of inter-organizational collaboration and racialized organizations was used to explain the effectiveness and equity of transfer. Findings showed that IAAs helped overcome the barrier of credits that do not transfer, while proximity helped overcome the barrier of distance. Adopting IAAs in high numbers of disciplines and programs was found to be associated with increases in transfer above 200%. Institution pairs within commuting distance had about 2000% higher transfer. Pairs of institutions that were both within commuting distance and had adopted high numbers of IAAs had over 7000% higher transfer. Effects were consistently higher for USM students than for white and Asian/Pacific Islander (non-USM) students. Because the percentage increases were applied to low numbers of USM transfers, however, increases in actual students who transfer were estimated to be greater for non-USM students. At the same time, the model estimated that when treatments were applied, the relative levels of USM to non-USM students became more equitable. Findings with random effects also contain unmeasured omitted historical, social, economic, geographic, and cultural variables related to proximity, biasing the estimates. The structure of the Master Plan for Higher Education in California, multiple competing priorities, the self-interests of institutions in the pursuit of prestige and exclusion, and lack of funding to create capacity, inhibit adoption of treatments and impede transfer.
    • Wrestling Against Flesh and Blood: Social and Psychological Influences on the Evolution of the New Christian Right

      Weber, Christopher; Ridenour, Joshua; Klar, Samara; Gonzalez, Frank (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This dissertation explores the motivations behind the political attitudes and behaviors of Evangelical Christians in the United States. I develop a theory of Evangelical politics that blends theories of social identity threat with a theory of cognitive dissonance. I argue that Evangelicals felt acute identity threats to their religious institutions beginning in the 1980s, and these threats motivated to participate in politics, searching for and supporting culturally conservative candidates that championed their religious liberties. Repeated disappointments in the political realm, however, generated considerable cognitive dissonance that needed to be resolved. Across two original experiments and three national surveys, I test the argument that threat motivates Evangelicals to political action, and the experience of political disappointment and dissonance lead them to pursue dissonance reduction strategies in the form of denigrating political opponents and adopting alternative issue priorities to justify their support of political conservatives.
    • Was the Himalaya Higher During the Mid-Miocene?

      Quade, Jay; Krupa, Anthony Joseph; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul A. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The uplift history of the Himalaya and Tibet is crucial to understanding both the geodynamic evolution of the orogen and its influence on the Asian climate system. Here we reconstruct paleoelevation in the northern Himalaya using the hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of synkinematic micas (dated to 13.4 ± 0.3 Ma) in a ductile shear zone bounding the Lhagoi Kangri dome. These micas equilibrated at high temperatures (447 ± 48°C) with a water composition (δD = -179‰ VSMOW) consistent with infiltration of high-elevation precipitation into the shear zone. We used multiple lapse rates to compare this value with contemporaneous sea-level precipitation recorded in Siwalik paleosol carbonate within the Himalayan foreland basin. These lapse rates provide paleoelevation estimates ranging from 5.8 – 6.5 km for the regional catchment that provided water to the shear zone during displacement, ~1 km higher than modern average elevation (~5 km). Similar late Miocene paleoelevation results from the Zhada basin ~850 km along strike to the west suggests that more than one area of the northern Himalaya experienced elevation loss during the late Neogene.
    • Territoriality in Transitional Justice and Land Restitution: Guatemala’s Communities of Population in Resistance After Resettlement

