• Arizona Pharmacist's Attitudes Towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

      Jackowski, Rebekah; Carmichael, Jenna; Kitzmiller, Kelsey; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to gain knowledge about pharmacists’ use and recommendations toward complementary and alternative medicine in the state of Arizona. METHODS: Samples were obtained through an online survey. Members from Arizona Pharmacy Alliance (AzPA) were emailed asking them to participate in an online survey. The sample size was all the pharmacists who are members of AzPA and have an email address, about 900 pharmacists. There were 187 responses, giving a response rate of 21%. The questionnaire was developed using questions from previous studies of pharmacists, physicians, and nurses. Demographic information collected included age, number of years practicing, ethnicity, sex and type of pharmacy he/she practices in. RESULTS: Pharmacists who have been treated with CAM personally are more likely to agree that CAM is a useful supplement to conventional medicines (p<0.001). Pharmacists who do not use CAM regularly to treat their own symptoms or illnesses were less likely to think CAM is a useful supplement to conventional medicine (p<0.001) and less likely to think CAM should be integrated into main stream western medicine (p<0.001). Pharmacists practicing greater than 20 years are more likely to think that their attitude toward alternative medicine has changed substantially over the past few years (p=0.028) and are more likely to think CAM should be integrated into western medicine (p=0.036) compared to those practicing less than 10 years. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, the hypothesis that pharmacists with personal CAM use are more likely to recommend or have a positive attitude toward their patients and recommend CAM was supported. The other hypothesis of pharmacists who have more recently graduated from pharmacy school will have a more positive outlook on CAM has been refuted as it was shown that those who have been practicing more than 20 years are more likely to believe CAM should be integrated into Western medicine.
    • Attitudes and Knowledge of Medical Students Regarding the Role of Pharmacists

      Jackowski, Rebekah; Klein, Amanda S.; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Specific Aims: To determine the attitudes of medical students towards pharmacists and the roles they play on the healthcare team and how these views change after attending an inter-professional workshop with other University of Arizona healthcare students. Methods: Questionnaires administered during a regularly scheduled class collected rating of teamwork and collaboration, roles for pharmacists in health care settings, and medical student’s expectations of the pharmacist when they are practicing physicians. Previous inter-professional workshop experience, negative experience with a pharmacist, age and sex was also collected. Main Results: Medical students’ attitudes regarding the roles of pharmacist in health care settings became more positive after attending the IPE workshop compared to their attitudes before attending the IPE workshop (X2 = 7.671, p-value = 0.005) and was maintained 1 year after the workshop (X2 = 6.304, p-value = 0.012). Medical students expected pharmacists to be more capable and had higher expectations for them after attending the IPE workshop (X2 = 17.393, p-value = <0.001) and was maintained 1 year after the workshop (X2 = 5.955, p-value = 0.015). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the inter-professional workshop is successful in changing the attitudes of medical students towards pharmacists and the roles they play on the healthcare team. The medical students maintained this change in attitude one year after the inter-professional workshop.
    • Attitudes and Knowledge of Medical Students Regarding the Role of Pharmacists

      Jackowski, Rebekah; Klein, Amanda S.; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Specific Aims: To determine the attitudes of medical students towards pharmacists and the roles they play on the healthcare team and how these views change after attending an inter-professional workshop with other University of Arizona healthcare students. Methods: Questionnaires administered during a regularly scheduled class collected rating of teamwork and collaboration, roles for pharmacists in health care settings, and medical student’s expectations of the pharmacist when they are practicing physicians. Previous inter-professional workshop experience, negative experience with a pharmacist, age and sex was also collected. Main Results: Medical students’ attitudes regarding the roles of pharmacist in health care settings became more positive after attending the IPE workshop compared to their attitudes before attending the IPE workshop (X2 = 7.671, p-value = 0.005) and was maintained 1 year after the workshop (X2 = 6.304, p-value = 0.012). Medical students expected pharmacists to be more capable and had higher expectations for them after attending the IPE workshop (X2 = 17.393, p-value = <0.001) and was maintained 1 year after the workshop (X2 = 5.955, p-value = 0.015). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the inter-professional workshop is successful in changing the attitudes of medical students towards pharmacists and the roles they play on the healthcare team. The medical students maintained this change in attitude one year after the inter- professional workshop.
    • Availability and Cost of Pharmacist-Provided Immunizations at Community Pharmacies in Tucson, Arizona

      Jackowski, Rebekah; McKinley, Brian; Oh, Seung; Zucarelli, David; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the availability of immunizations in community pharmacies and the out-of-pocket cost for those immunizations. Methods: Twelve community pharmacies in the Tucson area were examined and one pharmacist in each store was asked to complete a questionnaire. This questionnaire aimed to determine individual immunizations offered at each pharmacy and the out-of-pocket cost for those immunizations. Main Results: Differences in the availability and cost of immunizations were compiled for each category of community pharmacy. The categories included Supermarket/grocery store, chain, Mass merchant/big box, and independent pharmacy. Seven of the twelve (58%) pharmacies included in the analysis participated in pharmacist-based immunizations. Three out of the four (75%) supermarket based pharmacies, both chain pharmacies, and two of the four (50%) mass merchant pharmacies, provided immunizations. Neither of the independent pharmacies included in the analysis provided immunizations. The pharmacies that did not currently provide immunizations, none had plans in the future to provide immunizations. There were no other non-prescription immunizations provided at the pharmacies in the study. All seven pharmacies that provided immunization services stated they would accept insurance and only one of the chain pharmacies had a walk in clinic. Conclusion: Overall this study demonstrated that there are differences associated with cost and availability of immunization services offered between pharmacies. Further research is needed to determine what hinders community pharmacy from offering immunization services and how to develop a form of commonality between all immunizations offered.
    • The Availability of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) in Tucson Weight Rooms

