• Description of a Pharmacy Technician and Student Intern-Driven Medication Reconciliation Process and Evaluation of Medical Provider Acceptance of Recommendations to Reorder Critical Medications

      Salek, Ferena; Hall, Edina; Glover, Jon; Hall, Scott Thomas; Salek, Ferena; Hall, Edina; Glover, Jon; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      OBJECTIVES: To describe a pharmacy technician and student intern-driven medication reconciliation process and to evaluate medical provider acceptance of recommendations to reorder critical medications. METHODS: Patients admitted to Northwest Medical Center had medication histories taken on admission. A specially trained pharmacy technician or student intern reviewed these histories, with emphasis placed on critical medications as defined by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee. Recommendations to re-order these critical medications were made to medical providers. All patients, excluding those under 18 years of age or current enrollment in the prison system, admitted during the months of May-June 2010 were reviewed for acceptance of critical medication recommendations through information recorded in the pharmacy electronic medical record system. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-eight (178) recommendations were made on 132 patients requiring recommendations. All medical providers accepted 102 (57%, p-value=0.008) of the recommendations made. Hospitalists were more likely than physician specialists or surgeons to accept recommendations made (62.5%, p-value<0.001). Recommendations made regarding thyroid products were accepted the greatest majority of the time (82.1%, p-value<0.001); antidepressants (54.8%, p-value=0.321), anticonvulsants (63.2%, p-value=0.194), and medications classified as other (55.6%, p-value=0.480) were also accepted a majority of the time. Vitamin K antagonists did not have recommendations accepted a majority of the time (31.8%, p-value=0.034). CONCLUSION: Medical providers accepted a majority of recommendations to reorder critical medications made by pharmacy technicians or student interns.
    • Effect of Adherence to the GOLD Guidelines on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Related Readmissions in a Community Hospital

      Hall, Edina; Salek, Ferena; Glover, Jon; Binder, William; Clark, Scott; Hall, Edina; Salek, Ferena; Glover, Jon; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Objectives: To assess the relationship between adherence to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and the corresponding 30-day, all-cause readmissions rate in a community hospital. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of a COPD exacerbation. Medications administration records relevant to the GOLD guidelines were examined as separate independent variables in relation to a readmission within 30 days of discharge. Additional factors examined included: demographic data, resident of a long-term care facility, pre-index hospitalization, pulmonary consult, vaccines, length of stay (LOS), discharge medications, and follow-up appointments. Results: Electronic health records of 120 patients were reviewed and divided into non-readmitted patients (n = 65, mean age 73.4 ± 10.1 years), all-cause readmissions (n = 55, mean age 70.15 ± 9.69 years), and COPD-related readmissions (n = 21, mean age 70.7 ± 11.1 years). Patients with heart failure (p = 0.024), a LOS >5 days (p = 0.045), a pre-index hospitalization (p = 0.001), or who were long-term care residents (p = 0.024) experienced more all-cause readmissions. Females experienced less all-cause readmissions (p = 0.035). Significantly more patients with a pre-index hospitalization had a COPD-related readmission (p = 0.027). Lastly, adherence to the GOLD treatment parameters was not significantly different across all groups. Conclusions: COPD is a complex disease and adherence to the GOLD guidelines during an exacerbation is unlikely to significantly impact 30-day readmission rates.
    • Predictive Value of a Medication Adherence Screening Tool on Hospital Readmission Rates in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

      Hall, Edina; Salek, Ferena; Glover, Jon J.; Felix, Serena; McGowan, Veronica; Hall, Edina; Salek, Ferena; Glover, Jon J.; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: To examine the relationship between hospital readmission rates and responses to a medication adherence questionnaire (Morisky) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: The Morisky questionnaire, assessing medication adherence, was administered to all CHF patients admitted from September 15, 2012 to March 7, 2013. Information collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) for all patients with complete Morisky questionnaires included: age, sex, ethnicity, insurance, height, weight, marital status, tobacco use, alcohol use, number of home medications, all-cause and CHF admission in the previous 365 days from when the questionnaire was administered as well as the following events/disease states: myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, stroke, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Main Results: Of the 120 patients enrolled, 52% scored 1-5 on the Morisky questionnaire indicating some problem with medication adherence while 48% scored 0 (no problems). There was no correlation between the Morisky score and age (95% CI: -3.3-5.7), number of medications (95% CI: -0.26, 2.85), or number of comorbidities (95% CI: -1.02,0.03). The Morisky questionnaire was not predictive of all cause readmissions (95% CI: 0.35, 2.01) p = 0.691). For CHF readmissions the Morisky score was not significant (95% CI: 0.6, 4.11, p=0.358) but the confidence interval suggests a trend. Conclusion: There is no correlation between Morisky scores, age, comorbidities, and medication number. Readmission rates were not predicted by Morisky scores; with more participants a trend may be detected for CHF readmissions.