• Assessing pharmacists’ opinions on the use of pharmacogenomic testing

      Karnes, Jason; Slack, Marion; Kasher, Alyssa; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To describe pharmacist opinions regarding when pharmacogenomic testing should be implemented to optimize drug therapy and assess whether their opinions differ based on their practice setting. Subjects: Currently practicing pharmacists with valid e-mail addresses within the selected listservs. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent out via email to describe how pharmacists view the use of pharmacogenomic testing, what point in drug therapy they think its use is most beneficial, perceived barriers to implementing pharmacogenomics and familiarity with the subject. General demographics including sex, years spent practicing, practice setting, and type of degree held were also collected. Main Results: The survey was completed online by 35 licensed and actively practicing pharmacists. The subjects consisted of 17 females and 18 males; 40% of the total group are between the ages of 25 to 35. 66% of the subjects have been practicing for < 10 years. When comparing 16 inpatient pharmacists with 19 outpatient pharmacist respondents, there was no statistically significant difference in opinion regarding when pharmacogenomic testing should be implemented (p= 0.35). Conclusions: The prevailing opinion among pharmacists was that the best time to implement pharmacogenomic testing is before a patient starts any initial therapy and there is not a significant difference of opinion on the matter between outpatient and inpatient pharmacists.
    • Clinical Utilization of Pharmacogenomic Testing in an integrated Behavioral Health Setting

      Leal, Sandra; Scovis, Nicole; Karnes, Jason; Garcia, Alexis; Pourshams, Tina; Moslem, Negeen; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To explore whether pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing would lead to an overall reduction in number of medications and increased clinical efficacy of antidepressant therapy. Method: In this retrospective review, we reviewed the charts of 100 patients in a behavioral health clinic who have been diagnosed with depression and have received a neuro PGx panel to observe and assess the clinical effectiveness of implementing PGx tests. Based on the inclusion criteria 87 patients were qualified and 28 patients were eligible for analysis of pre-PGx and post-PGx Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores. Wilcoxon singed-rank test and paired t-test were used for comparing the PHQ-9 scores, number of medications and PGx recommendations. Main Results: There was a significant difference when comparing PHQ-9 scores pre- and post-PGx testing (W=289, CV=116, P-value 0.001, CI 95%; SD 13.7, Mean 6.2 for pre-PGX; SD 5.9, Mean 8.9 for post-PGx). However, there was no significant difference between the number of medication used pre- and post-PGx for patients that carried variants, considering both Wilcoxon singed-rank test and paired t-test (|W|=286 CV>300, P-value 0.212; T-test P-value 0.211, alpha 0.05). The number of patients advised to use their medications as directed did not change significantly Pre- and post-PGx (nprior=151, npost=163, P-value 0.393, alpha 0.05). The number of patients taking “Use with Caution” medications based on pharmacogenomic results decreased significantly after PGx testing (nprior=70, npost=49, P-value 0.012, alpha 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that pharmacogenomics testing can significantly affect the PHQ-9 scores and therefore increase the clinical efficacy of antidepressant therapy.