      Oglesby, Elizabeth; Treacy, Nathan; Banister, Jeffrey; Wilder, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Land and property restitution initiatives have received increasing attention in transitional justice debates, as calls have grown to examine the connections between transitional justice and broader issues of socioeconomic development. Drawing on insights from critical geography, this paper argues that land must be understood not only in terms of its economic value as a means of reparation, but also as a way for communities to contest state-making practices in the wake of violent conflict. Focusing on the experience of Guatemala’s Communities Population in Resistance of the Sierra (CPR–Sierra), a coalition of Mayan communities that fled the Guatemalan Army massacres of the early 1980s, resisted forced resettlement, and challenged the narrow, market-oriented approach of Guatemala’s post-war land restitution and reallocation schemes, I argue that the land restitution program carried out during Guatemala’s peace process constituted a multi-dimensional process of territorialization that had the effect of constraining and fragmenting possibilities for collective social organizing and coalition-building among resettled community groups. In responding to these processes, the meaning of land in restitution initiatives has been at the center of how the CPR–Sierra articulate their struggle today. In addition to its material significance, CPR communities today articulate land’s significance in symbolic and political terms as the geographic basis for an organized, nonviolent struggle against the Guatemalan state that they view as the only means of fulfilling the peace process.
    • Modernizing Conquest

      Waterstone, Marv; Banister, Jeff; Kinnison, Jedediah; Williams Jr., Robert A.; Perez, Emma; Oglesby, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      My research leads me to the conclusion the international human rights system's separation of the “indigenous problem” from the “colonial problem” is important. It is important to the way in we understand indigenous rights today, and it is important in terms of the ways in which we understand this fundamentally statist system. First, we must first ask in what sense and to whom these "problems" are problems requiring resolution. In theory, the UN system is established to safeguard the basic rights of all peoples to a dignified existence. And yet, to believe that this represents the UN founders’ intentions for the new system would be tantamount to believing that America’s founders intended to protect the equal rights of Black peoples when they drafted Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3—the three fifths clause—of the US Constitution. The issues are further clarified if we ask why the UN posed and then bifurcated the questions of what to do with: (1) colonized peoples, and (2) Indigenous peoples. The world system continues to deem it necessary to push the discussion of the multitude of problems presented by European colonization along two discrete tracks, with neither track on course to reach any destination. As the leaders of the euro-derivative world order strive to convince everyone that they have put an end to the colonial destruction of every Indigenous culture on the planet, a primary strategy is to bifurcate the problem of European overseas colonialism and to treat both of the resulting halves of discussion as if the other half never existed.  This division permits the United Nations (UN) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to engage in discourse regarding Indigenous peoples that are so misrepresentative that they would qualify as farce if the actual problems were not so tragic.  It also facilitates revolutions in social consciousness, producing gaps in social memory that are filled by new narratives celebrating the new tragedies in the making, those posed by hyper-individualism-based market logics and deculturation through statist democracy building and large-scale structural integration programs.  Indigenous societies remain under attack, and post-colonialism perpetuates the status quo of colonial territoriality and neocolonial economic dependency.  The international system and its discourse plays an important role in this perpetuation. The "new" mode of thought and material production that emerged in the prelude to the “decolonization era” puts all life on an omnicidal track.
    • The Neuropeptide Corazonin Promotes Higher Rates of Foraging in Apis mellifera Workers

      Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Dornhaus, Anna; Obernesser, Bethany Taylor; Nighorn, Alan (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Honey bee workers take on specific roles within the colony. Young adult workers (~1 week old) perform in-hive tasks such as cleaning or brood care (“nursing”), while older workers forage for pollen, nectar, and water. This behavioral shift is regulated by hormones such as juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (vg), however the role of other hormones in this process is less-well understood. Additionally, stressors like poor nutrition and infection can accelerate this behavioral transition leading to precocious foraging and may result in reduced forager performance and accelerated colony decline. The neurohormone corazonin (crz), an 11 amino acid peptide with structural similarity to vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and invertebrate adipokinetic hormone (AKH), plays a part in determining caste identity in ants and other Hymenopterans. Harpegnathos ants performing nest-associated tasks have higher levels of vg and low levels of crz, while ants performing tasks outside of the nest have low vg and higher crz expression. Crz is a proposed stress hormone demonstrating a variety of functions across several groups of insects, however, the exact purpose of this hormone has yet to be identified in honey bees. In this study, I explore the molecular mechanism underlying the nutritional stress response that leads to precocious foraging, and whether crz is involved in this response. Additionally, I examine whether crz plays a role in the behavioral transition of honey bee nurses to foragers by injecting honey bee workers in the head with crz peptide. I found that although age did not have a significant effect on crz expression, starvation altered crz expression. Finally, I found that bees injected with crz take greater amounts of foraging trips than bees injected with a control and bees that were left un-injected.
    • Indigenous Feminist Pedagogy Disorienting Whiteness as Disappearance: Passage of the Violence Against Women Act of 2013

