• Migration Centers of Virginia

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Reyes, Neil (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      As the foreign-born population continues to grow in the United States, analyzing migration factors is crucial for continued growth. Immigration can be integral to the overall economy of an area as it leads to an increase of workers, business owners, taxpayers, and consumers. Virginia, specifically the Northern Virginia metropolitan region, is prime example of this correlation between a high foreign-born population and a bolstering economy. To ensure the large foreign-born population is maintained in Virginia, this study focuses on the significance and causes of migration. Several socioeconomic demographics were examined through regression and suitability analyses to understand the relationship between immigrants and an economy and migration. Based on the knowledge of push and pull migration factors, various demographics were chosen to represent these factors. The regression analysis assessed the relationship between the high foreign-born population and economic demographics, while the location suitability analysis mapped potential sites for immigration based on established migration criteria. The regression analysis proved an overall positive relationship between a large-foreign born population and an area’s overall economy, highlighting the importance of migration. The location suitability analysis demonstrated the draw, in conjunction with current immigrant population demographics, to those large urban centers with higher levels of socioeconomic advancement. The final cartographic products will demonstrate the importance of immigration to stimulate an area’s economy and produce recommendations for migration centers.
    • Designing an ArcGIS Survey123 Form to be Used with Field Maps to Conduct Post-Storm Damage Assessments

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Adams, Matt (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-27)
      Hurricanes are an annual risk to most counties in Florida, and Flagler County is no exception. A critical aspect of post-hurricane response is conducting a preliminary damage assessment in order to gain access to Federal Emergency Management Agency funds. In the past, Flagler County has relied on outside consultants in order to complete the calculations on the back end of the preliminary damage assessment. This study aims to design a preliminary damage assessment solution that is managed completely in-house in order to mitigate the reliance on a consulting firm in the time of a disaster. This solution consists of a Field Map for assessors to utilize in the field, a Survey123 form for completing the damage assessment in the field, Dashboards to monitor the progress of the damage assessment, and reports to be utilized by incident command and other stakeholders. The Survey123 form includes additional calculations for estimating the damage cost, amount of structural debris, and amount of vegetative debris. This set of Damage Assessment tools helps to decrease dependence on outside consultants, saves Flagler County money on consulting fees, and ensures that the tools are be ready to use when a disaster strikes.
    • Access to Safe & Affordable Water in Moyo, Uganda through Rainwater Harvesting

      Bays, Taylor; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-26)
      A great portion of Moyo, Uganda’s population lacks access to safe and reliable water, causing health issues, and even death. Efforts to improve Moyo’s access to safe water have been implemented; however, achieving this goal in the last few years has slowed due to a lack of funding and proper maintenance. Research shows a need to decrease the distance between homes and their water sources. Rainwater harvesting could be a solution to this problem. However, Moyo lacks the spatial data required to calculate the rainwater harvesting potential. In this research, Moyo buildings were traced using satellite imagery, and the roof area was found for 1,590 buildings. Using the roof data combined with climate and demographic data, the minimum roof area needed to supply enough rainwater to meet a household’s monthly demands were found. If Moyo receives an average amount of rainfall throughout the year, 86% of recorded buildings could meet the monthly demands after the first year of harvesting. There is potential for 1,407 buildings to have free, accessible water. Sanitation, hygiene, and the health of families could be improved if rainwater harvesting was practiced in Moyo.
    • Traversing Tucson: Providing Equitable Access to National Parks Through Public Transportation

      Heath, Lauren; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Currans, Kristina; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-26)
      National Parks in the United States of America were originally preserved to protect the integrity of the wilderness area and encourage public recreational access for all. However, access to these lands is inequitable. The dominant reason why access to National Parks is inequitable is the requirement of a private vehicle to access this land. Unlike many cities, the City of Tucson is within close proximity to many National Parks. However, the City of Tucson is home to many low-income and minority populations that do not have access to reliable private vehicles to get to the local National Parks. To assess the need and wants of the Tucson population regarding National Parks access, 74 Tucson residents were surveyed about their perspectives on National Parks access. The survey responses found that the majority of those surveyed feel that their access to National Parks would be enhanced by the provision of public transportation and would be willing to use private transportation over their vehicles to access the local National Parks. This study exemplifies a major need for public transit that allows for more equitable access to Tucson’s National Parks and recommends future pilot projects to provide Tucson residents with their desired level of access to their local National Parks.
    • Wildfire Preparation: Recommendations for Integration of Fire Protection Strategies for the Copper Queen Hotel in Bisbee, Arizona

