Now showing items 21-40 of 41944


      Morrison, Helena; CHOU, KERRY (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Opioids like morphine are the benchmark for treating severe acute pain; however, severe side effects including respiratory depression and addiction limit their viability. One approach to improve opioid therapy focuses on a dose-reduction strategy by amplifying opioid analgesia without boosting side effects, so that less opioid can be given. To this end, we tested the hypothesis that targeting spinal cord heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) with isoform-selective inhibitors given IV could boost opioid pain relief without altering side effects, enabling a dose-reduction strategy. We tested this hypothesis with the novel Grp94-selective inhibitor KUNG65 and the novel Hsp90β-selective inhibitor KUNB106, given at a 1mg/kg dose IV in male and female CD-1 mice, followed by a 24hr treatment time, then analysis of opioid antinociception and side effects. We found that systemic (IV) KUNG65 treatment resulted in a 1.9 fold increase in morphine potency to relieve tail flick pain with similar findings for KUNB106, consistent with our earlier studies injecting inhibitors directly into the spinal cord. We also found that both KUNG65 and KUNB106 boosted morphine potency in paw incision pain. Additionally, we found that KUNG65 and KUNB106 injection could rescue established morphine tolerance in the tail flick assay. These results support our hypothesis that isoform-selective Hsp90 inhibitors can selectively engage Hsp90 in the spinal cord when given systemically, resulting in improved opioid antinociception and side effects. These results strongly suggest that Hsp90 isoform-selective inhibitors could be a powerful new tool to improve opioid therapy through a dose-reduction strategy, and further show that this effect can be achieved through a translationally relevant dosing route.

      Goldsmith, Melissa; HASSAN, MARYAN (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Purpose: To develop evidence-based best practice recommendations for healthcare professionals and parents to empower them to safely initiate skin-to-skin contact (SSC) within the first hour following birth. Background: Skin-to-skin contact is recognized as a safe practice and intervention that promotes infants’ overall health and development while improving parental attachment as the newborn transitions to extrauterine life. Approach to practice: The best practice recommendations are based on a literature review conducted through a search on PubMed with the following keywords: Skin-to-skin care, kangaroo care, mother-infant interaction, kangaroo-mother care, baby-friendly hospital setting, and golden hour. The literature review includes fifteen articles published from 2014 to 2020. Outcomes: The proposed best practice recommendations are for healthcare professionals to reference when determining how to facilitate safe skin-to-skin contact following the first hour of birth. Conclusions: SSC allows for familial attachments through the initiation of oxytocin and reduction of cortisol; it also contributes to thermoregulation, the building of a healthy microbiome, and the successful initiation of breastfeeding. This thesis has created best practice recommendations based on current evidence as well as includes a proposed implementation and evaluation of the recommendations to help healthcare professionals recognize their responsibility in protecting and honoring this meaningful experience.

      Goldsmith, Melissa; GOVIN, MEERA (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Purpose: To develop evidence-based recommendations for nurses and pediatricians regarding adverse childhood experience (ACE) screening in children and implementation of yoga as an alternative intervention for improving mental health in affected children. Background: ACEs are prevalent, and increase a child’s risk for toxic stress, impulsive behavior, and poor coping mechanisms. Yoga is effective for improving mental health in adults and is becoming increasingly studied in the youth population. Benefits discussed in the literature include kinesthetic awareness, increased appreciation for the body, and effective relaxation tools. Approach to practice: The best practice recommendations are based on a literature review conducted through searching on PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychiatry Online, and Psychology Collection with the following keywords: yoga, depression, ACE, anxiety, and adolescents. Articles reviewed in this search were published from 2012 to 2022. Outcomes: The proposed best practice recommendations are for professionals to reference when screening for ACEs and determining eligibility for a yoga intervention. Conclusions: As more research on yoga in this population is compiled and published, the recommendations for screening and referral will become increasingly specific and standardized. Once this occurs, medical professionals can feel confident in screening for ACEs, identifying candidates for yoga, and determining an effective regimen.