      Kimme Hea, Amy C.; Tatum, Melissa L.; Bable, Lori; Simmons, William P.; Godfrey, Jeremy S. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This project brings together rhetorical theory and law to construct a grounded theory named critically sovereign feminist methodology (CSFM). It draws upon rhetorical theory, legal cases, and the rights of Indigenous women (“Native women,” hereafter, reflecting these activists’ self-identification). It examines literacy activities deployed by various Native women activists related to VAWA 2013 and explores why these activities are invaluable pedagogical tools for future activists and social-change strategists. It does so by adapting a critical race theory approach to illuminate the pedagogical frameworks deployed by these Native women activists in their literacy activities to transform the prior limits placed on Tribal Nations’ inherent sovereignty and characterized by tactics of disappearance. Drawing out principles of a critical feminist pedagogy, this project explicates these features through rhetorical analysis of the play, Sliver of a Full Moon and Amnesty International’s report, “Maze of Injustice: The Failure of the United States to Protect Native Women.” This project also provides the deep historical connection of “Indian” rights and legal cases to contemporary social movements of Indigenous women, offering a framework for import by activists in the areas of law and rhetoric.
    • Synthesis and Computational Analysis of Rigid, Side-Strapped Phthalocyanines for Organic Photovoltaics

      McGrath, Dominic V.; Benson, William George; Mash, Eugene A.; Monti, Oliver L. A.; Pyun, Dong-Chul (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are π-conjugated, macrocyclic molecules whose derivatives have been the subject of extensive investigations as active layer organic semiconductor (OSC) materials for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). This class of compounds are promising as the photoactive material in OPVs due to their strong near infrared (NIR) absorbance. Furthermore, Pcs can be structurally modified via the installation of metal centers and substituents to tune properties like solubility, photophysics, and condensed phase organization towards what is optimal for OPV device performance. The research presented in this thesis involves the synthesis and computational analysis of rigidly side-strapped phthalocyanines (RSS-Pcs) invented by our research group. This new class of Pc derivative includes moieties that are rigidly side-strapped via acetylene bridges allowing for extended π-conjugation and substitution away from the Pc core. This type of Pc side-strapping is promising for close chromophore packing, promoting efficient intermolecular charge transfer and high charge mobility through the bulk material. Chapter 1 provides a brief review of OPVs including an explanation of the device mechanism, the inherent limitations, and the desired properties of OSC materials. Furthermore, the computational models of charge transport in OSCs are briefly discussed. Subsequently, the characteristic properties of Pcs in the context of OPVs is discussed including structural modulation strategies. Lastly, the structure of RSS-Pc is introduced along with a discussion that highlights the interesting structural features. Chapter 2 presents the synthesis of RSS-ZnPcs with dialkyloxybenzene side-straps and the effect of phenyl ring moieties on the aliphatic side-chains on solution aggregation. It was discovered that phenyl rings that are electronically insulated from the Pc core on the side-chains of the 2-fold symmetric structure induce long-range J-aggregation in chloroform and tetrahydrofuran solutions. This is evidenced by a sharp absorbance feature that is red-shifted from that of the RSS-ZnPc Q-band in the UV-vis spectrum, which disappears in the presence of pyridine. Furthermore, this J-aggregation absorbance is seen in the thin-film UV-vis spectra and we discovered that thermal annealing promotes its development, suggesting that the thin-film polymorph is similar in structure to that of the J-aggregate. Chapter 3 discuses the importance of Pc fluorination on condensed phase morphology and presents the synthesis of RSS-ZnPcs containing fluorine atoms. Our work presented in this chapter demonstrates the synthetic challenges of maximizing fluorine atom substitution on RSS-ZnPcs due to electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS). More specifically, EAS occurs by the nucleophilic alkoxide necessary for phthalonitrile cyclization resulting in 3,6-difluoro, 4,5-dialkyloxybenzene-strapped RSS-ZnPcs. Carbonyl functionalities on Pcs have been found to impart interesting properties such as water solubility, electron deficiency, and polymerizability when they are allylic. Chapter 4 presents the synthesis of RSS-Pcs containing carbonyl groups and the resulting properties of the like. The synthesis of a phthalimide-strapped RSS-ZnPc was attempted, but the resulting material was found to be insoluble due to either limited alkyl group substitution or dealkylation under the highly basic conditions. Phthalic acid diester-strapped RSS-H2Pc was synthesized and was found to be highly soluble in hydrogen-bonding solvents like methanol and water. Insertion of a metal center like Zn or AlCl renders the RSS-Pc insoluble possibly due to elimination of hydrogen-bond donor sites (i.e. N-H bonds). Additionally, similar properties were discovered with the synthesized dialkyloxybenzene-strapped RSS-H2Pc containing ethyl-cinnamate moieties on the side-chains. Chapter 5 presents the computational analysis of three RSS-ZnPc crystal structure dimers: dialkylbenzene-strapped, dialkyloxybenzene-straped, and thienyl-strapped. In this work, we applied Marcus theory of electron transfer rate and density functional theory (DFT) in the calculation of charge mobility of the three dimer systems. We show that the hole mobility calculated from a single electron transfer in the dimer (~3-10 cm2/Vs) is significantly higher than both calculated (~10-1 cm2/Vs) and experimentally measured (10-8 to 10-4 cm2/Vs) mobilities of OSCs commonly used in OPVs. Furthermore, our predicted RSS-ZnPc mobilities are comparable to that of rubrene, which is known for having the highest measured experimental mobility of 40 cm2/Vs in highly crystalline material. Chapter 6 summarizes the major findings presented in Chapters 2-5 and proposes future directions and paths of exploration for current research to pursue.
    • Crohn's Disease: Dysbiosis and IL-7