      Beer, Jackson; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-21)
      This paper presents recommendations for design changes to manage wildfire threats to the Copper Queen Hotel in Bisbee, AZ. Wildfire frequency and intensity are increasing in the Western United States at an alarming rate. This is due to a rise in temperatures, which lengthens the fire season in the Southwestern United States. Smaller communities such as Bisbee may not be prepared to handle these increases, especially for historical sites such as the Copper Queen. Maintaining historic integrity while including fire safety in and around these sites is complex and requires future research. Through ArcGIS, the Copper Queen Hotel was found to be in an area with high wildfire hazard potential. After recording observations on-site and a brief informal interview with one of the owners, images were created using Photoshop to show vulnerabilities in the hotel and to provide recommendations to reduce the wildfire risk.
    • Adapting Green Roofs for Desert Climates

      Deitering, Sydney; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-21)
      The following paper is an in-depth assessment of the challenges and benefits of implementing green roofs (a layer of vegetation planted over a waterproofing system that is installed on top of a flat or slightly–sloped roof) in hot and arid climates. (NPS) Green roofs provide a variety of benefits that would be helpful in the creation and upkeep of sustainable, green buildings-but they also bring about costs and a need for resources in an area where these resources are not abundant. Through an analysis of several different groups of vegetation, structures, and watering methods a discussion of the costs and benefits will help reimagine the traditional green roof to be better suited for the dry, drought-ridden desert climate of Tucson, Arizona.
    • Effects of Development on Native Hawaiian Communities

      Iuliano, Joey; Carter, McKenna; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-21)
      This paper is detailed research on a small coastal community named Keaukaha to the east of Hilo, Hawaii. The community is a largely Native Hawaiian neighborhood facing external and internal challenges against its sustainability. Native Hawaiians have had to face some of the toughest challenges socially, environmentally, and economically because they have faced generations of injustices and neglect from the government and competitive foreigners who want to live on an island. Since the Hawaiian Government has created land trusts to set aside for them, there are pockets of Native neighborhoods around the islands and they face these challenges altogether in one place. Within these neighborhoods, there are developments that are encouraged by the people, and developments that are placed there by external players. Using research collection and conducting interviews with residents and community officials, I am able to understand what developments within their community are harming them, and what is beneficial. Assessment of developments was done through three categories: social, environmental, and economic impacts. As was predicted, external developments, the Hilo Airport and the Hilo Sewage Plant that infiltrate the neighborhood cause great distress to the residents and will have long-lasting negative effects on the land and people. Yet, the developments asked by the people, the Keaukaha schools, proved to have huge positive impacts and bring the community together and make them stronger.
    • Viability of Sustainable Agriculture: An Expansion of Knowledge

      May, Keaton; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-21)
      A transition from harmful industrial agriculture to sustainable agriculture has been deemed necessary; yet, the viability of widespread sustainable implementations remains uncertain. Sustainable operations are considered on three levels: commercial, community, and personal. Extensive literature review and data collected from: literature, experiment, observation, and survey are used to support claims. Literature summarizes effective designs and practices for each scale of operation, and is used to validate claims throughout the results discussion. Experiment - the most utilized data source – pertains to the design and operation of hydroponic and aquaponic growing systems; valuable information concerning system effectiveness and viability was found. Survey data conveys public willingness and support for sustainable agriculture, but expresses the need for improved education systems and public outreach. Cumulative results suggest the widespread implementation of sustainable agriculture is viable, though lacking in many regards. Continued research and support will be essential to the success of later implementation
    • Geologic Map of Arizona

