• Extending the Stability of Intravenous Ampicillin

      Nix, David; Hanan, Nathan; Nix, David; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Specific Aims: To assess the chemical stability of ampicillin for injection in normal saline at pH values ranging from 5 to 6. Methods: A stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and used to determine the stability of ampicillin for injection in normal saline following buffering with sodium acetate and acid adjustment with HCl at pH values of 5, 5.5, and 6. To confirm that the assay was stability-indicating, ampicillin trihydrate reference standard (1 mg/mL) was exposed to alkali, acid, and oxidative stress conditions and analyzed by HPLC for the presence of degradation products. Analysis was performed on a reverse-phase (C-18) column with a mobile phase consisting of water, acetonitrile, 1 M monobasic potassium phosphate, and 1 N acetic acid (909:80:10:1). Other HPLC parameters were: flow rate 1 mL/min; detection wavelength 254 nm; injection volume 20 µL; column temperature 30˚C. The method was evaluated for linearity, precision, and accuracy. The chemical stability of ampicillin for injection (18 mg/mL) in normal saline and sodium acetate (pH adjusted at values of 5, 5.5, and 6) was assessed at baseline (t=0), 7, 11, 17, 31, and 44 hours and compared to a control solution (no pH adjustment). Measurements at each time interval were performed in triplicate. Main Results: Ampicillin trihydrate reference standard (1 mg/mL) was adequately separated from degradation products following exposure to alkali, acid, and oxidative stress conditions. After 16 hours, a precipitate was observed in the solution at pH 6, and therefore stability is not reported. All other solutions (pH 5, pH 5.5, and control) were stable for at least 24 hours at room temperature and yielded t90 values of 110, 64.2, and 27.5 hours, respectively. Conclusions: Adjustment of intravenous ampicillin solutions to pH values of 5 or 5.5 significantly increased stability. Ampicillin appears to be most stable at a pH near its isoelectric point (pH 5).