      Killgore, William D. S.; LUCAS, DANIEL ALLAN (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The COVID-19 pandemic created a range of unprecedented socioeconomic and cultural stressors novel to a world of increasing globalization and interconnectivity. Many studies have since emerged evaluating the impact of such stressors on various mental health measures. In this study, 13,313 individuals from across the United States were surveyed for a variety of neurocognitive battery assessments including self-report measures of aggression, insomnia symptoms, and alcohol use. Approximately 1,000 participants were surveyed per month beginning in April 2020 and concluding in April 2021 and were additionally asked to report their current COVID-19 diagnosis status. The potential for a correlative link between aggression and alcohol use that is modulated by COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms of insomnia was evaluated though univariant ANOVA and linear modelling. Significant interactions between insomnia and aggression were noted with greater insomnia symptoms corresponding to greater aggression scores and a similar trend also noted in alcohol use. Additional interactions between insomnia symptoms and COVID-19 diagnosis with both aggression and alcohol were noted. Linear modelling revealed increasing correlation between alcohol and aggression in individuals with insomnia symptoms and/or positive COVID-19 diagnosis. The subset affirming both clinical insomnia symptoms and current COVID-19 diagnosis exhibited the greatest Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.692). These results suggest a correlative link between aggression and alcohol use which can be mediated by symptoms of insomnia and knowledge of a positive COVID-19 diagnosis.

      Head, Larry; TRAN, VINCENT THANH KHOA (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Autonomous cars have risen in popularity and are beginning to appear more on our roadways. Currently there are no measures to monitor their behavior and their behavior has not been fully refined enough to allow them to operate without human intervention. Currently an artificial intelligence software has the ability to track vehicles visually through a traffic camera network, but there is no way to verify its accuracy. The proposed problem was put out by the Arizona Commerce Authority and the Institute of Automated Mobility and a solution was developed by Tucson Embedded Systems and a team of University of Arizona Students. The designed solution was a scaled RC car platform that featured a GPS module and inertial measuring unit that would collect positional and kinematic data while also having a visually recognizable checkerboard calibration pattern. This platform would allow for small scale lab environment testing, but would also allow for the platform to be placed in a road car with a scaled up calibration pattern for use with traffic camera systems on roadways. The student team was able to develop and deliver a working product that would allow for the integration of autonomous capabilities into the platform in the future.

      Rezende, Lisa; MINER, RACHEL LYNN (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      It is all too common for politicians and policymakers to be confronted with decisions on scientific topics that they know little to nothing about. This project seeks to help create resources for politicians and policymakers about cancer biology and genetic testing as well as establishing a format for future resources to follow. This project focused on Lung, Skin, and Childhood cancer as well as Cystic Fibrosis, Down Syndrome, and Familial Hypercholesterolemia. These topics were chosen as they have either seen recent vast improvements such as the Elexacaftor–Tezacaftor–Ivacaftor treatment for Cystic Fibrosis or could be significantly helped by policy initiatives such as Skin Cancer. Included within this project are 8 scientific article briefs from journals such as Nature, 3 topic summaries on Cystic Fibrosis, Down Syndrome, and Familial Hypercholesterolemia, a resource containing all the definitions of terms covered throughout the project, 2 10-minute videos covering the basic concepts in genetics and cancer biology, and the template that was used to create the scientific article briefs. These materials have been compiled into a free, publicly available website for all to use at the link below.

      Milliman, Paul; PACHECO, ILIANA ROSA (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This honors thesis explores the memory of king Ívarr inn beinlausi through the social model of disability. Utilizing historical and archaeological sources, this study addresses whether Ívarr was impaired by Scandinavians of the Middle Ages. Settled in the backdrop of the Viking Age, the Icelandic Ragnars saga loðbrókar ok sona hans covers the legacy of the legendary king Ragnarr loðbrók and his sons, with particular emphasis on his firstborn Ívarr. By exploring impairment from a social model of disability, this study examines the factors that impacted how Ívarr was remembered in medieval saga and present-day depictions with a focus on media and medical constructions. Ívarr’s compliance with societal values of wisdom and strength has sustained his memory over the years. Furthermore, a close reading of the text suggests that Ívarr’s supernatural abilities derive from his aberrancy. This study argues that Ívarr was not disabled by Scandinavian medieval persons but was impaired. In contemporary depictions of Ívarr, media sources such as Vikings (2013-2020) stress his disability as a barrier to be overcome.