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Camp, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2022-04)
      The mission of the Arizona Geological Survey is to provide geologic information to enhance public understanding of the state's geologic character, geologic hazards and limitations, and mineral resources. The maps published by the Arizona Geologic Survey are used by the public and state authorities to assess natural hazards, evaluate construction suitability, and discover mineral and energy resources. The Arizona Geological Survey has been providing geology maps for more than one-hundred years, with its first state-wide geologic map of Arizona published in 1924. The Arizona Geological Survey provides an interactive geologic map of Arizona online, but the website has not been updated in over eight years. The goal of this project is to update the data and software behind the geologic map of Arizona using modern software and software development practices. The final product uses open-source software including Leaflet.js and can be used as a reference for creating future online maps.
    • Syllabification and Visual Word Segmentation in Spanish–English Bilinguals

      Simonet, Miquel; Asberry, Drake; Hammond, Michael; Ussishkin, Adam (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This dissertation investigates intuitions about Spanish syllable structure and whether or not word segmentation strategies are affected by these syllabic intuitions. The study utilizes monolingual Spanish speakers, L1 Spanish speakers whoare L2 learners of English and L1 English speakers who are L2 learners of Spanish. For Spanish syllabic intuitions a two-alternative forced choice task is used to gain insights about the initial syllables of CV and CVC trisyllabic words. A visual letter sequence monitoring task is utilized to investigate the use of a syllable-based segmentation strategy when processing Spanish. Support is found for differing Spanish syllabic intuitions between L1 Spanish–L2 English and L1 English–L2 Spanish bilinguals. L1 Spanish speakers have been shown to use a syllable-based segmentation approach to Spanish word segmentation while L1 English speakers have shown only a slight sensitivity to the syllable’s role when segmenting in their L2. Lastly, previous studies in investigating the syllable-based segmentation strategy have included some auditory components, which may have provided additional help in some manner to participants. The current studies here replicate these findings utilizing a completely visual design, which indicates the plausibility of a visual experimental design to study phonological processes.
    • Towards Using Eye-Tracking and Consumer-Grade Electroencephalogram Devices To Detect Usability Issues in Mobile Applications

      Cui, Hong; Zhang, Limin; Bozgeyikli, Lila; Shmargad, Yotam; Peterson, Mary (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Despite the importance of cognitive workload in examining the usability of smartphoneapplications and the popularity of smartphone usage globally, cognitive workload as one attribute of usability tends to be overlooked in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) studies. Moreover, limited studies that have examined the cognitive workload aspect often measured some summative workloads using subjective measures (e.g., questionnaires). A significant limitation of subjective measures is that they can only assess the overall, subject-perceived cognitive workload after the procedures/tasks have been completed. Such measurements do not reflect the real-time workload fluctuation during the procedures. They, therefore, are not useful for pinpointing poor designs in user interfaces that are associated with cognitive workload surges in the user’s brain during a task. This dissertation used mixed methods to empirically study (1) the reliability of an eye-tracking device (i.e., Tobii Pro Nano) and a low-cost electroencephalogram (EEG) device (i.e., MUSE 2) for detecting real-time cognitive workload changes during N-back tasks, and (2) the potential to use the increased cognitive workload detected during tasks to pinpoint user interface areas containing potential usability issues in mobile applications. Results suggest that (1) the EEG measurements collected by MUSE 2 are not very useful as indicators of cognitive workload changes in our setting; (2) eye movement measurements collected by Tobii are useful for monitoring cognitive workload fluctuations and tracking down interface design issues in a smartphone setting; (3) more specifically, the maximum pupil diameter is the preeminent indicator of cognitive workload surges; and (4) cognitive workload surges may be caused by design issues. One usability issue has been detected and fixed this way in a mobile application designed by a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project. In conclusion, the pupil diameter measure combined with other subjective ratings would provide a comprehensive user experience assessment of mobile applications. They can also be used to verify the successfulness of a user interface design solution in improving user experience.
    • Role of Gilt in Melanoma Cells on Regulating in Vivo Tumor Growth