      Wilson, Jean; Runyan, Raymond; Suarez, Shea'la; Zavros, Yana; Viswanathan, V.K. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that destroys a patient's gastrointestinal (GI) tract. CD is thought to be mediated mostly by cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T helper 1 (TH1) T-cells initially in response to the commensal gut microbiota, leading to chronic inflammation and destruction of the intestines.1 Environmental factors, genetic predisposition, dysbiosis, and antibiotic use are some of the proposed mechanisms for CD development.2-4 The current treatments include anti-Interleukin(IL)-12/23 monoclonal5 antibody (mAb), anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) mAb,6 antibiotics,7 corticosteroids,8, and anti-α4β7 mAb9 therapies. In some patients, these treatments do not allow long-term remission, and others become resistant to the medications. These therapies target downstream cytokines such as TNFα,6 α4β7,9, and IL-12/235 produced by effector T-cells (Teff). A new pharmaceutical target that looks promising is the cytokine IL-7. Commensal gut microbiota promotes Teff cells to make Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) that then stimulates intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to produce IL-7, causing the upregulation of the α4β7 Teff cell gut-homing integrin. As more Teff cells migrate to the intestines and produce IFN-γ, increased IL-7 production by IECs occurs, creating a positive feedback loop.10, 11 Thus, decreasing IL-7 with a monoclonal antibody could decrease Teff cell migration to the intestines, and subsequently decrease the pro-inflammatory cytokines that promote chronic inflammation and tissue destruction seen in CD. Dysbiosis, the change in the microbiota profile that results in disease, has been strongly correlated to CD.12 However, the use of Fecal Microbiota Transplants (FMTs) to attempt to normalize the microbiota has not been entirely successful for all CD patients.13 Administering an anti-IL-7Rα mAb before FMT could decrease inflammatory cells, increasing the likelihood that the FMT is successful, and allow for remission in CD patients.