      Reimer, Margaret; MAHONEY, MATTHIAS JEFFERY (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The purpose of this paper is to offer a new and renewed response to the basic question: what is language? In order to accomplish this, I first take a step back, and point to the deeper reality which language itself points to and relies upon: meaning. My response is new, insofar as I offer a new picture of meaning, and how meaning is manifest beyond the phenomenon of language. However, this response is also a renewal, because I will draw from Aristotle’s own metaphysical framework and his ideas about language and put these in dialogue with findings of modern linguistics. Meaning I take to be a special type of attention drawing relationship, whereby one thing calls attention to another thing in virtue of some ordering principle. Communication is the expression of meaning. Language then, is the mode of communication proper to rational animals, that is, human beings. Understood this way, language is not only the art of reference, nor merely a societal construction, nor reducible to individual intentions: rather, language is the syntactically organized and conventionally encoded means by which humans communicate their will and intellect, genuinely reflecting reality. The final purpose of this paper is not only to provide a renewal to philosophy of language as such, but also a renewal for us: how you and I appreciate language. I wish to draw attention to the marvelous mystery of meaning, which is too often taken for granted, and the beautiful ways this mystery is brought to life in human language.

      Shepherd, Andrew; DOSER, MADISON ELIZABETH JANE (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Women’s bodily autonomy and abortion access have been topics of mass debate since the 1800s. On June 24, 2022, the Supreme Court overturned decades of precedent providing access to abortion nationwide in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization (2022). The ruling immediately led to the overturn of abortion access in 13 states and returned the legislation of abortion access to the states. Women felt the immediate effects of the limitation of their reproductive rights. Access to legal abortion can be returned nationwide, however, through the codification of Roe v. Wade (1974) into federal law. Currently, the only major issues standing in the way of returning nationwide abortion access are politics – both from Congress and the Supreme Court. With Congress’ power to regulate interstate commerce, there are multiple constitutionally justifiable methods of protecting abortion access in federal law despite the Supreme Court’s ruling. The Executive Branch also has numerous methods of returning abortion access to the women of the United States including regulation of federal lands, mail, and telemedicine.

      Cederburg, Scott; DENTON, ASHLEY MORGAN (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Common intuition suggests that environmental, social, and governance (ESG) managed funds are less exposed to commodity prices than traditional managed funds. This paper investigates the exposures to various commodities experienced by ESG and traditional mutual funds. It also seeks to identify whether, and to what extent, ESG funds are less exposed to commodity price risk than the overall market, given that they have specific environmental benchmarks they are required to meet. Through regression analysis, I compare the commodity price exposures of both the market and 70 different ESG mutual funds during the period April 2012 to December 2021. By controlling for the risk experienced by the overall market, I also investigate whether ESG fund exposure can merely be attributable to systematic risk. My findings suggest that ESG funds are not less exposed to commodities than the overall market–or traditional mutual funds, as such. The exposure to commodities experienced by ESG funds also cannot be simply attributed to systematic risk, and significant evidence even suggests that ESG commodity exposure is greater than that of the overall market in some instances. This paper speculates that this pattern arises because ESG mutual funds are designed to be sector-neutral, and their managers use positive screening as opposed to negative screening portfolio allocation strategies. Therefore, ESG investing does not and cannot exclude commodities as an asset class entirely and maintains exposure to commodity price risk

      Cohen, Andrew S.; MAO, HAIXIANG (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Fire in semi humid regions of tropical Africa is driven by random lighting strikes and intentional anthropogenic burnings for charcoal production, which often result uncontrolled fire that causes landscape conversion. However, the relative contributions of localized and strictly human-caused fire vs. more regional burning facilitated by climate events in late Holocene African fire history needs to be clarified. In this study I have investigated the history and drivers of the late Holocene fire, a region in central eastern Africa adjacent to Lake Tanganyika. I have taken a paleolimnological approach, studying sedimented macrocharcoal preserved in sediment cores, to obtain a record of macrocharcoal concentrations and fluxes spanning the last ~ 500 years. I compared macrocharcoal concentrations and flux patterns with lake level and lake temperature changes for nine dated sediment cores (18M, 15M, 20MR, 25M, 21MR, 1A, KH1, 2A, and 6A) collected from nearshore east central coastal areas and southeastern basin locations. From 1500 to 2000 C.E., fires that are recorded in the cores near the northern Mahale area (the east central part of the lake where the majority of records were located) were mostly uncorrelated and presumably represent very localized fires. Only a few events are recorded in multiple cores and thus seem likely to be related to climatic drivers, such as in the late 17th century, a dry period during the Little Ice Age and or during the mid-19th century. Low fire frequencies observed during the late 20th century are possibly related to prior extensive deforestation in the study area. However, the dominance of uncorrelated late Holocene charcoal records near the Mahale area suggests that most of these fires were highly localized and likely human set (for land clearance or charcoal production) rather than being driven by regional climate events.