      Jackowski, Rebekah; Sechena, Benjamin; Stearley, Jake; Williams, Evan; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      OBJECTIVES: To determine the availability of AEDs in Tucson weight rooms and fitness centers. This study also examined the prevalence of use of AEDs in facilities that report having one on site. METHODS: Weight rooms and fitness centers containing weight-bearing equipment in the major metropolitan area of Tucson were telephoned to partake in a questionnaire. The researchers asked for a manager to partake in the questionnaire at the time the call was made. Collected information included the presence of an AED, the use of the AED in the past year, frequency of AED testing to ensure proper function of the device, and the acquisition of gym member health history. RESULTS: A total of 68 weight rooms were called, and 9 numbers had been disconnected or were no longer in service. Thirteen had not responded after 3 attempts therefore, a total of 46 weight rooms were reached. Eighteen weight rooms had AEDs (39%), 22 weight rooms did not have an AED (48%) and 6 weight rooms declined to answer the questionnaire (13%). Exactly half of the 46 weight rooms gathered medical history from their members. Of the 18 weight rooms with AEDs, 14 affirmed that it was tested to make sure it worked. Test frequency ranged from daily to yearly with half (7 weight rooms) testing monthly. Only one weight room reported that their AED had been used before. CONCLUSION: Less than half of the weight rooms had AEDs on site. It was hypothesized that 70% of the weight rooms would have an AED. Therefore, the hypothesis about the prevalence of AEDs in Tucson weight rooms was incorrect. In contrast, the hypothesis about how many weight rooms have used their AED was correct; less than 10% of the weight rooms with AEDs had used one in the past year.
    • Examining the Relationship Between Demographics and the Attitudes of Arizona Pharmacists Regarding the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services

      Jackowski, Rebekah; Warholak, Terri; Schisler, Rick; Boardman, Daniel; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the demographics and attitudes of Arizona pharmacists regarding provision of smoking cessation services. Methods: Paper-based surveys were distributed to pharmacists attending the 2006 Arizona Pharmacy Alliance (AzPA) Annual Meeting in Tucson, Arizona. The instrument allowed collection of 12 demographic points from subjects for data cross-sectioning. Opinions of the pharmacists were collected for 35 statements of agreement level on a four-point Likert-type response scale. Association between the demographic and opinion variables was analyzed using either Kruskal-Wallis’ rank-sum or Spearman's correlation tests. Results: Of 350 surveys distributed, 78 subjects returned them and 63 (18%) met inclusion criteria. Respondents agreed to all barriers of smoking cessation, particularly lacks in time (82.5%), patient demand (79.7%), smoking cessation program availability (68%), and documentation system (56.6%). Participants’ demographics including age, gender, practice setting and position, time since completion of education, specific smoking cessation education received, time spent counseling a patient, and number of general and smoking cessation counsels were significantly associated with pharmacists’ perceived demand and resource barriers to provision of smoking cessation services, faith in a patient’s ability to quit or try, self-perception as a valuable and effective resource, comfort level approaching patients regarding smoking cessation, likelihood of intervention, and feelings of reward (all p-values < 0.05). Conclusions: This study identified several associations between pharmacists’ demographics and their thoughts towards provision of smoking cessation services, though causation is undetermined.
    • Study of a Pharmaceutical Needs Assessment Survey of the Rural Community of San Luis, Arizona

      Boesen, Kevin; Jackowski, Rebekah; Jacobson, David; Boesen, Kevin; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmaceutical needs of a rural Arizona border town in order to determine the feasibility of building a pharmacy within the San Luis Walk-In Clinic. METHODS: Surveys included questions regarding general information such as education level and length of time living in the community, health literacy, household medications and medical supplies, pharmacy and prescription information, travel time to current pharmacy, level of satisfaction of current pharmacy, and interest in additional pharmaceutical clinical services. Only questions in the public health survey that were related to the pharmaceutical needs assessment were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: 127 pharmaceutical needs assessment surveys were collected and analyzed. Of note, 78% of survey respondents reported traveling outside of San Luis to purchase medications. 76% of households are either not satisfied or slightly satisfied with their pharmacy. Up to 65% of households are interested in additional pharmaceutical services such as medication therapy management (MTM) and education classes on various disease states. CONCLUSION: The findings from the surveys strongly suggest that the residents in San Luis would welcome an additional pharmacy to their community. Less time would be used commuting out of town to purchase medications and additional clinical services would be well appreciated within San Luis. Thus, it is recommended that a pharmacy be built within the San Luis Walk-In Clinic.