      Hastings, Karen; Macy, Anne; Lybarger, Lonnie; Kim, Suwon (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The MHC I antigen presentation pathway in melanoma cells has a well-established role in immune-mediated destruction of melanoma. However, the role of the MHC II pathway in melanoma cells is not fully understood. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is critical for MHC II-restricted presentation of multiple melanoma antigens by antigen presenting cells. While GILT and MHC II expression is typically limited to antigen presenting cells, GILT and MHC II can be expressed constitutively or induced by IFN-γ in melanoma cells. In human melanoma specimens, high GILT expression and an active and intact MHC II pathway are associated with improved survival. The goal of this project was to investigate a causal role for GILT in melanoma cells, using immunogenic Yale University Mouse Melanoma (YUMM) lines YUMM2.1, YUMMER1.7, and YUMMER.G. These lines constitutively expressed GILT, and MHC II expression was IFN-γ-inducible in a subset of cells under serum-free conditions. YUMM2.1 was selected as the primary model to assess the role of the MHC II pathway in in vivo tumor growth studies, because YUMM2.1 cells reliably formed tumors in mice. We have genetically engineered YUMM2.1 cells via CRISPR/Cas9 without GILT, verified the deletion, and selected a clone (#6) with similar in vitro proliferation as wild-type (WT) YUMM2.1 cells. When GILT-/- #6 cells were injected into immunocompetent mice, the resulting tumors had increased growth over time compared to WT tumors, but there was no clear association between tumor type and tumor onset or mouse survival. When these cells were injected into immunocompromised RAG1-/- mice, the resulting tumor growth, onset, and mouse survival, were inconsistent between experiments. Although further studies are needed to address these inconsistencies, in both experiments GILT-/- #6 had increased tumor growth in immunocompetent mice compared to WT tumors. Flow cytometry analyses showed that GILT-/- #6 tumors had fewer infiltrating T cells compared to WT, and a higher percentage of the infiltrating T cells were regulatory, supporting a potential role for T cells in regulating the in vivo tumor growth of GILT-/- #6 tumors versus WT tumors. However, to verify that the difference in tumor growth we observed in vivo was solely due to GILT expression in melanoma cells, we tested the in vivo tumor growth of GILT-/- YUMM2.1 cells transduced with empty vector or transduced with GILT. We found that GILT expression did not impact in vitro proliferation nor in vivo growth in immunocompromised mice. However, both tumors with the empty vector or GILT were rejected in immunocompetent mice, likely due to the expression of puromycin resistance from the lentiviral plasmid. Thus, mice genetically engineered to express puromycin resistance will need to be used in future studies and we are also designing lentiviral plasmids lacking puromycin resistance or other immunogenic reporter genes. In this manner, we will determine the effect of GILT expression in melanoma cells on regulating in vivo tumor growth.
    • Exploring Argumentation in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

      Talanquer, Vicente; Petritis, Steven; Bolger, Molly; Christie, Hamish; Jewett, John; Kelley, Colleen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Recent research emphasis has been placed on studying how students engage in scientific argumentative reasoning in the chemistry laboratory setting. Although several studies have evaluated the quality and characterized the structure of student arguments following the claims, evidence, and rationale (CER) framework, little is known about the influence of various laboratory factors on student reasoning. In this study, we seek to better understand what factors affect student argumentation in laboratories and how these factors foster or hinder students’ integration of core chemistry concepts and laboratory data. We have identified several factors associated with students’ laboratory experiences and aim to gain additional insight by exploring how students’ use of specific chemical data in various types of experiments impacts both the nature and quality of their post-lab arguments. Ultimately, this work highlights the need for explicit consideration of these factors in designing opportunities for undergraduate chemistry laboratory students to engage in productive argumentation from evidence. In the first part of this project, we analyzed the arguments generated by college organic chemistry students working on a substitution reaction experiment that was framed in two distinct ways: predict-verify and observe-infer. The arguments constructed by students in their post-laboratory reports under each laboratory frame were characterized by paying attention to both domain-specific and domain-general features. Our analysis revealed significant differences in the chemical concepts and ideas that students under the two conditions invoked, as well as in the level of integration, specificity, alignment, and type of reasoning observed within and across different argument components. Our findings highlight the importance of paying attention to how experiments are framed in terms of the goals, procedures, information, and tools available to students as these decisions can have a major impact on the nature of the claims students make, their use of evidence, and the approach to reasoning that they follow. Building on our previous work involving activity framing, the second part of this project involved the analysis of student arguments produced following eight experiments that comprise the first semester of a college organic chemistry laboratory to identify other factors that may significantly affect the nature and quality of student argumentation in undergraduate organic chemistry labs. Our analysis revealed no trends on the effect of experiment order or general type on the quality of student arguments; however, the amount and types of data sources as well as the level of scaffolding provided both had an impact on student argument quality. Although the undergraduate laboratory offers a ripe opportunity for students to engage in argument from evidence, laboratory activity involves a complex web of components each with the potential to affect productive and quality sensemaking. Our findings highlight the importance of explicit consideration of various laboratory factors and their impact on how students express their chemical reasoning through written argumentation.
    • Partitioning Components for Dimension Reduction for Compositional Data