      Barberán, Albert; TEWS, AARON DEAN (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Desert dust is a danger to ecology and human health. Land overuse and climate change are contributing to increasing dust emissions and decreasing biodiversity. In the desert Southwest, biocrust comprised of cyanobacteria, their extra polymeric substances, and a diverse array of other microbes are an essential component of healthy soil aggregation. Crusted soil produces less dust and is associated with diverse arid ecosystems. In this thesis, we investigated microbial inoculants as a method for growing biocrust artificially. We tested cyanobacteria, Lactobacillus spp., and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculant in a rhizobox experiment and cyanobacteria plus plants in a field experiment. The field experiment utilized MICROP cyanobacteria inoculant in conjunction with native grass seeds to find the combination that would result in the most diverse and altered soil microbiome. Richness, Shannon diversity, cyanobacteria relative abundance, and bacterial community composition were analyzed by treatment and spatial position in the field site. In the rhizoboxes, the AM fungi and MICROP were associated with a higher cyanobacteria % than control. In the field, inoculation was not an effective mechanism for promoting cyanobacteria over other microbes and was not associated with an altered and more diverse microbiome. However, spatial position in the field plots had a significant positive correlation with richness, Shannon diversity, cyanobacteria RA, and composition. This could mean the experimental design of the field experiment was compromised by uncontrolled environmental factors, but plant abundance in different plots is a possible explanatory variable. These experiments provide valuable insight to land managers searching for microbial dust controls, but more research is needed into the microbial interactions that produce biocrust.

      Srinivasan, Ragini Tharoor; Shivers-McNair, Ann; JONES, AMI (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This thesis offers an epistolary exploration of questions of representation in American literature and the white reading position. It utilizes the form of self-address in order to investigate my own reading position as a White American and LGBTQ-identified elementary, high school, and college student of English in Colorado and Arizona. The letters address issues including cultural appropriation and the publishing industry. Literary texts discussed include works by Black and indigenous authors whose work is subject to authenticity and identity politics. Letters also discuss texts by LGBTQ authors that at the time of this writing have been censored and banned. Lack of representation in literature can lead to violence, depression, and self-esteem issues, especially in children who do not see themselves in the literature they are taught in school. In a series of self-critical and self-reflexive letter-essays, this thesis problematizes my own history and position as a reader in order to advocate for a more inclusive politics of representation in literary publishing and teaching.

      WONG, EMILY (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Environmental toxins, more specifically lead toxicity, has a strong influence on brain development in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex, located in the frontal lobe of the brain, manages decision-making, long-term and short-term goals, impulsivity, and self-control. These functions stimulate delinquent acts and crime, so in turn, harm to the prefrontal cortex, such as lead contamination, can influence how one perceives crime and could chemically lead one to commit. This literature analysis evaluates blood lead levels of the current year in the United States and compares it to national, total crime rates, with the aspiration of a positive correlation. This work also examines blood lead levels of children ages 6 to 11-year-olds from 1999 to 2000 and compares this data to crime rates between the years 2011 to 2020. The work concluded that crime rates and blood lead levels of the current year have a significant correlation, whereas blood lead levels from 1999 and crime rates from 2011 to 2020 have less of an association.

      Rahaman, Sazzadur; LI, XIN (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Technological advancements in immersive technologies, such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), have driven the development and adoption of the metaverse. The metaverse is a virtual world that is parallel to the real world. Many industries, including healthcare and gaming, have incorporated metaverse in their services, leading to an immersive virtual experience for users. Meanwhile, the metaverse has also brought some threats to people. This report presents a comprehensive discussion on the various security issues that users may face in the metaverse and takes Roblox as an example to analyze first whether people pay attention to the security of metaverse games. Second, people's sentiments about metaverse games. The result has shown that the public like Metaverse games but pays little attention to the security issues of metaverse games.
    • Identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active metabolites in firefighter urine samples

