• Economic Impact of Pharmacokinetic Monitoring on the use of Oral and Intravenous Busulfan in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

      Ballard, Erin; Karpen, Stephen; Larriva, Marti; Ballard, Erin; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Specific Aims: Busulfan is a chemotherapy used in conditioning regimens for hematopoeitic stem cell transplant (HSCT) that requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to reduce ther risk of adverse effects. Variable oral absorption and several studies demonstrating decreased toxicity with the intravenous formulation have led to IV preference despite the lower acquisition cost of oral busulfan. However, these studies failed to consider therapeutic drug monitoring and their results may therefore be flawed. The objective of this retrospective chart review was to determine the adverse effect, outcome profile, and cost-effectiveness of IV versus PO busulfan at a single medical center under TDM. Methods: This quality improvement project was a retrospective cohort analysis using patient data from a single large academic medical center from January 2007 to April 2013. Patients were included if they were 18 years or older and had undergone HSCT using either IV or PO busulfan using standard dosing regimens. This data was then used to design a cost-effectiveness model in order to determine if IV or PO busulfan is cost effective. Main Results: There were 68 subjects receiving autologous transplants and 37 subjects receiving allogeneic transplants that received busulfan as part of their pretreatment therapy and were included in this study. Allogeneic and autologous transplant populations were analyzed separately. In both populations there was no difference in occurrence of pulmonary toxicity, HVOD, or mucositis between the IV or PO groups. IV busulfan was significantly associated with an increased need for patient controlled analgesia in both autologous and allogeneic populations (p=0.038 and 0.028 respectively). Total cost of PO therapy was $30,081 and $30,047 less than IV for autologous and allogeneic transplants, respectively. PO therapy also represented a cost savings of $41 and $57 dollars for autologous and allogeneic transplants, respectively. This was confirmed through bootstrapping technique, which found PO to be dominant to IV busulfan. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study finds PO busulfan to be a therapeutically equivalent and cost saving option as part of a pretreatment regimen for both autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants when therapeutic drug monitoring is performed.