      Billheimer, Dean; Koslucher, Amber; LaFluer, Bonnie; Bedrick, Ed; Zhang, Helen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Compositional data are vectors of proportions describing the relative abundance of eachcomponent to the total. High-dimensionality of many compositional data sets, often with more components than observations, has caused an increased demand for capturing observed patterns of variability through lower dimensions. Current dimension reduction methods applicable to compositional data are either difficult to interpret or lack a statistical model. Amalgamation, the summation of two components, and subcomposition, a subset of the original components, both serve as straightforward and interpretable ways of combining components in all applications of compositional data analysis and reduce the number of components in the composition. This paper proposes achieving reduced dimensions by partitioning components, which simultaneously models the subcompositions and amalgamation. Partition selection was proposed by maximizing the posterior probability of the Partition Logistic Normal distribution developed by Aitchison (1986). This dimension reduction methodology was then extended to perturbation, which characterizes compositional change. Perturbation responses may capture treatment effects, age effects on skin microbiota, and changes across time. Reducing the dimensions of an observed perturbation aims at capturing groups of components that were perturbed similarly. This paper provided a new reference component to correctly interpret the perturbed components and proposed reducing the dimensions by partitioning the perturbed components given the latent variables in the Gaussian mixture model which accounted for the uncertainty induced from estimating the compositional centers. These methods were applied to a skin microbiota studying an age perturbation by contrasting children and mothers.
    • Electrophysiological Signatures of Spatial and Temporal Coding in Humans

      Ekstrom, Arne; Liang, Mingli; Isham, Eve; Cowen, Stephen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Space and time are two cornerstones of memory and navigation. However, how spatial and temporal information contribute to spatial and mnemonic representations is still poorly understood in humans. One of the neural signatures in humans related to memory and navigation are neural oscillations in cortical and subcortical regions (such as the hippocampus). The presence of cortical and hippocampal theta oscillations predicts better subsequent memory and more efficient spatial navigation, but the exact relationship between neural oscillations and the coding of spatial distances and temporal durations are unknown. In this dissertation, I will provide empirical evidence to help fill this gap and to better the understanding of how cortical and hippocampal neural oscillations support the coding of spatiotemporal information. In Chapter 1, I provide a brief summary of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), intracranial EEG, mobile EEG, hippocampal theta oscillations, frontal midline theta oscillations, and behavioral models for spatial and temporal cognition. In Chapter 2, I report the feasibility of recording navigation-related frontal-midline theta oscillations using noninvasive scalp EEG in healthy humans using a mobile EEG approach. In Chapter 3 and 4, I report two investigations of how neural oscillations code spatial distances and temporal durations in healthy humans using mobile scalp EEG (Chapter 3) and in patients with hippocampal implanted electrodes (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5, I summarize how the understanding of oscillatory codes for space and time can inspire the behavioral and clinical applications for future research.
    • Rethinking Urban Agriculture: Environmental Casteism, Subjectivity, and the Labor Politics of Food Production in Mumbai