      Burgess, Jeff; von Hippel, Sophia (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Firefighter (FF) cancer rates are elevated due to chemical exposures, with strong evidence for contribution of receptor-mediated effects which are not adequately accounted for by known carcinogens. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a protein best known for its role in mediating toxicity from dioxin-like compounds. Here we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to investigate whether the increased AhR mediated response observed in post-fire urine samples would reveal AhR ligands previously not associated with FF occupational exposure. Analysis of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) negative and reverse phase (RP) positive metabolomic data from three fractionated post-fire urine samples having elevated AhR activity revealed 27 metabolites in FF samples compared to one non-FF sample. These metabolites belonged to a wide range of chemical classes such as indoles and aromatic ketones. Further investigation into the roles of these 27 metabolites in AhR mediation might help elucidate the biochemical pathways leading to elevated cancer risk in FFs.

      Melendez, Paul; Le, Tran Thao Uyen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Vietnam is one of the fast-growing countries. Several reform programs that were launched in the mid-1980s kick-started significant changes to the country and its economy. The 1980s was the start for the privatization trend in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. Despite being a latecomer, Vietnam’s privatization, or equitization, has resulted in high levels of economic growth in the country. This paper examines the privatization in Vietnam and its impacts on the society and economy. In addition, it compares the outcomes in Vietnam with those in other countries by using the case study method.

      Watson, James T.; CLEVENGER, ALEESHA STEPHANY (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Archaeological evidence suggests early inhabitants of East-Central Arizona practiced both farming and foraging. Patterned differences in labor investments in archaeological populations can be obtained from reconstructing repetitive behaviors by using cross-sectional geometry (dimensions) and musculoskeletal markers (entheses) of the upper long bones. The humerus, radius, ulna, and clavicle were used in the cross-sectional geometry and the musculoskeletal markers analysis, and the scapula was added as an additional element to the musculoskeletal marker’s component. The elements were compared between site location, age, and by sex (males vs. females) in a series of skeletal samples from Turkey Creek Pueblo (1225 CE-1286 CE) and Point of Pines Pueblo (1225 CE- 1450 CE) to test the hypothesis there would be a difference in upper long bone dimensions and entheses between sex, age, and site location. The results show that the cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of all the elements except the clavicle show a significant correlation in robust dimensions with the radius being significantly different between locations, age, and sexes with females being more robust than males in both Turkey Creek and Point of Pines Pueblo and becoming more robust with age. The musculoskeletal markers (MSM) results indicate a difference in entheses size between sites with the clavicle, radius, and ulna being larger in Point of Pines Pueblo than in Turkey Creek, and no difference in sex or age or between locations. The findings of CSG and MSMs are significant as the results suggest the people of Point of Pines Pueblo contain more robust dimensions and entheses possibly due to differences in habitual activities and labor investments.
    • The Media’s push of Colorist Stereotypes: Examining the impact colorist beauty standards in the media have on black women

      Sanchez, Tani; Ingram, Janelle (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the factors contributing to colorism against African American Women and how these factors affect them. While colorism is frequently studied, limited research has been completed about its portrayal in the media and how that representation impacts black women. Black female participants (N=35) were surveyed about their experiences with colorism and the factors promoting colorist ideals. Participants were asked a series of demographic background questions followed by a mixture of structured and open-ended questions that explored their perception of the media’s beauty standards and how such beauty standards affect their lives. The findings show the media promotes positive stereotypes of women with lighter skin, lighter eyes, and straighter hair and negative stereotypes of women with darker skin, darker eyes, and courser hair which doesn’t negatively affect darker skinned women’s self confidence or academics but their experiences. Major findings from this present study suggest that young black women feel pressured by contemporary American standards of beauty to look a certain way. These findings also reveal how society’s idealized beauty standards have a significant influence on black women’s overall self-esteem and body image.
    • Winner Takes All or Win-Win: The Pros and Cons of Water Trading in Arizona

      Ferreira, Jessica; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
      Water markets have been identified as one solution to addressing water scarcity in the Western United States. This paper examines how water transfers indicate water commoditization and the implications surrounding water markets' social, environmental, and economic aspects. A systematic review of the recent literature found a disparity highlighting substantially more research on the environmental and economic benefits of water markets than on the social impacts of water markets. This finding contrasts with survey responses that found Arizona residents prioritize social needs, revealing a disconnect between what academics discuss in the literature and what is important to people.