      Doshi, Sapana; Liverman, Diana; Garud, Pradnya; Osborne, Tracey; Reader, Tristan; Banister, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      In urban India, food gardening has proliferated among upper-caste, middle-class people to mitigate food safety and self-sufficiency concerns. In the past two decades in cities like Mumbai, organic gardening communities have engaged in food production in private homes and apartments. The fears and anxieties of “unsafe” food and degrading urban ecologies have driven upper-caste, middle-class people to intervene through food gardening. In Mumbai, urban farming along railway tracks was initiated as a state-driven measure to deal with food insecurity and was later formalized through Green Revolution policies. Presently, seasonal, rural, lower-caste migrant farmers grow food along 400 acres of public railway lands to sustain their livelihoods. These farmers have faced lawsuits from elite constituents over the use of sewage water, pesticides, and fertilizers to grow vegetables.This research examines how the complex interplay of caste, class, and gender shape practices and discourses for differently situated groups involved in urban agriculture. Using archival and qualitative methods, this dissertation shows that urban agriculture is not a universal good. Rather, it has served to deepen caste domination and environmental inequality through a process I call “environmental casteism.” I trace agrarian transformation in different historical junctures to demonstrate that 1) caste and class are fundamentally interconnected through land and caste labor relations in food production across the rural-urban divide; 2) urban organic food gardening initiatives are contingent on caste-based ideologies, spatial segregation, notions of purity and pollution, and gendered reproductive labor; and 3) caste-based waste labor is reworked as a practice for environmental sustainability.
    • Steady-State and Ultrafast Optical Properties of Tripyrrindione Ligand and Metal Complexes

      Huxter, Vanessa M.; Swain, Alicia; Monti, Oliver; Sandhu, Arvinder; Sanov, Andrei; Schwartz, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      While the photophysics of other oligopyrorrolic molecules, especially tetrapyrroles, have been the focus of extensive research, tripyrroles have remained relatively unstudied. This may be due to the previous difficulties in synthesis, difficulties in isolation from naturally occurring sources, and comparatively low relative natural abundance. Hexaethyl tripyrrindione (H3TD1) is a tripyrrolic molecule that is capable of binding metals and forming square planar neutral radical complexes that are stable at room temperature and redox active. Steady-state absorption and emission and time-resolved methods are used to measure both the H3TD1 ligand and H3TD1 bound to copper, palladium, and zinc. The time-resolved optical measurements include time correlated single photon counting, (TCSPC) fluorescence upconversion, transient absorption (TA), and two dimensional electronic (2DES). Solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions play a large role in the optical properties of H3TD1. In solvents with a low hydrogen-bonding affinity, H3TD1 favors the formation of dimers, with quick relaxation times of the excited state. In the presence of solvents capable of hydrogen-bond donating and accepting, H3TD1 favors a monomer state with slow relaxation times. H3TD1 readily coordinates with metal centers. The metal choice of the metal-TD1 complex plays a large role in the optical properties. The Zn-TD1 metal exhibits fluorescence emission in the presence of polar solvents. The steady-state and time-resolved optical properties for Zn-TD1 are highly solvent-dependent, especially in pyridine which is capable of strong axial interactions with the metal center. Cu- and Pd- TD1 neutral radical complexes as well as oxidized Cu-TD1 and oxidized Pd-TD1 were investigated. None of the neutral radical or oxidized Cu and Pd complexes are fluorescent. Excited state dynamics for the Cu-TD1 and Pd-TD1 complexes are relatively solvent insensitive with fast relaxation of the ground state bleach. However, the oxidized Pd complex shows much longer timescales. Oxidation of the complexes removes an electron from the ligand, changing the overall spin state of the complex. At low temperatures, the Cu-TD1 complex dimerizes through pi-pi interaction of ligand based electronic spins, modifying the observed dynamics. 2DES measurements investigate these dynamics and to understand the basic photophysics of the Cu-TD1 dimer system.
    • Information Analysis of Spatiotemporal Data Stream–Models, Algorithms and Evaluations

      Liu, Jian; Yuan, Yifei; Son, Young-Jun; Zhou, Qiang (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The Spatiotemporal data stream has been widely used in different applications for system surveillance, prediction, and optimization. In the past decade, the advancement of sensing and data storage technologies has made spatiotemporal data more achievable and enlarges spatiotemporal data’s scale greatly. It brings opportunities as well as challenges to spatiotemporal data steam analysis. Different spatiotemporal data stream problems have their unique methodologies, but they all share one major difficulty: high dimensionality. Some of them are data-intensive in spatial space, which needs modeling and feature extraction to reduce spatial dimensions. Others are data-intensive in temporal space, which needs temporal dimension reduction. This dissertation investigates spatiotemporal data modeling with one spatial intensive application and one temporal intensive application. The spatial intensive application is the border surveillance with Unmanned Vehicles (UVs), where multiple UVs collaboratively collect image information of a target area in real-time. Millions of pixel data are observed at each timestamp from multiple UVs. The temporal intensive application is the water distribution system (WDS), where hydraulic sensors are deployed in the underground water pipe network. Each sensor measures hundreds of thousands of hydraulic readings per day. In the UVs surveillance application, a grid-based model is proposed to aggregate UAV’s global low-resolution observation and UGVs’ local high-resolution observation, which extracts crowd dynamics information from spatially heterogeneous high dimensional data. These extracted crowd dynamics data are then processed by a proposed Bayesian dynamics model for real-time crowd tracking and prediction. These models are validated and compared with benchmarks by simulation studies and a field test. In the WDS application, a penalized free-knot B-spline model is proposed to model high dimensional temporal profile data, reducing temporal dimension from hundreds of thousands of timestamps into dozens of profile coefficients. A real-time anomaly detection model is then proposed based on these modeled profiles. This model detects system anomaly (i.e., water pipe burst) from spatiotemporal profile based on a Bayesian basis-expansion model. One simulated dummy WDS and one simulated WDS at Austin, TX, are used for model validation and comparison.
    • Networked Parasocial Relationships: Examining the Contributions of Ego-Networks and Identity on Positive Parasocial Relationships and their Importance

      Rains, Steve; Lutovsky, Bethany R.; Stevens Aubrey, Jennifer; Pitts, Margaret J.; Bighash, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Parasocial relationships (PSRs) examine the one-way, imagined relationships that takes place between an individual and a media figure. Although these relationships exist with media figures, research has found that they tend to resemble the relationships that individuals form within their social lives. This study examined two concepts of parasocial research, the formation of positive PSRs and PSR dependence, using social network analysis. This analysis method was proposed to be a key element to settle the debate between the competing interpersonal theories regarding parasocial relationships and extend the knowledge of why these relationships exist. However, results of an online survey recruited through television fandom subreddits indicated that social network structure was not a substantial determinant of the creation and dependence on these relationships. The methods used in this study were unable to explain the inconsistent results found for the compensatory and complementary hypotheses. Additional analyses were run examining the role social network analysis and identity played in the parasocial experience. Significant results were found indicating that network analysis related to identity and overall identity salience of the ego and alters were reliably related to positive PSR formation and PSR dependence. Therefore, the identity of the ego and the network alters played a role in the formation and dependence on positive PSRs. The implications of these findings on the understanding of parasocial relationships and areas of future research are discussed.
    • High Speed Grating Shear Interferometry for Fast Steering Mirror Characterization

      Hart, Michael; Colon, Nicolas Iokepa; Kim, Daewook; Milster, Thomas D. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Several terrestrial and aerospace applications require the ability to track a Fast-Steering Mirror’s (FSM) high velocity slew rates with microradian positional resolution. Using theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, the Fast Linescan Grating Shear Interferometer (FLGSI) was designed to meet this demand with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The primary goal of this thesis was to demonstrate that the calibrated FLGSI could constantly track the relative FSM position while the FSM was driven with sinusoidal and square electrical waveforms. The angular magnification, the grating period, and the source wavelength affected the measurement resolution of the FLGSI. The FLGSI design had better than -0.5 waves of coma and less than 0.75 waves of spherical aberration (at 632.8 nm) for the ±4 mrad system FOV. With a photon noise model corrected by measured results, the FLGSI propagated uncertainty was less than 9.5 µrad when measuring the FSM angular position with FSM velocities below 1.5 rad/s, and when measuring a stationary FSM, the FLGSI could measure FSM movements as small as 49.22 nrad (twice the FLGSI measurement uncertainty). The OIM 202 was modeled to estimate the mirror velocity, and design experiments to test the FLGSI measurement capabilities. The secondary goal of this thesis was to measure the OIM 202 movement properties with the FLGSI and compare them with the modeled and manufacturer reported properties. The FLGSI, with a framerate faster than 40 kHz, accurately tracked the FSM position when the FSM was moving at rates slower than 1.1761 ± 0.58 rad/s. The FLGSI measured the FSM X-axis settle time to be 9.98 ms with a pointing accuracy of ±1.38 µrad and the FSM Y axis settle time to be 6.69 ms with a pointing accuracy of ±0.94 µrad. The settle time was slightly slower, and the pointing accuracy was slightly worse than quoted manufacturing specifications.